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  • Ray's Very Own Experimental WWW Server
    Library White Papers Digital Intellectual Property Toward on line worldwide access to Vatican Library materials http community bellcore com lesk kentucky kentucky html http community bellcore com lesk ages ages html IITA DL Workshop Report The Public Interest in Copyright Law Past Present and Future University Libraries Scholarly Communication University Libraries and Scholarly Communication A Study Prepared for The Andrew W Mellon Foundation by Anthony M Cummings Marcia L Witte William G Bowen Laura O Lazarus and Richard H Ekman Published by The Association of Research Libraries for The Andrew W Mellon Foundation November 1992 Digital Image Access and Retrieval DL Projects D Lib Magazine D Lib Digital Library Research Projects Home Page American Memory from the Library of Congress CSDL Library Without Walls The RYHINER Project at the University Library of Berne Columbia University Bartleby Library BIBLIOMANIA The Network Library Home Page IBM Digital Library Digital Libraries for Large Multimedia Collections IBM Digital Library Digital Library Technology Home Page State by State DLT RSD Summary INDEX Digital Libraries DLT Funded Projects Public Use of Remote Sensing Data NASA IITA USDAC Home Page GeoScope Detailed Design Project Horizon Home Page Digital Libraries at Xerox PARC Z39 50 Access to Digital Collections Digital library information Digital Libraries 95 On Line Proceedings CFP DIGITAL LIBRARIES 97 Information Foraging in Information Access Environments Project Xanadu Stanford s Digital Libraries Project NASA s Digital Library Technology Page American Memory Project from the Library of Congress The UC Berkeley Library The REAL thing going digital The UC Berkeley Library SUNSite Lots of Digital Library Info and Collections Papers etc on Digital Libraries D Lib Magazine from CNRI and Bill Arms My ASIS Digital Library Paper My Search Capabilities for Users of Digital Libraries Tools and Paradigms discussion paper from UCLA NSF Digital Library workshop OK it s not really about digital libraries unless you consider The WWW a DL But here is my ASIS 96 paper Bibliometrics of the World Wide Web An Exploratory Analysis of the Intellectual Structure of Cyberspace Online Proceedings of Digital Library Related Conferences Institute on Digital Library Development July 15 19 and July 29 August 2 1996 Berkeley California OGDL II Organizing the Global Digital Library II and Naming Conventions May 21 22 1996 Library of Congress Washington DC Digital Libraries 95 DL 95 The Second International Conference on the Theory and Practice of Digital Libraries held June 11 13 1995 Austin Texas Digital Libraries 94 DL 94 The First Annual Conference on the Theory and Practice of Digital Libraries June 19 21 1994 College Station Texas ISDL 95 International Symposium on Digital Libraries 1995 August 22 25 1995 Tsukuba Science City Ibaraki 305 Japan IITA Digital Libraries Workshop Interoperability Scaling and the Digital Libraries Research Agenda May 18 19 1995 Reston Virginia Social Aspects of Digital Libraries February 16 17 1996 University of California Los Angeles How we do user centered design and evaluation of Digital Libraries A methodological forum was the the theme of the 37th Allerton Institute

    Original URL path: https://sherlock.ischool.berkeley.edu/ (2014-09-03)
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  • Design and Development of a Network-Based Electronic Library
    the information superhighway Although the exact nature and future architecture of such libraries is still a matter for experimentation and debate there are several pioneering efforts underway to establish electronic libraries and to provide access to them This paper describes one such effort underway at the University of California at Berkeley In collaboration with four other universities we are developing interoperable electronic library servers containing the Computer Science technical reports

    Original URL path: https://sherlock.ischool.berkeley.edu/diglib/asis.html (2014-09-03)
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  • Search Capabilities for Users of Digital Libraries: Tools and Paradigms
    Tools and Paradigms Ray R Larson School Information Management and Systems University of California Berkeley Berkeley CA 94720 Introduction Assumptions Questions and Issues Search Paradigms Interaction Paradigms Observations and Issues Research Agenda Author Information References About this document Ray R

    Original URL path: https://sherlock.ischool.berkeley.edu/ucla_dl_workshop/paper.html (2014-09-03)
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  • Bibliometrics of the World Wide Web: An Exploratory Analysis of the Intellectual Structure of Cyberspace
    and the bibliometrics of the World Wide Web based on both analysis of over 30 gigabytes of web pages collected by the Inktomi Web Crawler and on the use of the DEC AltaVista search engine for cocitation analysis of a set of Earth Science related WWW sites The statistical characteristics of web documents and their hypertext links are examined along with examination of the characteristics of highly cited web documents

    Original URL path: https://sherlock.ischool.berkeley.edu/asis96/asis96.html (2014-09-03)
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  • World Brain: The Idea of a Permanent World Encyclopaedia
    unified if not a centralized world organ to pull the mind of the world together which will be not so much a rival to the universities as a supplementary and co ordinating addition to their educational activities on a planetary scale The phrase Permanent World Encyclopaedia conveys the gist of these ideas As the core of such an institution would be a world synthesis of bibliography and documentation with the indexed archives of the world A great number of workers would be engaged perpetually in perfecting this index of human knowledge and keeping it up to date Concurrently the resources of micro photography as yet only in their infancy will be creating a concentrated visual record Few people as yet outside the world of expert librarians and museum curators and so forth know how manageable well ordered facts can be made however multitudinous and how swiftly and completely even the rarest visions and the most recondite matters can be recalled once they have been put in place in a well ordered scheme of reference and reproduction The American microfilm experts even now are making facsimiles of the rarest books manuscripts pictures and specimens which can then be made easily accessible upon the library srceen By means of the microfilm the rarest and most intricate documents and articles can be studied now at first hand simultaneously in a score of projection rooms There is no practical obstacle whatever now to the creation of an efficient index to all human knowledge ideas and achievements to the creation that is of a complete planetary memory for all mankind And not simply an index the direct reproduction of the thing itself can be summoned to any properly prepared spot A microfilm coloured where necessary occupying an inch or so of space and weighing little more than a letter can be duplicated from the records and sent anywhere and thrown enlarged upon the screen so that the student may study it in every detail This in itself is a fact of tremendous significance It foreshadows a real intellectual unification of our race The whole human memory can be and probably in a short time will be made accessible to every individual And what is also of very great importance in this uncertain world where destruction becomes continually more frequent and unpredictable is this that photography affords now every facility for multiplying duplicates of this which we may call this new all human cerebrum It need not be concentrated in any one single place It need not be vulnerable as a human head or a human heart is vulnerable It can be reproduced exactly and fully in Peru China Iceland Central Africa or wherever else seems to afford an insurance against danger and interruption It can have at once the concentration of a craniate animal and the diffused vitality of an amoeba This is no remote dream no fantasy It is a plain statement of a contemporary state of affairs It is on the level of

    Original URL path: https://sherlock.ischool.berkeley.edu/wells/world_brain.html (2014-09-03)
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  • Geographic Information Retrieval and Spatial Browsing
    the system or by the user as part of the query there is no ranking or order imposed on the results of a data retrieval query Geographic Information Retrieval as we define it here is an applied research area that combines aspects of DBMS research User Interface Research GIS research and Information Retrieval research and is concerned with indexing searching retrieving and browsing of geo referenced information sources and the design of systems to accomplish these tasks effectively and efficiently In the next section we will further examine the characteristics of geographic and spatial queries and where these fit on the continua of Figure 1 Geographic and Spatial Queries The terms geographic queries and spatial queries imply querying a spatially indexed database based on relationships between particular items in that database within a particular coordinate system or compatible coordinate systems Spatial querying is the more general term It can be defined as queries about the spatial relationships intersection containment boundary adjacency proximity of entities geometrically defined and located in space De Floriani Marzano Puppo 1993 without regard to the nature of the coordinate system It could be argued that the Vector Space model of information retrieval Salton 1989 is spatial querying system where the space and coordinates are defined by occurrance and frequency of term usage in a document collection Geographic querying assumes that the space is delineated by the well defined coordinate systems of the real world In the following discussion the emphasis will be on geographic querying although the underlying implementation might be a general purpose spatial database system rather than a geographic information system As Frank 1991 has pointed out there are many characteristics of geographic data that require special access methods and data structures We will not examine access methods here but will concentrate on a basic classification of types of spatial queries In general geographical relationships in the coordinate systems imposed on the real world are geometric relationships Within a geometric framework where distance and direction can be measured on a continuous scale many types of relationships between objects defined within that space can be determined using geometry For example given the geographic coordinates in latitude and longitude of Chicago 4152 N 8737 W and New York 4040 N 7358 W a fairly simple calculation can give the distance between the two cities Using the great circle method the distance is 1 2 7915 6 0 86838 D 180 where 7915 6 is the diameter of the Earth in miles 0 86838 is the ratio of miles to nautical miles and Cos D sin Latitude1 sin Latitude2 cos Latitude1 cos Latitude2 cos Longitude1 Longitude2 or about 651 nautical miles Using the coordinates alone it is simple to determine other relationships between the cities e g Chicago is West and North of New York Spatial relationships may be both geometric and topological spatially related but without measureable distance or absolute direction Examples of topological relations include such properties as adjacency connectivity and containment For example whether some building is inside or outside of the city limits of Chicago has to do with the building s relationship to an arbitrary boundary but the distance or direction between the two is not an issue Topological directions may have no particular relationship to any coordinate system that they might be imbedded in Left and Right are valid directions only in relation to the observer frame of reference and have no absolute relationship with North or West Spatial and geographic queries combine both geometric and topological elements Frew et al 1995 suggest that there are two primary classes of requests from users the What s here query and the Where s this query The first type of query stems from a desire to discover what information is available about a particular location while the second stems from a desire to find out where certain phenomena occur Within this simple classification of spatial and geographic queries there are a number of different types of queries distinguished by how the locations of interest are defined The following discussion is based on the types of spatial queries defined by Laurini and Thompson 1992 and De Floriani et al 1993 Types of spatial queries The types of spatial queries submitted by users to an information systems such as a Digital Library may be arbitrarily complex in the types of information desired the limitations on the areas time periods etc covered and many other conditions spatial or not that might be specified in such a query If we concentrate on only the spatial or geographic aspects of the query there are a number of query types that can be distinguished based on the type of information provided by the user in the query We will consider 5 types of spatial queries here 1 Point in polygon queries 2 Region queries 3 Distance and Buffer Zone queries 4 Path queries 5 Multimedia queries The last is actually a combination of multiple geo referenced sources in a single query In the following discussion we will examine each of these query types and their characteristics The first type of query is probably the most straightforward to process and describe This is Point in polygon query illustrated in Figure 2 which essentially asks the question What do we have at this X Y point in the current coordinate system The point in polygon query in a digital library context might ask which satellite images are available that show a particular spot or which documents describe the place indicated by the point The query essentially asks for any georeferenced object or geographic dataset that contains surrounds or refers to a particular spot on the surface of the earth This is one of the more precise of all the spatial query types discussed here Figure 2 Point in polygon query Figure 3 Region query Figure 4 Distance and Buffer Zone query The next type of query is a Region query illustrated in Figure 3 A region query asks the question What do we have in this region Instead of referring to a particular point in the coordinate space a region query defines a polygon in that space and asks for information regarding anything that is contained in adjacent to or overlaps the polygonal area so defined There are a number of potential variants or restrictions that might be applied for example a user might be asking Which point encoded items lie within the region What lines borders rivers etc lie within or the cross the region Which areas or regional datasets overlap this region Which areas or regional datasets lie entirely within this region or Which areas share a border with this region Any combination of elements or containment criteria might be specified given the needs of the particular searcher In addition the specified query region can be any polygon ranging from regular shapes such as rectangles or even circles which would be the same as a Buffer Zone query on a point as discussed below to irregular shapes like the boundary of a city or any arbitrary set of points defining a closed polygonal shape The containment criteria need not be precise but may use fuzzy or probabilistic interpretations of such things as the maximum or minimum areas of overlap for an object to be considered included in the specified area or the coverage areas for particular datasets that are candidates for retrieval Brimicombe 1993 The next type of query is the Distance and Buffer Zone query illustrated in Figure 4 The distance and buffer zone query asks the question what do we have within some fixed distance of this object point line or polygon Obviously there are quite different processing steps involved if the object used as the basis for a buffer zone query is a point a line or a polygon Examples include queries such as What cities lie within 40 miles of the border of Northern and Southern Ireland as shown in Figure 4 Other buffer zone queries include What industrial plants lie within 2 miles of this river which streams are within 100 yards of this highway what mines are within 5 miles of this city etc The buffer zone specified need not be exact e g what datasets describe the area near this point and inclusion can be considered a fuzzy or probabilistic function based on the location of the database objects For such queries a ranked list of database objects ordered by nearness to the point might be a better response than an arbitrary definition of a distance Path queries are a somewhat more specialized form of spatial query that require the presence of a network structure in the spatial or geographic data Networks are simply sets of interconnected line segments representing such things as roads oil or water pipelines etc A typical sort of path query involves finding the shortest route from one point in the network to another For example a path query might ask What is the shortest route from San Francisco to Los Angeles as shown in Figure 5 Note that path queries can become more complex and uncertain multimedia queries when criteria other than distance or direction are involved in the query For example to answer the question What is the fastest route from San Francisco to Los Angeles more information such as speed limits and traffic conditions on different routes of the network are required to provide even an approximate answer to the question Figure 5 Path Query Multimedia queries combine multiple geo referenced information sources in resolving a query This may include multiple maps or map layers depending on the sort of system used to resolve the query it may also include non map geo referenced information such as ownership records for particular parcels of land An example illustrated in Figure 6 might be the query What are the names of farmers affected by flooding in Monterey and Santa Cruz Counties Answering this query involves not only map information such as county boundaries and river locations but also cadastral information to show who owns particular parcels of land along the rivers in the areas affected by flooding In this particular query complex operations are likely to be required such as combining aerial or satellite photographs or remote sensing data showing the extents of the flooding and map and cadastre information often from different databases with different measurements scales and levels of detail Figure 6 Multimedia query The types of queries discussed above can be combined in a complex search For example What streams and rivers flow through the county in which the town of Richmond California exists would require a point in polygon search of county information to locate the county containing the city and a region search to identify the streams and rivers that intersect the county area Obviously any GIR system should combine the text or concept based retrieval associated with conventional information and database systems with the sorts of spatial queries discussed above Any multimedia information system may include a wide variety of spatial and non spatial information that may have a geographic association if not a precise location see for example Griffiths 1989 Walker Newman Medyckj Scott and Ruggles 1992 provide an interesting design for a system combining spatial text and concept based retrieval Spatial Browsing Searching a geographically indexed database or Digital Library is an activity that assumes the searcher has a good notion of what he or she wants and is able to specify that need in some form Most of the queries used as examples in the above discussion reflect this Another type of searching is much less directed and while it assumes that the users have some notion of the type of information desired they may not be able to specify that information in a query language What is needed in such cases is in effect the ability to navigate the database geographically without requiring explicit query formulation This spatial browsing combines ad hoc spatial querying with interactive displays of digital maps to permit the user to explore the geographical dimension of information in a database or Digital Library Laurini and Thompson 1992 describe spatial browsing using the hypermap concept In hypertext databases the current best example being the World Wide Web each document or node may contain many links to other documents in a variety of media text images video sound clips etc and the user may view any referenced document simply by selecting the representation of the link in the current document In a hypermap the links are represented by an icon or footprint a polygon that outlines the area described by the object linked to the footprint and selection brings up the document referenced by the link For example Figure 7 shows a sequence of maps that might be presented to someone browsing a Digital Library going from a global view to Europe then to the UK then to Ireland and finally to a particular icon on the Ireland map representing a book about the region Figure 7 Spatial Browsing There are a number of advantages to spatial browsing systems and the hypermap concept as a user interface metaphor These systems are often very intuitive and comprehensible assuming that the user has some notion of geography and can provide for both searching and browsing by direct interaction as opposed to specification of names or coordinates In most cases for the purposes of browsing and search specification the digital map displayed to the user need not be highly detailed not does it require the accuracy of a full GIS There are also a number of potential problems or requirements for such systems One problem is that of clutter in the display If all of the icons or footprints representing all of the documents in a large database associated with any geographic area visible on the digital map are shown simultaneously the map may disappear entirely beneath a heap of icons This sort of clutter can be addressed in several ways some of which we will discuss further below in describing the geographic browser toolkit Another obvious requirement for spatial browsing and is that there must be coordinate based geographical indexing of the database In the following section methods of automatic indexing and automatic geo referencing of text documents will be examined we will return to the notion of spatial browsing and look at some examples in subsequent sections Geographic and Spatial Indexing Not surprisingly one of the major sources of information in digital libraries is text in a variety of forms and from a variety of sources These text items might include full text documents such as journal or encyclopaedia articles books technical report and more specialized documents such as Environmental Impact Reports EIRs laws and legislation Many of these text documents describe discuss or refer to particular places or regions Geographic location is often an important or even the primary criteria when searching for information from the digital library In traditional library cataloging practice geographic references have been a common form of access point assigned to documents primarily books and maps but assignment was based on the cataloger s notion of whether geographic identification was deemed important for access to the document Although it might be possible in principle to have catalogers evaluate each item that is entered into a digital library for geographic references in its content such detailed cataloging would be prohibitively expensive One goal of many digital library projects is to automate as much of the indexing and cataloging of documents as possible An important component of such automatic indexing is to develop methods that can perform automatic geo referencing of text documents By automatic geo referencing I mean to automatically index and retrieve a document according to the geographic locations discussed displayed or otherwise associated with its content In most existing full text and bibliographic information retrieval systems searches with a geographical component such as the point in polygon region or multimedia query locate any documents whose contents are about location XY are not supported directly by indexing query or user interface functions Instead these searches rely on indexing and query specification of place names either supplied by catalogers or extracted from the text itself essentially as a side effect of keyword indexing Even in cases where a document is meticulously manually indexed geographic index terms consisting of text strings such as LCSH and LC name authorities have several well documented problems with ambiguity synonymy and with name changes over time Griffiths 1989 Holmes 1990 Specifically the major problems are 1 Names are not unique San Jose is a common city name throughout Central and South America as well as in California Without additional qualifications many place names are ambiguous 2 The places referred to change size shape and names over time Political changes in the world move much faster than geological changes and borders country and region names even the existence of political entities may change at any time 3 Spelling variations Local names for a region may differ from common English forms and there may be variations in the spelling of a name over time Peking Beijing 4 Some place names in texts are simply temporary conventions In some scientific studies as well as in some historical contexts particular names may be created by scholars to describe an area or region study areas battlefields etc that are not part of the conventional political names of a region but which may be very precisely defined for the purposes of the study Instead of or in addition to using place names to describe locations referred to in documents digital libraries are using the geographic coordinates of places to provide better access to those documents dealing with those locations Geographic coordinates have several advantages over names 1 They are persistent regardless of name political boundary or other changes A geographic location specified by coordinates is not dependent on the vagaries of politics warfare or synonymy 2 They can be simply connected to spatial

    Original URL path: https://sherlock.ischool.berkeley.edu/geo_ir/PART1.html (2014-09-03)
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  • or computer science students postgraduate library science students and research workers in the field of IR Some of the chapters particular chapter 6 this became chapter 7 in the second edition make simple use of a little advanced mathematics However the necessary mathematical tools can be easily mastered from numerous mathematical texts that now exist and in any case references have been given where the mathematics occur I had to face the problem of balancing clarity of exposition with density of references I was tempted to give large numbers of references but was afraid they would have destroyed the continuity of the text I have tried to steer a middle course and not compete with the Annual Review of Information Science and Technology Normally one is encouraged to cite only works that have been published in some readily accessible form such as a book or periodical Unfortunately much of the interesting work in IR is contained in technical reports and Ph D theses For example most the work done on the SMART system at Cornell is available only in reports Luckily many of these are now available through the National Technical Information Service U S and University Microfilms U K I have not avoided using these sources although if the same material is accessible more readily in some other form I have given it preference I should like to acknowledge my considerable debt to many people and institutions that have helped me Let me say first that they are responsible for many of the ideas in this book but that only I wish to be held responsible My greatest debt is to Karen Sparck Jones who taught me to research information retrieval as an experimental science Nick Jardine and Robin Sibson taught me about the theory of automatic classification Cyril

    Original URL path: https://sherlock.ischool.berkeley.edu/IS205/IR_CJVR/ (2014-09-03)
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  • Ray's Very Own Experimental WWW Server -- trekkie stuff
    stuff Trekkie Stuff Star Trek Pictures These are some fun pictures that people have digitized from the various Star Trek movies and TV shows MPEG Animations of Trekkie Stuff For

    Original URL path: https://sherlock.ischool.berkeley.edu/docs/info/star_trek/trek.html (2014-09-03)
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