archive-edu.com » EDU » A » ACADEMIA.EDU

Total: 851

Choose link from "Titles, links and description words view":

Or switch to "Titles and links view".
  • Gerry Cassis | The University of New South Wales - Academia.edu
    South Wales Biological Earth Environmental Sciences Faculty Member edit Other Affiliations Add Affiliation Research Interests Biology edit About edit Advisors edit Edit Done Editing profile views followers Log In Log In with Facebook or Email Password Remember me on this computer or reset password Need an account Click here to sign up Reset Password Enter the email address you signed up with and we ll send a reset password email

    Original URL path: http://unsw.academia.edu/GerryCassis (2012-11-08)
    Open archived version from archive

  • Darren Curnoe | The University of New South Wales - Academia.edu
    Anthropology Osteology Physical Anthropology and Palaeoanthropology edit Share Facebook Twitter Edit Delete Move section Possible causes and significance of cranial robusticity among Pleistocene and early Holocene Australians more by Darren Curnoe An analysis of possible developmental functional causes of cranial form suggests that the morphology of robust Pleistocene Early Holocene Australians such as Willandra Lakes Human 50 might best be explained by four underlying factors more An analysis of possible developmental functional causes of cranial form suggests that the morphology of robust Pleistocene Early Holocene Australians such as Willandra Lakes Human 50 might best be explained by four underlying factors possession of a 1 large neurocranium 2 narrow cranial base 3 viscerocranium with considerable midfacial projection and 4 large dentition especially the cheek teeth with their associated large jaws and high volume masticatory muscles Some of these features are likely to be highly heritable while others are caused exaggerated by influences from ageing processes diet and a hunter gatherer lifestyle in an arid environment These underlying causes are either apomorphies of Homo sapiens 1 and 2 and thus absent from pre modern specimens such as from Ngandong or represent plesiomorphic features of latter Homo 3 and 4 It is concluded that combining current knowledge of cranial development function with genetic studies of the population history of Aboriginal Australians provides the most parsimonious solution to understanding their origins More Info Journal of Archaeological Science Research Interests Paleoanthropology Evolutionary Anthropology Osteology Physical Anthropology Palaeoanthropology and 1 more Palaeopathology edit Download Share Facebook Twitter Edit Delete Move section High Resolution Three Dimensional Computer Simulation of Hominid Cranial Mechanics more by Darren Curnoe In vivo data demonstrates that strain is not distributed uniformly on the surface of the primate skull during feeding However in vivo studies are unable to identify or track changes in stress and strain throughout the whole structure more In vivo data demonstrates that strain is not distributed uniformly on the surface of the primate skull during feeding However in vivo studies are unable to identify or track changes in stress and strain throughout the whole structure Finite element FE analysis a powerful engineering tool long used to predict the performance of man made devices has the capacity to track stress strain in three dimensions 3 D and despite the time consuming nature of model generation FE has become an increasingly popular analytical device among biomechanists Here we apply the finite element method using sophisticated computer models to examine whether 3 D stress and strain distributions are nonuniform throughout the primate skull as has been strongly suggested by 2 D in vivo strain analyses Our simulations document steep internal stress strain gradients using models comprising up to three million tetrahedral finite elements and 3 D reconstructions of jaw adducting musculature with both cranium and mandible in correct anatomical position Results are in broad concurrence with the suggestion that few regions of the hominid cranium are clearly optimized for routine feeding and also show that external stress strain does not necessarily reflect internal distributions Findings further suggest that the complex heterogeneity of bone in the skull may act to dissipate stress but that consequently higher strain must be offset by additional strain energy We hypothesize that despite energetic costs this system may lend adaptive advantage through enhancing the organism s ability to modify its behavior before reaching catastrophic failure in bony or dental structures More Info The Anatomical Record Research Interests Paleoanthropology Evolutionary Anthropology Osteology Physical Anthropology and Palaeoanthropology edit Share Facebook Twitter Edit Delete Move section Characteristics of Pleistocene Megafauna Extinctions In Southeast Asia more by Darren Curnoe The extinction of large bodied taxa from the Pleistocene in Southeast Asia is examined Although the chronological resolution of these extinctions is poor and number of excavations in the region relatively few broad characteristics of more The extinction of large bodied taxa from the Pleistocene in Southeast Asia is examined Although the chronological resolution of these extinctions is poor and number of excavations in the region relatively few broad characteristics of these extinctions can be described Many taxa which became extinct appear to have been endemic to regions within Southeast Asia while some taxa which experienced extinction or severe range reduction occurred in several regions Members of the latter group include proboscideans Stegodon and Palaeloxodon the pygmy hippopotamus Hexaprotodon the orangutan Pongo hyenas Crocuta and Hyaena the giant panda Ailuropoda tapirs Tapirus and Megatapirus rhinoceroses Rhinoceros and the giant Asian ape Gigantopithecus The loss of these species cannot be assigned to a single cause Rather their disappearance is likely tied to both climatic and human agents Unlike other regions which experienced megafauna extinctions eustatic changes in sea level in Southeast Asia seems to have been an important factor More Info Palaeogeography Palaeoclimatology Palaeoecology Publisher Elsevier Publication Date Jan 1 2007 Publication Name Palaeogeography Palaeoclimatology Research Interests Paleoanthropology Evolutionary Anthropology Osteology Physical Anthropology and Palaeoanthropology edit Share Facebook Twitter Edit Delete Move section Affinities of the Swartkrans Early Homo mandibles more by Darren Curnoe The southern African early Homo assemblage continues to make important contributions to understanding the systematics adaptations and evolutionary history of the human genus However the taxonomy of this sample is in a state of flux more The southern African early Homo assemblage continues to make important contributions to understanding the systematics adaptations and evolutionary history of the human genus However the taxonomy of this sample is in a state of flux This study examines the size and shape of the mandibular bodies of Swartkrans SK 15 and SK 45 comparing them with variation in two early Homo taxa H habilis sensu lato and H sapiens erectus The research aims to clarify their phenetic affinities and systematics through univariate statistics inferential testing and multivariate analysis employing size Log transformed and shape Mosimann variables Neither of them strongly resembles H habilis sensu lato or H sapiens erectus rather they probably sample a novel species of Homo not seen in East Africa Moreover there is considerable morphological variability within the Swartkrans sample and the possibility of more than one novel species being sampled at this site cannot be excluded More Info Homo Journal of Comparative Human Biology Research Interests Paleoanthropology Evolutionary Anthropology Osteology Physical Anthropology and Palaeoanthropology edit Download Share Facebook Twitter Edit Delete Move section Description new reconstruction comparative anatomy and classification of the Sterkfontein Stw 53 cranium with discussions about the taxonomy of other southern African early Homo remains more by Darren Curnoe Specimen Stw 53 was recovered in 1976 from Member 5 of the Sterkfontein Formation Since its incomplete initial description and comparison the partial cranium has figured prominently in discussions about the systematics of early Homo more Specimen Stw 53 was recovered in 1976 from Member 5 of the Sterkfontein Formation Since its incomplete initial description and comparison the partial cranium has figured prominently in discussions about the systematics of early Homo Despite publication of a preliminary reconstruction in 1985 Stw 53 has yet to be compared comprehensively to other Plio Pleistocene fossils or assessed systematically In this paper we report on a new reconstruction of this specimen and provide a detailed description and comparison of its morphology Our reconstruction differs in important respects from the earlier one especially in terms of neurocranial length breadth and height However given that Stw 53 exhibits extensive damage these dimensions are most likely prone to much error in reconstruction In areas of well preserved bone Stw 53 shares many cranial features with Homo habilis and we propose retaining it within this species We also consider the affinities of dental remains from Sterkfontein Member 5 along with those from Swartkrans and Drimolen previously assigned to Homo We find evidence for sympatry of H habilis and Australopithecus robustus and possibly Plio Pleistocene Homo sapiens sensu lato in Sterkfontein Member 5 At Swartkrans and Drimolen we find evidence of H habilis We also compare the morphologies of Stw 53 and SK 847 and find compelling evidence to assign the latter specimen to H habilis as has been proposed Research Interests Paleoanthropology Evolutionary Anthropology Osteology Physical Anthropology and Palaeoanthropology edit Download Share Facebook Twitter Edit Delete Move section On the Number of Ancestral Human Species more by Darren Curnoe The number of species within the human evolutionary tree remains a major point of debate Genomic distances for living humans and other apes may be used to estimate hominin diversity and therefore to set boundaries for palaeontological more The number of species within the human evolutionary tree remains a major point of debate Genomic distances for living humans and other apes may be used to estimate hominin diversity and therefore to set boundaries for palaeontological scenarios A minimum of five species is recognizable but scenarios involving much higher estimates of diversity cannot be ruled out More Info Encyclopedia of Life Sciences Research Interests Paleoanthropology Evolutionary Anthropology Osteology Physical Anthropology and Palaeoanthropology edit Download Share Facebook Twitter Edit Delete Move section Modern human origins in Australasia Testing the predictions of competing models more by Darren Curnoe The evolutionary background to the emergence of modern humans remains controversial Four models have been proposed to explain this process and each has clearly definable and testable predictions about the geographical origins of early more The evolutionary background to the emergence of modern humans remains controversial Four models have been proposed to explain this process and each has clearly definable and testable predictions about the geographical origins of early Australians and their possible biological interaction with other Pleistocene populations The present study considers the phenetic affinities of early Australians from Kow Swamp KS 1 and KS 5 and Keilor to Pleistocene Africans and Asians from calvarial dimensions The study includes analyses employing log transformed and size corrected Mosimann variables data The strongest signals to emerge are as follows 1 a phenetic pattern in which Australians are most like each other 2 all three crania possess a mosaic of archaic and modern features 3 Kow Swamp crania also show strong affinities to archaic remains 4 Keilor is more modern than KS 1 and KS 5 and 5 Keilor shows affinities to Pleistocene East Asian modern crania Liujiang and Upper Cave 101 providing evidence for a broad regional morphology The results refute the predictions of multi species replacement models for early Australians but are consistent with single species models Combined with published evidence from DNA the present study indicates that the Assimilation model presently offers the best explanation for the origins of Pleistocene Australians More Info Homo Journal of Comparative Human Biology Research Interests Paleoanthropology Evolutionary Anthropology Osteology Physical Anthropology and Palaeoanthropology edit Download Share Facebook Twitter Edit Delete Move section Timing and tempo of primate speciation more by Darren Curnoe Published molecular clocks for primates are used to estimate typical divergence times for phylogroups 1 6 Ma species 3 3 Ma sister species 2 7 Ma genera 8 9 Ma and sister genera 8 6 Ma Significant median differences exist more Published molecular clocks for primates are used to estimate typical divergence times for phylogroups 1 6 Ma species 3 3 Ma sister species 2 7 Ma genera 8 9 Ma and sister genera 8 6 Ma Significant median differences exist between major groups infraorders and superfamilies for various divergence times These data are employed to estimate typical maximum duration of speciation Typical primate values 1 1 Ma suggest this process to be faster than is characteristic of many vertebrates However after considering divergence times for hybridizing congeneric and confamilial primates this value is likely only to estimate the commencement of prezygotic isolating mechanisms rather than the completion of reproductive isolation Thus speciation typically takes around 1 0 Ma to more than 4 0 Ma to occur depending on whether prezygotic or post zygotic isolating mechanisms are emphasized Typical primate genus age is around 5 3 Ma but we note differences among major groups In light of these estimates the classification of humans and chimpanzees is reconsidered using a molecular yardstick approach Three taxonomic frameworks may flow from molecular analyses all of them having major implications for understanding the evolution of humans and chimpanzees More Info Journal of Evolutionary Biology Research Interests Paleoanthropology Evolutionary Anthropology Osteology Physical Anthropology and Palaeoanthropology edit Download Share Facebook Twitter Edit Delete Move section The question of cranial robusticity more by Darren Curnoe The existence of a morphologically robust Pleistocene Australian population has been controversial This is largely due to the pivotal role this group has played in the multiregional model of modern human origins Some researchers have more The existence of a morphologically robust Pleistocene Australian population has been controversial This is largely due to the pivotal role this group has played in the multiregional model of modern human origins Some researchers have argued that the robust morphology results at least in part from pseudopathology artificial deformation or pathology haemoglobinopathy rather than representing normal anatomical form The present contribution puts these alternative explanations to the test From a package of cranial deformation diagnostics only one feature frontal curvature index suggests possible pseudopathology in one individual Kow Swamp 5 Thus the evidence for deformation even in this individual is at best weak Further there seems to be no evidence for pathological hyperostosis among Pleistocene Australians including robust crania On the contrary the robust morphology continues to be part of the variability characterising living Aborigines Recently published luminescence dates for Kow Swamp are evaluated We find that they provide reasonable dates for sediments at the site but are unrelated to buried human remains excavated at Kow Swamp during the 1970s More Info Before Farming Research Interests Paleoanthropology Evolutionary Anthropology Osteology Physical Anthropology Palaeoanthropology and 1 more Palaeopathology edit Download php Share Facebook Twitter Edit Delete Move section Human origins in Australia the skeletal evidence more by Darren Curnoe This paper commences with a review of the anatomical and genetic evidence for the origins of Aboriginal Australians Recent controversies surrounding the developmental age and sex of some Pleistocene individuals are reviewed An updated more This paper commences with a review of the anatomical and genetic evidence for the origins of Aboriginal Australians Recent controversies surrounding the developmental age and sex of some Pleistocene individuals are reviewed An updated description and new analyses of the morphological evidence for gracile and robust Pleistocene populations is provided utilising descriptive anatomy metrics and multivariate analysis Thirty four cranial and dental features are outlined that differentiate gracile and robust Australians Most metrical differences between them are moderate to large on a global scale We also describe features in robust and gracile Australians that are unusual or apparently unique by contemporary human standards At least four of them appear not to have been documented in modern humans until now More Info Before Farming Research Interests Paleoanthropology Evolutionary Anthropology Osteology Physical Anthropology and Palaeoanthropology edit Download php Share Facebook Twitter Edit Delete Move section Human origins Australian perspectives Introduction more by Darren Curnoe Not available More Info Before Farming Research Interests Palaeoanthropology Physical Anthropology Osteology Evolutionary Anthropology and Paleoanthropology edit Download php Share Facebook Twitter Edit Delete Move section Beyond Taung paleoanthropological research at Groot Kloof Ghaap Escarpment Northern Cape Province South Africa more by Darren Curnoe We describe some early findings of a project commencing in 2004 to investigate the palaeoanthropological potential of part of the escarpment of the Ghaap Plateau Northern Cape and North West Provinces South Africa This escarpment more We describe some early findings of a project commencing in 2004 to investigate the palaeoanthropological potential of part of the escarpment of the Ghaap Plateau Northern Cape and North West Provinces South Africa This escarpment contains the World Heritage site of Taung but its potential for pre Holocene research has remained largely unexplored for the 80 years since the discovery of these important hominin remains The region is also known for open fluvial and pan sites yielding Lower and Middle Pleistocene tool types and the long though discontinuous sequence of Wonderwerk Cave Surface collection and excavation of Groot Kloof site B have yielded fossils from the Florisian Land Mammal Age and lithics that may reflect a late ESA early MSA type industry Geological research at Groot Kloof site D provides a preliminary U Th age for fossil bearing tufa and palaeomagnetic analyses show normal magnetic polarities throughout the locality Together they suggest a late Middle Pleistocene age for these deposits Small largely intrusive pockets of LSA bearing breccia are also being investigated The significance of our discovery is underscored by current debate about the emergence of modern humans More Info Nyame Akuma 64 Dec 2005 Research Interests Paleoanthropology Evolutionary Anthropology Osteology Physical Anthropology and Palaeoanthropology edit Share Facebook Twitter Edit Delete Move section Odontometric systematic assessment of the Swartkrans SK 15 mandible more by Darren Curnoe This study reports a comparison of molar crown and cusp size and shape in the Swartkrans early Homo mandible SK 15 with relevant Plio Pleistocene taxa Univariate and multivariate methods are employed to consider the morphological more This study reports a comparison of molar crown and cusp size and shape in the Swartkrans early Homo mandible SK 15 with relevant Plio Pleistocene taxa Univariate and multivariate methods are employed to consider the morphological affinities of this specimen and to assess its taxonomy The case exists for classifying SK 15 in Homo habilis with 11 features aligning it with this species The results of multivariate studies are consistent with this hypothesis Moreover SK 15 lacks a number of important features that characterise the mandibular molars of Homo sapiens erectus Considerable evidence for parallelism in the dental morphology of SK 15 and H habilis with A robustus is discussed Fossil evidence for the presence of H sapiens erectus during the Plio Pleistocene of South Africa presently seems to be lacking Archaeological interpretations should take greater account of this gap in the fossil record More Info Homo Journal of Comparative Human Biology Research Interests Paleoanthropology Evolutionary Anthropology Osteology Physical Anthropology and Palaeoanthropology edit Download Share Facebook Twitter Edit Delete Move section Direct ESR dating of a Pliocene hominin from Swartkrans more

    Original URL path: http://unsw.academia.edu/DarrenCurnoe (2012-11-08)
    Open archived version from archive

  • Ian Graham | The University of New South Wales - Academia.edu
    Sciences Faculty Member edit Other Affiliations Add Affiliation Research Interests Earth Sciences Mineralogy Economic Geology and 1 more Geochronology isotope Geology edit About edit Advisors edit Edit Done Editing profile views followers Log In Log In with Facebook or Email Password Remember me on this computer or reset password Need an account Click here to sign up Reset Password Enter the email address you signed up with and we ll

    Original URL path: http://unsw.academia.edu/IanGraham (2012-11-08)
    Open archived version from archive

  • Stephen Wroe | The University of New South Wales - Academia.edu
    Share Facebook Twitter Edit Delete Move section Looking for the Archaeological Signature in Australian Megafaunal Extinctions more by Stephen Wroe More Info Field J Wroe S Trueman C Garvey J Wyatt Spratt S In Press Looking for the Archaeological Signature in Australian Megafaunal Extinctions Quaternary International Research Interests Biology Human Evolution Megafauna extintion Evolution Paleontology and 6 more Animal Ecology Vertebrate Paleontology Evolutionary Biology Mammalogy Palaeoanthropology and Archaeoanthropology edit Share Facebook Twitter Edit Delete Move section Mechanical Analysis of Feeding Behavior in the Extinct Terror Bird Andalgalornis steulleti Gruiformes Phorusrhacidae more by Stephen Wroe More Info Degrange F J Tambussi C P Moreno K Witmer L M Wroe S 2010 Mechanical Analysis of Feeding Behavior in the Extinct Terror Bird Andalgalornis steulleti Gruiformes Phorusrhacidae PLoS ONE 5 e11856 Research Interests Finite Element Analysis Engineering Terror Bird Biology Evolutionary Biology Evolution and 3 more Paleontology Vertebrate Paleontology and Animal Ecology edit Download pdf Quick view Share Facebook Twitter Edit Delete Move section The craniomandibular mechanics of being human Proc Roy Soc B more by Stephen Wroe Diminished bite force has been considered a defining feature of modern Homo sapiens an interpretation inferred from the application of two dimensional lever mechanics and the relative gracility of the humanmasticatory musculature and more Diminished bite force has been considered a defining feature of modern Homo sapiens an interpretation inferred from the application of two dimensional lever mechanics and the relative gracility of the humanmasticatory musculature and skull This conclusion has various implicationswith regard to the evolution of human feeding behaviour However human dental anatomy suggests a capacity to withstand high loads and two dimensional lever models greatly simplify muscle architecture yielding less accurate results than three dimensional modelling using multiple lines of action Here to our knowledge in the most comprehensive three dimensional finite element analysis performed to date for any taxon we ask whether the traditional view that the bite of H sapiens is weak and the skull too gracile to sustain high bite forces is supported We further introduce a new method for reconstructing incomplete fossil material Our findings show that the human masticatory apparatus is highly efficient capable of producing a relatively powerful bite using low muscle forces Thus relative to other members of the superfamily Hominoidea humans can achieve relatively high bite forces while overall stresses are reduced Our findings resolve apparently discordant lines of evidence i e the presence of teeth well adapted to sustain high loads within a lightweight cranium and mandible More Info Stephen Wroe Toni L Ferrara Colin R McHenry Darren Curnoe and Uphar Chamoli 2010 The craniomandibular mechanics of being human Proceedings of the Royal Society of London Series B email for full PDF s wroe unsw edu au Research Interests Finite Element Analysis Engineering Hominid Diet Biology Evolutionary Biology and 8 more Evolution Human Evolution Animal Ecology Paleontology Archaeoanthropology Mammalogy Palaeoanthropology and Vertebrate Paleontology edit Download pdf Quick view Share Facebook Twitter Edit Delete Move section Overdone overkill the archaeological perspective on Tasmanian megafaunal extinctions more by Stephen Wroe To investigate the timing of extinctions in Tasmania and examine the latest claims new excavations and systematic surveys of limestone caves in south central Tasmania were undertaken Our project failed to show any clear archaeological more To investigate the timing of extinctions in Tasmania and examine the latest claims new excavations and systematic surveys of limestone caves in south central Tasmania were undertaken Our project failed to show any clear archaeological overlap of humans and megafauna but demonstrated that vigilance is needed when claiming survival of megafauna species based on old or suspect chronologies The results of our six years of fieldwork and dating form the first part of the present paper while in the second part we assess the data advanced by Turney et al 2008 for the late survival of seven megafauna species A model of human prey selection and the reasons for the demise of a range of marsupials now extinct are discussed in the third part of the paper More Info Cosgrove R Field J Garvey J Brenner Coltrain J Goede A Charles B Wroe S Pike Tay A Grün R Aubert M Lees W O Connell J 2010 Overdone overkill The archaeological perspective on Tasmanian megafaunal extinctions Journal of Archaeological Science 37 2486 2503 Research Interests Megafauna Mammal Extinctions Biology Evolution Evolutionary Biology and 7 more Human Evolution Animal Ecology Vertebrate Paleontology Paleontology Archaeoanthropology Mammalogy and Palaeoanthropology edit Share Facebook Twitter Edit Delete Move section Computer simulation of feeding behaviour in the thylacine dingo Proc Roy Soc B more by Stephen Wroe More Info Wroe S Clausen P McHenry C Moreno K and Cunningham E 2007 Computer simulation of feeding behaviour in the thylacine and dingo a novel test for convergence and niche overlap Proceedings of the Royal Society London Series B 274 2819 2828 Research Interests Finite Element Analysis Engineering Thylacine Evolutionary Biology Evolution Biology and 4 more Animal Ecology Paleontology Vertebrate Paleontology and Mammalogy edit Download pdf Quick view Share Facebook Twitter Edit Delete Move section Convergence and remarkably consistent constraint in the evolution of carnivore skull shape Evolution more by Stephen Wroe Morphological and ecological diversity among extant carnivorans is considerably greater than is evident in the marsupial order Dasyuromorphia with which they have most commonly been compared To examine convergence across a wider but more Morphological and ecological diversity among extant carnivorans is considerably greater than is evident in the marsupial order Dasyuromorphia with which they have most commonly been compared To examine convergence across a wider but broadly comparable range of feeding ecologies a dataset inclusive of nondasyuromorphian marsupials and extinct taxa representing morphotypes no longer present was assembled We found support for the adaptive paradigm with correlations between morphology feeding behavior and bite force although skull shape better predicted feeding ecology in the phylogenetically diverse marsupial sample than in carnivorans However we also show that remarkably consistent but differing constraints have influenced the evolution of cranial shape in both groups These differences between carnivorans and marsupials which correlate with brain size and bite force aremaintained across the full gamut of morphologies and feeding categories from small insectivores and omnivores to large meat specialists More Info Wroe S and Milne N 2007 Convergence and remarkably consistent constraint in the evolution of carnivore skull shape Evolution 61 1251 1260 Research Interests Finite Element Analysis Mammal Carnivore Ecology Biology Evolutionary Biology and 4 more Evolution Animal Ecology Paleontology and Vertebrate Paleontology edit Download pdf Quick view Share Facebook Twitter Edit Delete Move section Mechanics of biting in great white and sandtiger sharks more by Stephen Wroe More Info Ferrara T Clausen P Huber D R McHenry C R Peddemors V Wroe S 2011 Mechanics of biting in great white and sandtiger sharks Journal of Biomechanics 44 430 435 Research Interests Feeding behaviour Shark Finite Element Analysis Biology Evolution and 5 more Evolutionary Biology Animal Ecology Paleontology Vertebrate Paleontology and Functional Morphology edit View on jbiomech com Share Facebook Twitter Edit Delete Move section Cranial mechanics of mammalian carnivores recent advances using a finite element approach more by Stephen Wroe Email for full text PDF s wroe unsw edu au More Info Wroe S 2010 Cranial mechanics of mammalian carnivores Recent advances using a Finite Element approach In Carnivoran Evolution New Views on Phylogeny Form and Function A Goswami and A Friscia eds Cambridge Cambridge University Press Pages 466 485 Research Interests Finite Element Analysis Evolutionary Biology Biology Evolution Animal Ecology and 3 more Paleontology Vertebrate Paleontology and Mammalogy edit Download Share Facebook Twitter Edit Delete Move section On the rarity of big fierce carnivores and primacy of isolation and area Proc Roy Soc B more by Stephen Wroe The hypothesis that low productivity has uniquely constrained Australia s large mammalian carnivore diversity and by inference the biota in general has become an influential backdrop to interpretations of ecology on the island more The hypothesis that low productivity has uniquely constrained Australia s large mammalian carnivore diversity and by inference the biota in general has become an influential backdrop to interpretations of ecology on the island continent Whether low productivity has been primary impacts broadly on our understanding of mammalian biogeography but investigation is complicated by two uniquely Australian features isolation and the dominance of marsupials However until the great American biotic interchange GABI South America was also isolated and dominated by pouched carnivores Here we examine the low productivity hypothesis empirically by comparing large mammalian carnivore diversities in Australia and South America over the past 25 Myr We find that pre GABI diversity in Australia was generally comparable to or higher than diversity in South America Post GABI South American diversity rose dramatically pointing to isolation and phylogenetic constraint as primary influences Landmass area is another important factor Comparisons of diversity among the world s seven largest inhabited landmasses show that large mammalian hypercarnivore diversity in Australia approached levels predicted on the basis of landmass area in Late Pleistocene Recent times but large omnivore diversity was low Large marsupial omnivores also appear to have been rare in South America Isolation and competition with large terrestrial birds and cryptic omnivore taxa may have been more significant constraints in this respect Relatively high diversity has been achieved in Late Quaternary America possibly as a result of artificially high immigration or origination rates whereas that in contemporaneous Africa has been surprisingly poor We conclude that isolation and landmass area rather than productivity are the primary constraints on large mammalian carnivore diversity More Info Wroe S Argot C Crowther M and Dickman C 2004 On the rarity of big fierce carnivores Proceedings of the Royal Society London Series B 271 1203 1211 Research Interests Biogeography Marsupial Carnivore Biology Evolutionary Biology and 5 more Evolution Animal Ecology Paleontology Vertebrate Paleontology and Mammalogy edit Download pdf Quick view Share Facebook Twitter Edit Delete Move section Would the Australian megafauna be extinct if there had been no climate change more by Stephen Wroe More Info Wroe S Field J 2007 A reply to comment by Brook et al Would the Australian megafauna have become extinct if humans had never colonized the continent Quaternary Science Reviews 26 565 567 Download pdf Quick view Share Facebook Twitter Edit Delete Move section Bite forces and evolutionary adaptations to feeding ecology in carnivores Ecology more by Stephen Wroe The Carnivora spans the largest ecological and body size diversity of any mammalian order making it an ideal basis for studies of evolutionary ecology and functional morphology For animals with different feeding ecologies it may be more The Carnivora spans the largest ecological and body size diversity of any mammalian order making it an ideal basis for studies of evolutionary ecology and functional morphology For animals with different feeding ecologies it may be expected that bite force represents an important evolutionary adaptation but studies have been constrained by a lack of bite force data In this study we present predictions of bite forces for 151 species of extant carnivores comprising representatives from all eight families and the entire size and ecological spectrum within the order We show that when normalized for body size bite forces differ significantly between the various feeding categories At opposing extremes and independent of genealogy consumers of tough fibrous plant material and carnivores preying on large prey both have high bite forces for their size while bite force adjusted for body mass is low among specialized insectivores Omnivores and carnivores preying on small prey have more moderate bite forces for their size These findings indicate that differences in bite force represent important adaptations to and indicators of differing feeding ecologies throughout carnivoran evolution Our results suggest that the incorporation of bite force data may assist in the construction of more robust evolutionary and palaeontological analyses of feeding ecology More Info Christiansen P and Wroe S 2007 Bite forces and evolutionary adaptations to feeding ecology in carnivores Ecology 88 347 358 Research Interests Evolutionary Biomechanics Bite force Evolutionary Biology Biology Evolution and 1 more Animal Ecology edit Download pdf Quick view Share Facebook Twitter Edit Delete Move section Chronological overlap between humans and megafauna in Sahul Pleistocene Australia New Guinea A review of the evidence Earth Science Reviews more by Stephen Wroe More Info FIELD J M FILLIOS AND S WROE 2008 Chronological overlap between humans and megafauna in Sahul Pleistocene Australia New Guinea A review of the evidence Earth Science Reviews 89 97 115 Research Interests Megafauna extintion Evolutionary Biology Archaeology and Evolution edit Download pdf Quick view Share Facebook Twitter Edit Delete Move section Bite club Comparative bite force in big biting mammals and the prediction of behaviour in fossil taxa Proc Roy Soc B more by Stephen Wroe More Info 7 Wroe S McHenry C and Thomason J 2005 Bite club Comparative bite force in big biting mammals and the prediction of predatory behaviour in fossil taxa Proceedings of the Royal Society London Series B 272 619 625 Research Interests Evolutionary Biology Bite force Evolution Biology Animal Ecology and 4 more Human Evolution Vertebrate Paleontology Paleontology and Mammalogy edit Download pdf Quick view Share Facebook Twitter Edit Delete Move section High resolution computer simulation of hominid cranial mechanics more by Stephen Wroe More Info Wroe S Moreno K Clausen P McHenry C and Curnoe D 2007 High resolution computer simulation of hominid cranial mechanics The Anatomical Record 290 1248 1255 Research Interests Finite Element Analysis Biology Hominid Biology Evolutionary Biology Human Evolution and 2 more Evolution and Mammalogy edit Download pdf Quick view Share Facebook Twitter Edit Delete Move section Three dimensional computer analysis of white shark jaw mechanics how hard can a great white bite more by Stephen Wroe The notorious jaws of the white shark Carcharodon carcharias are widely feared yet poorly understood Neither its bite force nor how such force might be delivered using relatively elastic cartilaginous jaws have been quantified or more The notorious jaws of the white shark Carcharodon carcharias are widely feared yet poorly understood Neither its bite force nor how such force might be delivered using relatively elastic cartilaginous jaws have been quantified or described We have digitally reconstructed the jaws of a white shark to estimate maximum bite force and examine relationships among their three dimensional geometry material properties and function We predict that bite force in large white sharks may exceed c 1 8 tonnes the highest known for any living species and suggest that forces may have been an order of magnitude greater still in the gigantic fossil species Carcharodon megalodon However jaw adductor generated force in Carcharodon appears unremarkable when the predator s body mass is considered Although the shark s cartilaginous jaws undergo considerably greater deformation than would jaws constructed of bone effective bite force is not greatly diminished More Info Wroe S DR Huber MB Lowry CR McHenry K Moreno PD Clausen TL Ferrara 2008 3D computer analysis of white shark jaw mechanics how hard can a great white bite Journal of Zoology 276 336 342 Research Interests Finite Element Analysis Biology Great white shark Bite force Biology and Functional Morphology edit Download pdf Quick view Share Facebook Twitter Edit Delete Move section A review of the evidence for a human role in the extinction of Australian megafauna QSR more by Stephen Wroe Arguments that megafaunal extinctions in Australia were anthropogenically mediated have focused on establishing terminal appearance ages This approach has been underpinned by three principle tenets 1 if megafauna disappeared before more Arguments that megafaunal extinctions in Australia were anthropogenically mediated have focused on establishing terminal appearance ages This approach has been underpinned by three principle tenets 1 if megafauna disappeared before significant climate change but after human colonisation then it can be inferred that extinctions were human mediated 2 climate change within the last glacial cycle was unremarkable relative to previous cycles and 3 all or most Pleistocene megafauna were present when people arrived on the continent We review the evidence for human causation and note mounting evidence suggesting that the last 400 300 ka in Australia has been characterised by escalating aridity and climatic variability culminating in the breach of a hydrological threshold within the last glacial cycle Only 21 species 35 of megafauna whose disappearance has been attributed to human activity are known to have persisted after the Penultimate Glacial Maximum a time of undoubtedly severe climate change Thus 39 species of megafauna 65 cannot be reliably placed within 85 000 years of firm evidence for human arrival ca 50 43 ka At most eight species 13 were clearly present at this time Four or more persisted until the onset of full glacial conditions at ca 30 ka We argue for a falsifiable model of staggered extinction in which most megafaunal extinctions predated human arrival and with the influence of people as a minor superimposition on broader trends in train since middle Pleistocene times More Info Wroe S and Field J Quaternary Science Reviews 25 2006 2692 2703 Research Interests Megafauna Evolutionary Biology Biology Evolution Animal Ecology and 6 more Paleontology Archaeoanthropology Vertebrate Paleontology Mammalogy Palaeoanthropology and Human Evolution edit Download pdf Quick view Share Facebook Twitter Edit Delete Move section A central role for venom in predation by Varanus komodoensis PNAS more by Stephen Wroe More Info Fry B G Wroe S Teeuwisse W Matthias J Osch P Moreno K Ingle K McHenry C Ferrara T et al 2009 A central role for venom in predation by Varanus komodoensis Komodo Dragon and the extinct giant Varanus Megalania priscus Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 106 8969 8974 Research Interests Finite Element Analysis FEA Varanus komodoensis Megalania Varanidae Biology and 5 more Evolutionary Biology Evolution Animal Ecology Paleontology and Vertebrate Paleontology edit Share Facebook Twitter Edit Delete Move section The Size of the Largest Marsupial and Why It Matters more by Stephen Wroe More Info Wroe S Crowther M Dortch J and Chong J 2004 The size of the largest marsupial and why it matters Proceedings of the Royal Society London Series B 271 S34

    Original URL path: http://unsw.academia.edu/StephenWroe (2012-11-08)
    Open archived version from archive

  • wendy s shaw | The University of New South Wales - Academia.edu
    com Publication Date Jan 1 2006 Publication Name cultural geographies Download pdf Share Facebook Twitter Edit Delete Move section Cities of whiteness more by wendy s shaw Publisher Wiley Online Library Publication Date Jan 1 2007 Share Facebook Twitter Edit Delete Move section Decolonizing geographies of whiteness more by wendy s shaw Publisher Wiley Online Library Publication Date Jan 1 2006 Publication Name Antipode Share Facebook Twitter Edit Delete Move section ENCOUNTERING INDIGENEITY RE IMAGINING AND DECOLONIZING GEOGRAPHY more by wendy s shaw Publisher Wiley Online Library Publication Date Jan 1 2006 Publication Name Annaler Series B Human Share Facebook Twitter Edit Delete Move section Ways of whiteness Harlemising Sydney s aboriginal Redfern more by wendy s shaw Publisher Wiley Online Library Publication Date Jan 1 2000 Publication Name Australian Geographical Studies Share Facebook Twitter Edit Delete Move section Post Colonial 1 Encounters gendered racialisations in Australian courtrooms 2 more by wendy s shaw Publisher informaworld com Publication Date Jan 1 2003 Publication Name Gender Place Culture Share Facebook Twitter Edit Delete Move section Riotous Sydney Redfern Macquarie Fields and my Cronulla more by wendy s shaw Publisher envplan com Publication Date Jan 1 2009 Publication Name Environment and Planning D Society and Space Share Facebook Twitter Edit Delete Move section Serendipitous coffee experiences in Papua New Guinea more by wendy s shaw Publisher books google com Publication Date Jan 1 2010 Publication Name Coffee culture destinations and tourism Share Facebook Twitter Edit Delete Move section Indigenous Australians Attitudes Towards Multiculturalism Cultural Diversity Race and Racism more by wendy s shaw Publication Name uws clients squiz net Download pdf Quick view Share Facebook Twitter Edit Delete Move section Cities of Whiteness 23cm 232p 20ill more by wendy s shaw Publication Name Antipode Book S Share Facebook Twitter Edit Delete Move

    Original URL path: http://unsw.academia.edu/wendysshaw (2012-11-08)
    Open archived version from archive

  • Jason Everett | The University of New South Wales - Academia.edu
    Facebook Twitter Edit Delete Move section Distribution of life history stages of the salp Thalia democratica in shelf waters during a spring bloom more by Jason Everett Publisher int res com Publication Date Jan 1 2011 Publication Name Mar Ecol Prog Download pdf Share Facebook Twitter Edit Delete Move section The effect of surface flooding on the physical biogeochemical dynamics of a warm core eddy off southeast Australia more by Jason Everett Publisher Elsevier Publication Date Jan 1 2011 Publication Name Deep Sea Research Download pdf Quick view Share Facebook Twitter Edit Delete Move section Analysis of southeast Australian zooplankton observations of 1938 42 using synoptic oceanographic conditions more by Jason Everett Publisher Elsevier Publication Date Jan 1 2011 Publication Name Deep Sea Research Part II Topical Download pdf Quick view Share Facebook Twitter Edit Delete Move section The strengthening East Australian Current its eddies and biological effects an introduction and overview more by Jason Everett Publisher Elsevier Publication Date Jan 1 2011 Publication Name Deep Sea Research Share Facebook Twitter Edit Delete Move section Nutrient and plankton dynamics in an intermittently closed open lagoon Smiths Lake south eastern Australia An ecological model more by Jason Everett Publisher Elsevier Publication

    Original URL path: http://unsw.academia.edu/JasonEverett (2012-11-08)
    Open archived version from archive

  • Ross Hill | The University of New South Wales - Academia.edu
    2005 Publication Name Mar Ecol Prog Ser View on int res com Share Facebook Twitter Edit Delete Move section Seasonal variation in the photo physiology of homogeneous and heterogeneous Symbiodinium consortia in two scleractinian corals more by Ross Hill Publisher mbl ku dk Publication Date Jan 1 2008 Publication Name Marine Ecology View on int res com Share Facebook Twitter Edit Delete Move section Warmer more acidic conditions cause decreased productivity and calcification in subtropical coral reef sediment dwelling calcifiers more by Ross Hill Publisher cat inist fr Publication Date Jan 1 2011 Publication Name Limnology and View on aslo org Share Facebook Twitter Edit Delete Move section PHOTOPROTECTION OF SEA ICE MICROALGAL COMMUNITIES FROM THE EAST ANTARCTIC PACK ICE more by Ross Hill Publisher Wiley Online Library Publication Date Jan 1 2011 Publication Name Journal of View on onlinelibrary wiley com Share Facebook Twitter Edit Delete Move section Rapid photoprotection in sea ice diatoms from the East Antarctic pack ice more by Ross Hill Publisher cat inist fr Publication Date Jan 1 2010 Publication Name Limnology and View on aslo org Share Facebook Twitter Edit Delete Move section Temperature induced changes in thylakoid membrane thermostability of cultured freshly isolated and expelled zooxanthellae from scleractinian corals more by Ross Hill Publisher ingentaconnect com Publication Date Jan 1 2009 Publication Name Bulletin of Marine Science View on ingentaconnect com Share Facebook Twitter Edit Delete Move section Evaluation of the utility of water quality based indicators of estuarine lagoon condition in NSW Australia more by Ross Hill Publisher Elsevier Publication Date Jan 1 2007 Publication Name Estuarine Coastal and Shelf View on sciencedirect com Share Facebook Twitter Edit Delete Move section Increased rate of D 1 repair in coral symbionts during bleaching is insufficient to counter accelerated photo inactivation more by Ross Hill Publisher cat inist fr Publication Date Jan 1 2011 Publication Name Limnology and View on aslo org Share Facebook Twitter Edit Delete Move section Loss of functional Photosystem II reaction centres in zooxanthellae of corals exposed to bleaching conditions using fluorescence rise kinetics more by Ross Hill Publisher Springer Publication Date Jan 1 2004 Publication Name Photosynthesis View on springerlink com Share Facebook Twitter Edit Delete Move section Impact of bleaching conditions on the components of non photochemical quenching in the zooxanthellae of a coral more by Ross Hill Publisher Elsevier Publication Date Jan 1 2005 Publication Name Journal of experimental marine biology and View on sciencedirect com Share Facebook Twitter Edit Delete Move section IMPACT OF BLEACHING STRESS ON THE FUNCTION OF THE OXYGEN EVOLVING COMPLEX OF ZOOXANTHELLAE FROM SCLERACTINIAN CORALS more by Ross Hill Publisher Wiley Online Library Publication Date Jan 1 2008 Publication Name Journal of Phycology View on onlinelibrary wiley com Share Facebook Twitter Edit Delete Move section Post bleaching viability of expelled zooxanthellae from the scleractinian coral Pocillopora damicornis more by Ross Hill Publisher int res com Publication Date Jan 1 2007 Publication Name MARINE ECOLOGY PROGRESS SERIES View on int res com Share

    Original URL path: http://unsw.academia.edu/RossHill (2012-11-08)
    Open archived version from archive

  • Laura Wilson | The University of New South Wales - Academia.edu
    Wilson More Info Wilson LAB 2011 Journal of Mammalogy 92 2 407 420 Research Interests Evolutionary Biology Mammalogy and Morphometrics edit View on bioone org Share Facebook Twitter Edit Delete Move section On the reliability of a geometric morphometric approach to sex determination A blind test of six criteria of the juvenile ilium more by Laura Wilson More Info Wilson LAB Cardoso HFV Humphrey LT 2011 Forensic Science International 206 35 42 Research Interests Biological Anthropology Forensic Anthropology Biology Osteology Anthropology and Geometric Morphometrics edit View on sciencedirect com Share Facebook Twitter Edit Delete Move section Heterochrony and patterns of cranial suture closure in hystricognath rodents more by Laura Wilson More Info Wilson LAB Sánchez Villagra MR 2009 Journal of Anatomy 214 3 339 354 Research Interests Biology Evolutionary Biology Cranial Sutures Rodentia and Macroevolution edit Download pdf Quick view View on onlinelibrary wiley com Share Facebook Twitter Edit Delete Move section Diversity trends and their ontogenetic basis an exploration of allometric disparity in rodents more by Laura Wilson More Info Wilson LAB Sánchez Villagra MR 2010 Proceedings of the Royal Society B 277 1685 1227 1234 Research Interests Biology Evolutionary Biology Diversity Ontogeny Rodentia and 1 more Macroevolution edit View on rspb royalsocietypublishing org Share Facebook Twitter Edit Delete Move section Skeletogenesis and sequence heterochrony in rodent evolution with particular emphasis on the African striped mouse Rhabdomys pumilio Mammalia more by Laura Wilson More Info Wilson LAB Schradin C Mitgutsch C Galliari FC Mess A Sánchez Villagra MR 2010 Organisms Diversity and Evolution 10 3 243 258 Research Interests Biology Evolutionary Biology and Rodentia edit View on springerlink com Share Facebook Twitter Edit Delete Move section The evolution and phylogenetic signal of growth trajectories the case of chelid turtles more by Laura Wilson More Info Wilson LAB Sánchez Villagra

    Original URL path: http://unsw.academia.edu/LauraWilson (2012-11-08)
    Open archived version from archive



  •