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  • Types of Proposals
    Citation Engineering Proposals Types of Proposals D ifferent types of proposals are necessary for different projects In academia engineers produce grant proposals or research proposals in order to receive funding from government agencies and non profit organizations In industry engineers especially consultants write proposals or bids Engineers produce these proposals for the company where they are working or for other organizations Previous Continue Introduction Tweet HELP SITE INDEX ABOUT THIS

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  • Audience
    submit a Proposal to your company s management you may not have to include project costs or other background information On the other hand if you produce a proposal for an organization outside your company you may need to provide more details These details might include a rationale for why they should fund your project as well as the necessary materials and costs Before writing a proposal you should always

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  • General Format
    a proposal In other words here is where you state why you are writing the proposal in the first place You should also provide an overview of what the rest of the proposal includes Qualifications I n the Qualifications section you should show that you and your organization if applicable are skilled and capable of completing the proposed work successfully You should view this section as a resume since in it you will depict your skills and experiences If your audience is your supervisor or other managing decision makers then you may not need to include this section Background I n the Background section you should depict the problem situation that lead to your writing a proposal Here you should show that you thoroughly understand the problem If your audience already knows the Background you may not need to include this section For example your supervisor or other managing decision makers may already be familiar with the specific problem Therefore you don t need to tell them what they already know Work Schedule T he Work Schedule section does exactly what its name implies It presents the time frame in which you will complete the proposed work This section informs your audience of what to expect from you and when It also helps to keep you organized If after you begin working you are unable to keep this schedule you should always communicate changes in deadlines to the appropriate people Proposal Statement I n the Proposal Statement section you should inform your audience of exactly what you are proposing You should also include what you aren t proposing For example if you are proposing partial work on a project state this and then verify what your work will not include Costs I n the Cost section you should present what

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  • Perspectives on Proposals
    a big company For example you might conduct research on possible new product lines Then you would write a proposal to communicate that you want to pursue this product but that it will involve testing and development In other words it s going to cost money In order to get financial support you have to write a proposal that presents your plans This includes the benefits of the product in terms of profit Tom Siller Civil Engineering Consulting Engineers If you are a consulting engineer you will work in a very competitive environment because you have to sell your services In order to get work on a project you have to submit a proposal or give a presentation To do this successfully you have to know who your client is and what that client expects John Mahan Electrical Engineering Proposal Types Engineers write many different types of proposals Sometimes a proposal has to be powerful and business oriented Many companies don t want to look too far into the future not even past two years So you have to be very specific and down to earth You have to tell them when exactly you will complete the work In Phase

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  • General Format
    of the report s content so they can quickly judge whether they should spend their valuable time reading the entire report This section should give a true brief description of the report s content The most important purpose of the Abstract is to allow somebody to get a quick picture of the report s content and make a judgment Since an Abstract is a brief summary of your report its length corresponds with the report s length So for example if your report is eight pages long you shouldn t use more than 150 words in the Abstract Generally Abstracts define the report s purpose and content Executive Summary T ypically Executive Summaries are written for readers who do not have time to read the entire technical report An executive summary is usually no longer than 10 of the report It can be anywhere from 1 10 pages long depending on the report s length In the executive summary you should summarize the key points and conclusions from your report You might include anexecutive summary with your report or the summary can be a separate document Some reports only include an abstract while others include an executive summary Always check with your instructor to determine which to include or if you should include both Table of Contents A Table of Contents includes all the headings and subheadings in your report and the page numbers where each of these begins When you create a Table of Contents one of the most important decisions you have to make involves design A good Table of Contents distinguishes headings from subheadings and aligns these with the appropriate page numbers This also means you should pay attention to capitalization spacing and indentation List of Figures List of Tables T hese two separate lists assist readers

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  • Example Technical Report
    As for the phrase It will be determined well hasn t it already been determined They should have written In the construction of the main hall for the CSU Performing Arts Center a balance of x was defined This creates a reverberation time of two seconds You need to positively say what s been done In other words you did this you designed it Conclusion You should only summarize the conclusion if it s really a conclusion and not a summary By this I mean have you come to a conclusion Based on everything you ve done have you made conclusions or recommendations and not summarized what you ve covered in the report Table of Contents Table of Contents Acknowledgments i Abstract ii Executive Summary iii List of Figures iv List of Tables v Introduction 1 Location 3 Cable Stayed Technology 5 Acoustics 8 Floor Plans 12 Conclusion 16 References 17 Instructor Comments First of all I like the dots that make the visual connection This report does not go into much in the way of subsections and so from that standpoint it is probably appropriate not to number the sections This table of contents doesn t use subsections which is adequate for the length of this project I m expecting a more detailed table of contents this year I d like to see further subsections on ideas That helps writing be more organized Example of Table of Contents with Subsections 1 0 Introduction 1 1 Background 1 2 Significance of Load and Compression Force 1 2 1 Load 1 2 2 Compression Force Here the main topics are at one level then indented to the next level And they re just great visual clues One of the purposes of the table of contents is to give readers a visual map of the document They can look at this before they start reading and know where things fit Writers need to think of a table of contents as providing a mental map for readers List of Figures List of Figures Figure 2 1 map of campus 4 Figure 3 1 bridge diagram 6 Figure 3 2 building diagram 6 Figure 3 3 Alamodome 7 Figure 4 1 balcony design 11 Figure 5 1 basement level floor plan 13 Figure 5 2 ground level floor plan 14 Figure 5 3 second level floor plan 15 Instructor Comments The captions on this list are weak and this is obvious because of the phrases Map of Campus Bridge Diagram There s no use of capitalization because they re just phrases This is a balancing act You don t want to write long sentences but you don t want to write something that s so vague readers aren t certain what it means For example a reader might ask What campus The students are obviously thinking in their own minds of one campus CSU They need to think beyond that One of the things I try to impress on students in figures and tables too is that sometimes these will be pulled out of your report And so now they re out of context You ve got to balance giving enough information so someone can interpret it when it s out of the context of the existing report Captions should not be so overly verbose that you ve got a paragraph I think a figure caption should be about one line at the most At times captions may get a little longer but I find those distracting Report Body Introduction The purpose of designing a performing arts center on the CSU campus is to provide adequate capacity and higher quality of sound and aesthetics as compared to the existing structures in the region Factors that MASK Engineering considered included accessibility cost effectiveness location and an efficient use of space Our intent was to preserve the open space of the CSU campus and to design the complex in such a manner that it will blend well with its surrounding environment We at MASK Engineering believe that this project will greatly benefit both the CSU campus and the surrounding Fort Collins community Such a facility will lead to the improvement of the performing arts programs on campus It will directly affect the students and professors in the music theater and dance programs at the university eventually increasing enrollment in these disciplines There are approximately 230 students in the performing arts programs at CSU right now The amount of space that is available to these students is inadequate for their performances The construction of this complex will not only provide them with the space they need but will also continue the growth of these programs making CSU a leader in the education of the performing arts These changes at the university will result in a heightened cultural awareness in the community Currently community events are held at the Lincoln Center while CSU sponsored events are held at the Lory Student Center theater A new facility will bring community and university events together and will allow a greater variety of outside events to be brought to Fort Collins The location of this complex on campus will bring a greater number of students to these events due to the elimination of transportation problems MASK Engineering has focused on the structural and acoustical aspects of the CSU Performing Arts Center while hiring other firms to handle the parking mechanical and electrical operation and utilities A cable stayed support system has been chosen and a floor plan has been drawn up that will produce the best acoustical results A L handled the acoustical aspects of the complex while S C K N and M B concentrated on the structural plans We are planning for the construction of this complex to begin within the next few years Location The site chosen for the Colorado State University Performing Arts Center is the plot of land upon which Green Hall now stands Figure 1 This area was chosen primarily for its location on the CSU campus and its proximity to the downtown area Green Hall is a condemned building and is not currently used for anything beyond university storage Some office space has been granted to the branch of the CSUPD dealing with parking violations but this department could easily move back to its old location at Aylesworth Hall Our firm believes that this space would be better used as a home for the performing arts than as the site of a crumbling warehouse We have considered possible disturbances that the construction of the performing arts center on this plot might cause Due to the close proximity of Green Hall to Allison Hall and Parmelee Hall we have decided to begin construction early in the summer after classes have ended Green Hall will be torn down first and construction of the performing arts center will begin immediately This will allow us a good start on the project while students are not living in the nearby residence halls According to the front desk at Braiden Hall which is located near the Morgan Library construction site residents do not have a problem with noise and there have been no complaints of disturbances MASK Engineering believes that this will be the case for the residents in Allison and Parmelee when they return in the fall as the performing arts center is finished Figure 2 1 Map of campus circled area represents site where Green Hall currently stands Cable stayed Technology A cable stayed support system was chosen for the design of the CSU Performing Arts Center One reason for choosing this system was to allow for a more compact facility because the space available on campus was limited Another reason was to give patrons an unobstructed view of events by eliminating the need for columns The original use of cable stayed technology was seen in bridges German engineers established the design of cable stayed bridges in the 1950 s and 1960 s This technology was eventually adapted to buildings using cables to support the roof Each tower is buttressed by two sets of cables transferring the load into the ground Without a roof load to support columns are not needed in the complex and the space can be used in more ways The concept behind cable stayed technology is to have the supporting reactions to the load directed in only vertical directions as opposed to vertical and horizontal It also eliminates any tension and or compression force Figures 3 1 and 3 2 For a building the load of the roof is directed through the cables to the towers and down to the ground The walls do not support the roof as they normally would only the cables are used to hold up the roof An example of a cable stayed building is the Alamodome a multipurpose stadium in San Antonio Texas Figure 3 3 Our model is based on this design Figures 3 1 3 2 Figure 3 3 Main Hall Acoustics Background One of the key characteristics of a concert hall that greatly influences sound quality is its reverberation time the time before the decay of the reflected sound For orchestral or band music the ideal reverberation time is approximately two seconds Any times approaching 1 6 seconds will lead toward a dry dead sound Beranek 1962 The other extreme is a time that is too long This causes the music to lose its clarity an excessive loudness and the blending of incompatible chords Beranek 1962 A hall s reverberation time can be affected by such things as the volume of the room or the number of people in the audience In the construction of the main hall for the CSU Performing Arts Center a balance will be determined that will create a reverberation time of two seconds as independent of audience size as possible Sound quality is also greatly determined by the warmth of the sound Warmth is determined by the fullness of the bass tones If the middle frequencies of a sound have longer reverberation times than the low tones then the sound will become brittle Beranek 1962 1 Materials Table 4 1 gives the absorption coefficients of different frequencies for common surfaces It shows that materials such as heavy curtains or thick carpet absorb are the ideal choice for decreasing the intensity of higher frequencies This leads to the production of a more full warm sound Retractable banners will be built into the ceiling and can be lowered to create this effect Cloth seats will be used as they best assimilate an occupied audience area Beranek 1962 This allows sound within the hall to be independent of audience size The low sound absorbance of plaster also makes it ideal for the creation of the desired reverberation time of two seconds Design considerations The intensity of the direct sound should not be too weak but at the same time it must not become uncomfortably loud This problem will be dealt with by limiting the length of the room and by designing the surfaces above and around the stage to project the sound evenly throughout the concert hall Another problem arises with the seats placed under a balcony To prevent a muddiness within the sound the depth under the balcony should not exceed the height of the opening beneath the balcony as shown in figure 4 1 Beranek 1962 Table 4 1 Absorption coefficients of different frequencies for main hall surfaces Frequency Hz Surface 125 250 500 1000 2000 4000 heavy fabric 0 14 0 36 0 57 0 72 0 70 0 62 heavy carpet on concrete 0 02 0 06 0 16 0 37 0 59 0 64 cloth seats 0 44 0 60 0 76 0 87 0 80 0 70 plaster on brick 0 01 0 01 0 01 0 02 0 04 0 06 Table based on Beranek L 1966 Music Acoustics Architecture John Wiley and Sons Inc New York Figure 4 1 Balcony design Figure based on Beranek L 1966 Music Acoustics Architecture John Wiley and Sons Inc New York Floor Plans The Colorado State University Performing Arts Center consists of three levels The total area of the complex is 56 500 square feet The basement and ground floors consist of 20 500 square feet apiece The second floor has a square footage of 15 500 The basement level of this center Figure 5 1 includes two main dressing rooms with shower facilities as well as four private dressing rooms with individual restrooms for guest performers The mechanical room for the building will be in the basement housing such devices as the heating ventilating and air conditioning equipment as well as the mechanics for the elevator A spacious performers lounge has also been added in to the basement to provide a relaxing environment for the center s performers The building s main floor Figure 5 2 includes the main performance hall as well as a small rehearsal hall The main hall is 5 000 square feet and has a seating capacity of 1 200 A coffee shop and art lounge have been included in this plan for the enjoyment and convenience of the patrons A large classroom is provided for dance classes as well as rehearsals Sufficient office space is included adjacent to the center s box office The top floor of the CSU Performing Arts Center Figure 5 3 includes a walk around balcony overlooking the main lobby as well as a balcony for the main performance hall An elevator is provided for travel between the first and second floors A recording studio is also located on this floor as an added bonus Figure 5 1 Basement level floor plan Figure 5 2 Ground Level Figure 5 3 Second level floor plan Conclusion In conclusion MASK Engineering has carefully planned out the details of the proposed CSU Performing Arts Center This facility will be a benefit to the performing arts programs at CSU the students and faculty of CSU as well as the members of the community It will allow for the improvement of programs in the area and growth of interest in cultural events The site of Green Hall will be accessible to both students and the community and will use the space on campus most efficiently preserving the green areas A cable stayed support system for the roof will allow for a compact facility and an unobstructed view for patrons In order to achieve the best acoustical results in the main performance hall we have designed a rectangular hall made of plaster We have also designed the hall so that the depth under the balcony does not exceed the height of the opening beneath the balcony The total area of the complex will be 56 500 square feet split into three levels The main hall will have a seating capacity of 1 200 The facility contains necessary rooms to accommodate the performers and several rooms to make the visit of the patrons more enjoyable Instructor Comments Introducton The one thing lacking in this introduction is a good brief description of their design The discussion about the benefits etc are not clear to me without first hearing what their solution is They do a good job of discussing the motivation for their project I personally like the introduction to end with a brief description of what the remaining portions of the report contain A little more background and possibly a map would help this discussion DO NOT assume your reader is as familiar with this as you are Figure 2 1 With this figure I m not certain whether or not this is the caption or part of the title of the figure This says Map of Campus circle area represents the site where Green Hall currently stands That mixes what it is A revised caption would read something like Map of CSU Campus Indicating Proposed Site Location The map also borders on plagiarism When you take a figure from someone else s work you put in the caption from and you list the document and that document better be in the references And it s not based on it s from And that s a subtlety you need to learn There s a distinction between something that is from To get permission to use this map the writers would have to get copyright approval from the source If they based it on if they ve redrawn the figure and they ve used this map as a source then they should even at that point say based on or the CSU Map is from such and such source page such and such dated such and such It needs to be a complete reference Another problem is that by looking at this map I can t read a darn thing from it I know that s the Oval And I know the Weber building because I live in it But the scale is so off and the reproduction is so bad that they should have made the decision to either find a better original or not used it at all They should also include an arrow to Green Hall The circle s not quite sufficient The Oval isn t that different from the circle Part of the problem is that the scale is wrong I shouldn t have to look at a figure and guess what writers want me to see It should be blatant In terms of the placement of this figure I have several thoughts The writers put their figures on separate pages within the body of the text That s an acceptable style I have no problem with that It comes after its first reference in the text which is important The inappropriate thing is referring to it in the text as figure 1 and referring it on the paper as figure 2 1 Figures 3 1 and 3 2 These figures are labeled Figures 3 1 and 3 2 Which one s which

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  • Perspectives on Technical Reports
    determine where changes were made etc Report Content Every company has different means of documentation Typically in industry you won t have to provide as much history in a technical report This is because in academia we want you to document your thought processes and project evolution In industry you will concentrate more on the initial problem requirements and solutions Neil Grigg Civil Engineering Multiple Reports for a Project Suppose your engineering task is to build a retaining wall As the main engineer you ve got to consider many aspects the load the height the structural design You ll write a report where you state the goals and how they will be accomplished This includes input parameters the conditions in which you have to work alternatives recommendations Next soil engineers may actually test the soils at the location They would then produce a report about what they found Every project generates multiple reports Report Content Many designs begin with identifying the problem determining the goals and creating a list of alternatives The next part is the evaluation This includes the technical legal economic financial environmental and social evaluations Then you make recommendations based on these evaluations Most reports especially design reports include this information Tom Siller Civil Engineering An Example Technical Report I once helped produce a report about rock fracturing for a whip site In that report we stated the situation how we would analyze the situation because we wanted to be hired as the engineers for the project the analytical tools we would develop and our results based on those analytical tools We did not present a shaft design Overall the report presented our way of understanding the issues that would help design a shaft Your Report s Purpose If your report s purpose is to create an

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  • Key Elements of an Environmental Policy Statement
    Resources Print Friendly Format About this Guide Contributors Citation Environmental Policy Statements Key Elements of an Environmental Policy Statement A policy statement is generally a brief document but it can be far reaching in its ramifications This guide will inform you of the key elements required to make policy statements effective A policy statement should include the following A call to action the policy A justification for the policy Those

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