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  • Important Caveat
    correction Important Caveat Teaching Tips Print Friendly Page Authors Contributors Important Caveat As you can imagine for students with multiple serious errors this approach is time consuming and can feel extremely tedious But our goal is to help writers do this editing on their own not to do it for them and this approach is just about the only way to help them learn to edit the common errors they

    Original URL path: http://writing.colostate.edu/guides/teaching/error/pop2k.cfm (2015-10-15)
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  • Teaching Tips
    plenty to cover in a session Or if you are working with a student who has four sub types of sentence punctuation errors you might be able to cover two but probably not more than that Make sure he understands that working through all the categories could take several weeks Keep checking on what the student understands and can do Ask the student to explain the concept back to you in her own words Ask the student to write a new sentence using the concept correctly Don t just assume that she has understood everything you ve said because she may be pattern matching on the wrong pattern as she edits sentences Although students will often balk at it work hard to get them to explain to you in detail what they re thinking as they re editing after they seem to have the concept under control Only if a student needs more practice after you ve gone through all the examples of a type of error in his paper should you turn to the handouts or textbooks for exercises when you re doing this type of teaching Students are often much more proficient at spotting errors in texts they haven t written and will miss exactly the same problem in their own papers time and again ESL students will be especially frustrated by their non idiomatic use of language You ll get frustrated too because native speakers often can t articulate why our idioms are the way they are Warn especially those students who struggle with article usage and idiomatic phrasing that they may need an editor until they become more experienced at listening and reading so that they can intuit idiomatic levels of language If you have an ESL student who s struggling with articles and tense endings

    Original URL path: http://writing.colostate.edu/guides/teaching/error/pop2l.cfm (2015-10-15)
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  • Print-Friendly Page
    conjunctive adverbs therefore then however etc They aren t interchangeable in formal edited American English but explaining the difference to students is fairly easy One entire sub category of error might disappear with a two minute explanation Similarly perhaps all the subject verb agreement errors occur when the student is trying to avoid he or she as the subject of the sentence By trying to avoid an apparently sexist usage the student keeps shifting from he to they and the verbs don t always reflect a singular or plural subject Giving the student 20 seconds of advice about changing the entire passage to plural forms just use they throughout may fix the problem Two notes If you re working with a native speaker you probably can t use words like conjunctive adverb Instead list the kinds of words that fall into a category Similarly don t talk about first and third person or you ll see the student s eyes glaze over Talk about everyone he as opposed to all the students they to get the point across about first v third person reference and agreement issues If you re working with a non native speaker you can use grammatical terminology if you re comfortable with it but be sure you re using it accurately Don t use formal terminology unless you re absolutely sure you know what the terms mean and don t apologize if you don t want to use it Just explain that it s clearest for both of you if you use specific examples like listing several connecting words of the same category however then therefore rather than relying on more abstract terminology Second level ranking of errors If you spot patterns within the categories note how many different kinds of errors there are within the category You may find as many as five or six sub categories of error within some of the more inclusive larger categories like sentence punctuation errors Note an example that illustrates each of the sub categories you think you want to take up with the student Rank the sub categories in some order most likely how you can use one explanation to build up for a second sub category For example if the writer uses all connecting words in the same way you will probably need to start by explaining the different kinds of connectives in English sentences Then you can build eventually to your explanation of when to use semicolons with certain kinds of connecting words Finally Working with the student Finally you get to move from error pattern analysis per se into teaching strategies for editing Again some simple rules of thumb will get you started with this process but you ll want to shape your entire approach on the student s individual situation Evaluate the student s ability to recognize the most disruptive error Make sure you have an example of the most disruptive error and of the first sub category from which you want to build

    Original URL path: http://writing.colostate.edu/guides/teaching/error/printformat.cfm?printformat=yes (2015-10-15)
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  • Contributors to this Guide
    errors Finally Working with the student Evaluate the student s ability to recognize the most disruptive error Start with basic explanations and move to error correction Important Caveat Teaching Tips Print Friendly Page Authors Contributors Contributors to this Guide The following sources were used in creating this guide Content Development Kate Kiefer HTML Coding Luann Barnes John Robinson Design and ColdFusion Programming Mike Palmquist Additional Sources Shaughnessy M 1977 Errors

    Original URL path: http://writing.colostate.edu/guides/teaching/error/contrib.cfm (2015-10-15)
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  • Types of Qualitative Observational Research
    Bibliography Resources Print Friendly Format About this Guide Contributors Citation Ethnography Observational Research and Narrative Inquiry Types of Qualitative Observational Research Qualitative observational research consists of over 30 different approaches which often overlap and whose distinctions are subtle The type of approach used depends on the research question and or the discipline the researcher belongs to For instance anthropologists commonly employ ethnomethodology and ethnography while sociologists often use symbolic interaction

    Original URL path: http://writing.colostate.edu/guides/page.cfm?pageid=1344&guideid=63 (2015-10-15)
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  • Ethnography
    Format About this Guide Contributors Citation Ethnography Observational Research and Narrative Inquiry Ethnography Ethnography is a long term investigation of a group often a culture that is based on immersion and optimally participation in that group Ethnography provides a detailed exploration of group activity and may include literature about and or by the group It is an approach which employs multiple methodologies to arrive at a theoretically comprehensive understanding of

    Original URL path: http://writing.colostate.edu/guides/page.cfm?pageid=1345&guideid=63 (2015-10-15)
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  • Narrative Inquiry
    Bibliography Resources Print Friendly Format About this Guide Contributors Citation Ethnography Observational Research and Narrative Inquiry Narrative Inquiry Narrative inquiry is the process of gathering information for the purpose of research through storytelling The researcher then writes a narrative of the experience Connelly and Clandinin 1990 note that Humans are storytelling organisms who individually and collectively lead storied lives Thus the study of narrative is the study of the ways humans experience the world In other words people s lives consist of stories Field notes interviews journals letters autobiographies and orally told stories are all methods of narrative inquiry For example a researcher might do a study on the way in which fourth grade girls define their social roles in school A researcher might look at such things as notes and journal entries and might also interview the girls and spend time observing them After this the researcher would then construct her own narrative of the study using such conventions as scene and plot As Connelly and Clandinin also note Research is a collaborative document a mutually constructed story out of the lives of both researcher and participant Narrative inquiry is appropriate to many social science fields The entire field

    Original URL path: http://writing.colostate.edu/guides/page.cfm?pageid=1346&guideid=63 (2015-10-15)
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  • Short Term Observation
    Inquiry Short Term Observation Short term observational studies list or present findings of short term qualitative study based on recorded observation Observation in the studied group s natural setting is a key aspect of qualitative research The terms group and culture are used in a loose sense here because for the researcher a group or culture may include populations such as an individual classroom of students a set of employees in the workplace or residents of similar geographical or cultural areas or backgrounds Short term observational studies differ from ethnographies in that they focus more narrowly on specified categories of group behaviors This type of research functions well as a means of fleshing out quantitative research that would otherwise do little more than list numerical data Types of short term observational research run the spectrum from crossing the boundary into quantitative research to a very nearly ethnographic approach Regardless of the group or culture under study the observer researcher studies a set of individuals in their natural setting as opposed to a clinical setting hence this type of research is known as fieldwork Traditionally the period of observation for a qualitative observational study has been from six months to two

    Original URL path: http://writing.colostate.edu/guides/page.cfm?pageid=1347&guideid=63 (2015-10-15)
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