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  • Science and discovery spurs clinical trial | think:blog
    site of injury Caplan said Miller was looking for therapies for diseases that attack myelin the protective coating that wraps nerves long axons In MS the immune system attacks the myelin and the exposed nerves intricate wiring can be damaged The result nerve signals can be blocked causing loss of balance and coordination cognitive ability and other functions Losses may become permanent What the nerves need is repair and protection Miller said The researchers thought molecules MSCs make could be useful but It was a shot in the dark Caplan said After some promising in vitro results Caplan provided Miller with MSCs from human donors Miller injected them into mice that had a version of MS The mice got better and quickly Miller said And the animals didn t reject the human cells or show negative effects The mice had fewer and smaller lesions on their myelin compared to control mice Miller and Caplan found evidence that the MSCs produced a barrier that blocked the autoimmune response and blocked formation of scar tissue which would otherwise permanently halt signals In addition the cells produced molecules that enhanced regeneration of the damaged axon and rewrapping of the myelin around the axon Continued monitoring showed that one shot provided protection from the recurring disease for months Based on Caplan s and Miller s work the university Cleveland Clinic and University Hospitals Case Medical Center have begun a clinical trial The first phase of the trial tests the safety of injecting MS patients with their own MSCs The Myelin Repair Foundation helped fund Miller s research print e mail feeds connect Get in touch with Case Western Reserve University s media relations team Contact information photos news releases and more are available on our site Posted by Kevin Mayhood August 22 2011 08

    Original URL path: http://blog.case.edu/think/2011/08/22/science_and_discovery_spurs_clinical_trial (2015-11-11)
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  • Case Western Reserve, Carnegie Mellon and Boston University Researchers Take Health Insurance Market’s Vital Signs | think:blog
    economics of labor markets leading to last year s award of the Nobel Prize in Economics to Peter Diamond MIT Dale Mortensen Northwestern and Christopher Pissarides London School of Economics The current paper is the first to apply these theories to the operation of health insurance markets Search frictions arise whenever consumers are unable to easily compare all the options available to them in the marketplace This Votruba Cebul Rebitzer and Taylor argue is exactly the case for purchasers of individual and small group health plans Consumers have hundreds sometimes thousands of different options and each plan has its own unique set of benefit details In this complex environment it s hard for consumers to find the plan that offers them the best value What our paper shows is that this shopping problem has important implications for how market competition plays out If consumers have a hard time evaluating value competition becomes less about value and more about marketing Votruba said A hallmark of markets with search frictions is that the law of one price breaks down Instead of competition leading insurers to offer similar plans at a similar low price frictions enable many insurers to profitably pursue high margin low volume strategies The net effect is that consumers end up paying more for their health insurance 29 percent more on average in the small group market and insurers spend more on marketing Search frictions also give employers an incentive to change insurers in search of better rates High turnover rates undermine the quality of health plans by reducing insurers incentive to finance care that makes their policyholders healthier in the future Cebul said Why spend money on wellness or disease management programs programs which yield a return on investment only after several years for a policyholder who probably isn t going to stick around long especially if the program increases premiums and other insurers reap the benefits of your investment If search frictions in health insurance markets cause small businesses to pay too much for low quality policies can the health insurance exchanges mandated by health care reform law do better This paper s findings suggest they probably can In theory they should said Rebitzer as long as the exchanges are designed so that shoppers can easily evaluate the value that they should expect for the prices of different plans We will know that the exchanges are successful if turnover rates and marketing expenses decrease The American Economic Review is the premier scholarly journal in economics Benjamin Bernanke the current head of the Federal Reserve Bank formerly served as its editor in chief The August 2011 link is http www aeaweb org issue php doi 10 1257 aer 101 5 Rebitzer is a professor of management economics and public policy at Boston University s School of Management having recently joined the faculty after 11 years at Case Western Reserve He is a research associate in the National Bureau of Economic Research Votruba is an associate professor of economics and

    Original URL path: http://blog.case.edu/think/2011/08/22/case_western_reserve_carnegie_mellon_and_boston_university_researchers_take_health_insurance_marketas_vital_signs (2015-11-11)
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  • CWRU School of Dental Medicine Receives $2.6 Million in Grants | think:blog
    and soon to be established dual degree in Doctor of Dental Medicine and Masters of Public Health Family First is a collaborative effort of the Departments of Family Medicine and Nutrition and the school is collaborating with Case Western Reserve School of Medicine s Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics to implement the dual degree program The second grant focuses on a post doctoral training program in dental public health and awards 1 29 million to support a residency program at the School of Dental Medicine Dental public health residents will have placement in community health centers and public health agencies Addressing oral health disparities starts early in Case Western Reserve dental students education After their first year cornerstone experience in the Healthy Smiles Sealant Program that provides free dental exams to the public as well as cleanings and sealants for second and sixth graders in the Cleveland Municipal School District second year dental students engage in an experiential learning program called Family First Family First focuses on assessing risk for dental diseases from a whole family and multigenerational perspective Students look at factors from eating habits to general health problems in the family Family First integrates family medicine and nutrition with dental care Most members of a family seek care from one dentist Narendran said The Family First learning experience was formalized last year and is a win for both students and families in need of dental care Currently 18 families from Cleveland most with three generations and one with five generations are being assessed for their dental needs Student teams from the sophomore dental school class are seeing a total of 72 family members Both grants also include partial faculty and administrative support to the programs The post doctoral grant will also offer a stipend tuition and travel print

    Original URL path: http://blog.case.edu/think/2011/08/22/cwru_school_of_dental_medicine_receives_26_million_in_grants (2015-11-11)
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  • The U.S. Auto Supply Chain at a Crossroads | think:blog
    One future is characterized by collaborative relationships between firms at all tiers of the supply chain wherein firms share cost savings from identifying and eradicating inefficiencies that they might not have been able to address on their own In contrast adversarial relationships within the supply chain could impede the industry s progress In this future instead of developing better products and thinking critically about how to remove inefficiencies from processes that span multiple firms firms at each level of the supply chain generate profits by squeezing margins of firms in the tier under them This path is a recipe for industry wide stagnation Helper said The study finds that large segments of the automotive supply chain are characterized by each of these two scenarios demonstrating certain elements of both The research report notes evidence that many first tier firms continue to protect their profit margins by cutting the margins of their suppliers rather than by trying to build positive sum relationships In response many suppliers focus on short term cost cutting and are reluctant to invest in modernizing their operations For example barely a third of survey respondents have adopted Toyota style practices such as involving workers in problem solving groups despite widespread evidence that such practices improve performance On a more positive note the study also found some evidence that relationships are becoming more collaborative as many firms report that their main customers are more likely now to work with them to reduce costs than they were in 2007 before the recession In addition about 20 percent of suppliers have adopted high road practices which include high wages worker training and investment and empowerment at all job levels Such firms experienced 10 9 percent less sales loss during the recession than did the group of firms that least exhibited

    Original URL path: http://blog.case.edu/think/2011/08/17/the_us_auto_supply_chain_at_a_crossroads (2015-11-11)
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  • Distance Caregivers for Advanced Cancer Patients Have Special Needs, CWRU Study Finds | think:blog
    delivered to distance caregivers Nurses she says can have a role in easing some of the emotional stress experienced by distant family members The majority of the distance caregivers are secondary caregivers with local family members relaying patient information secondhand and often by phone Mazanec says With sparse how to information available to help these individuals Mazanec first wanted to understand what bothered these caregivers and then develop an intervention to bring them into the loop of patient care The study part of a larger look at distance caregiving involved telephone interviews with caregivers for patients with advanced lung gastrointestinal and gynecologic malignancies Each interviewee lived 100 miles or more away from their family member and answered three open ended questions that were taped and later transcribed Common themes were a lack of control and information but what emerged beyond those key concerns were the following Distance caregivers struggle emotionally about the right time to visit or call their family members Many caregivers have families with young children and possibly limited financial means to travel Uncertainty about what was happening with their family members also concerned the caregivers Even though the caregivers were highly educated and many sought information online they still wanted more information from the health care professionals Even though parents of these caregivers were ill they still wanted to protect their children by withholding information that sons and daughters wanted to know Likewise the children withheld information to protect or lessen the stress of their ill parent Caregivers felt it was important to stay connected Mazanec says that with new technologies available she hopes to design a program that closes the distance gap Collaborating on the article were Barbara Daly the Oliva Perkins Professor in Oncology Maryjo Prince Paul assistant professor at the Frances Payne Bolton School

    Original URL path: http://blog.case.edu/think/2011/08/08/distance_caregivers_for_advanced_cancer_patients_have_special_needs_cwru_study_finds (2015-11-11)
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  • Fossils of forest rodents found in highland desert | think:blog
    in that time Prior research using radiometric and paleomagnetic dating techniques puts the age of the fossils at Quebrada Honda in the range of 12 5 to 13 million years ago Though the finds were limited to one fossil each the teeth provide the telltale features needed to determine their kin and identify them as unique Mesoprocta hypsodus is related to agoutis and acouchis two types of current and common rodents found from Costa Rica to Brazil Tall complex teeth are typical of these rodents which are known for their flatish face long legs and quickness Based on the dimensions of the jawbone and teeth Croft estimates the extinct rodent was about 18 to 20 inches long 8 inches to a foot at the shoulder and weighed 8 to 10 pounds Croft said that although it probably ate fruits and nuts and spent much of its time foraging among the trees like its modern relatives its durable teeth indicate that it may also have ventured into more open areas Forested habitats no longer exist in the Quebrada Honda area Quebradahondomys potosiensis is a rat sized relative of extant spiny rats which are mostly tree dwelling relatives of guinea pigs and chinchillas that have spiny coats and tails that easily break off to help them escape from predators Currently spiny rats are found throughout Central America and most of South America The molar teeth which are shaped like a 3 or an E are typical of a particular subgroup of spiny rats and indicate the extinct rodent fed on a leafy diet The researchers say it was at least partially arboreal and may have been living in the same trees among which Mesoprocta hypsodus foraged on the ground In addition to the two new species above Croft s group found a number of fossils from the genus Acarechimys The remains indicate the animal was about hamster sized lived in rocky or bushy environs and fed on leaves and seeds Fossils from the genus have been found from Colombia to the southern tip of Argentina but close analysis is needed to break them down into species The researchers hope to work with others to define species found The most common fossils at the site are from relatives of chinchillas all of the genus Prolagostomus They were found in such high numbers that the researchers believe the animals were highly social and like some of their current relatives lived in communities much as prairie dogs do today Again closer analysis of known fossils from here and other locations is needed to determine species Studies of variation in modern relatives will also aid these studies Lastly the investigators found fossils of Guiomys unica a relative of the guinea pig The species estimated to be about the size of a large rabbit but proportioned like a cat was previously found only in the Patagonia region of Argentina well over 1 000 miles away The animal was likely a grass and leaf eater that frequented both

    Original URL path: http://blog.case.edu/think/2011/08/04/fossils_of_forest_rodents_found_in_highland_desert (2015-11-11)
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  • Symposium Sept. 9 at Case Western Reserve University School of Law Tackles a Global Question: Is International Law in Crisis? | think:blog
    different conclusions There will be six panels during the day each focusing on a major area of global crisis Some of the topics are the Middle East Somali Piracy climate change and the global economy The final plenary panel will be a round table discussion including whether the U S president is bound by International Law in the war on terror Several of the symposium panels will be webcast live on the Internet All of the panels will be archived on the law school s YouTube site for subsequent viewing In addition the Case Western Reserve Journal of International Law one of the oldest and most prestigious international law journals will publish a special double issue with the articles generated from the symposium With help from a grant from the Wolf Family Foundation Case Western Reserve s School of Law will mail complementary copies of the issue to 1 500 international law professors policy makers and experts ensuring that this will be an especially widely read and cited publication This event is free and open to the press and public In addition the conference speakers are available for interviewing during the margins of the conference To organize an interview with one or more of the conference speakers in advance please contact the conference organizer Professor Michael Scharf at michael scharf case edu or cell 216 435 7796 Schedule Friday September 9 at the Law School Moot Courtroom 8 30 8 45 AM Welcome Dean Lawrence Mitchell Case Western Reserve University School of Law Prof Michael Scharf Case Western Prof Michael Kelly Creighton president American National Section International Association of Penal Law Presentation of International Association of Penal Law Book of the Year Award 8 45 9 30 AM Opening Lecture Prof Ruth Wedgwood president American Branch International Law Association 9 30 9 45 AM Break 9 45 11 00 AM Morning Panel 1A Universal Jurisdiction in Crisis and the 50th anniversary of the Eichmann Trial Moderator Prof Michael Kelly Creighton Prof David Luban Georgetown Ruth Bettina Birn former Chief Historian War Crimes and Crimes Against Humanity Section Department of Justice Canada Prof Michael Newton Vanderbilt Prof Charles Jalloh Pittsburgh 9 45 11 00 AM Morning Panel 1B International Economic Law in Crisis or Merely in Times of Crisis Moderator Speaker Prof Juscelino Colares Case Western Prof Raj Bhala Kansas Prof Jide Okechuku Nzelibe Northwestern Prof Joel P Trachtman Fletcher 11 00 11 15 AM Break 11 15 AM 12 30 PM Morning Panel 2 A Piracy New Threats New Responses Moderator Prof Robert Strassfeld Case Western Judge Rosemelle Mutoka of the Kenya Piracy Court Jurist in Residence at Case Prof Milena Sterio Cleveland State University Sandy Hodgkinson Dept of Defense Office of the Deputy Secretary of Defense Jennifer Landsidle Dept of State Office of the Legal Adviser 11 15 AM 12 30 PM Morning 2B Climate Change What does Hope Look Like Moderator Panelist Prof Elizabeth Burleson Pace Prof Deepa Badrinarayana Chapman William Burns Journal of International Wildlife Law Policy

    Original URL path: http://blog.case.edu/think/2011/08/04/symposium_sept_9_at_case_western_reserve_university_school_of_law_tackles_a_global_question_is_international_law_in_crisis (2015-11-11)
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  • Worrying can impact interpersonal relationships, study finds | think:blog
    people with GAD manifested their worrying All individuals with these styles worried to the same extent and extreme but manifested those worries in different ways Przeworski said Take the examples of two people with similar worries about someone s health and safety One person may exhibit that worry through frequent intrusive expressions of concern for the other person Think of the parent or spouse who calls every five minutes to get an update on what s happening Another person may exhibit the worry by criticizing the behaviors that the person believes to be careless or reckless The worry may be similar but the impact of the worry on their interpersonal relationships would be extremely different This suggests that interpersonal problems and worry may be intertwined Przeworski says She suggests that therapies to treat GAD should target both the worry and the related interpersonal problems Most treatments for GAD rely on cognitive behavioral therapy a treatment that is usually successful for about 60 percent of people a percentage considered successful in therapy However one way to improve therapy for worriers may be to integrate techniques that target the interpersonal relationship problems The researchers published their findings in the article Interpersonal Pathoplasticity in Individuals With Generalized Anxiety Disorder in the Journal of Abnormal Psychology and called for integrating the therapies for worrying and relationship issues In addition to Przeworski contributing to the study were Pennsylvania State University researchers Michelle G Newman Aaron L Pincus Michele B Kasoff Alissa S Yamasaki and Louis G Castonguay The research was part of larger study supported by the National Institute of Mental Health Click on the link below to download a brief sound bite from Amy Przeworksi http www youtube com watch v xi1MYVDwBp8 For a broadcast quality version of this sound bite without graphics contact

    Original URL path: http://blog.case.edu/think/2011/07/26/worrying_can_impact_interpersonal_relationships_study_finds (2015-11-11)
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