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  • Ethical Concerns
    trouble free material As readers of experiments members of the press might report selected and isolated parts of a study to the public essentially transferring that data to the general population which may not have been intended by the researcher Take for example oat bran A few years ago the press reported how oat bran reduces high blood pressure by reducing cholesterol But that bit of information was taken out of context The actual study found that when people ate more oat bran they reduced their intake of saturated fats high in cholesterol People started eating oat bran muffins by the ton assuming a causal relationship when in actuality a number of confounding variables might influence the causal link Ultimately ethical use and reportage of experimentation should be addressed by researchers reporters and readers alike Reporters of experimental research often seek to recognize their audience s level of knowledge and try not to mislead readers And readers must rely on the author s skill and integrity to point out errors and limitations The relationship between researcher and reader may not sound like a problem but after spending months or years on a project to produce no significant results it may be tempting to manipulate the data to show significant results in order to jockey for grants and tenure Meanwhile the reader may uncritically accept results that receive validity by being published in a journal However research that lacks credibility often is not published consequentially researchers who fail to publish run the risk of being denied grants promotions jobs and tenure While few researchers are anything but earnest in their attempts to conduct well designed experiments and present the results in good faith rhetorical considerations often dictate a certain minimization of methodological flaws Concerns arise if researchers do not report all

    Original URL path: http://writing.colostate.edu/guides/page.cfm?pageid=1369&guideid=64 (2015-10-15)
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  • Related Links
    and Disadvantages of Experimental Research Quick Reference List Ethical Concerns Related Links Annotated Bibliography Resources Print Friendly Format About this Guide Contributors Citation Experimental and Quasi Experimental Research Related Links Contrasts Traditional and computer supported writing classrooms This Web presents a discussion of the Transitions Study a year long exploration of teachers and students in computer supported and traditional writing classrooms Includes description of study rationale for conducting the study

    Original URL path: http://writing.colostate.edu/guides/page.cfm?pageid=1370&guideid=64 (2015-10-15)
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  • Annotated Bibliography
    and teaching are considered and contrasted with the experimental approach Giordano G 1983 Commentary Is experimental research snowing us Journal of Reading 27 5 7 Do educational research findings actually benefit teachers and students Giordano states his opinion that research may be helpful to teaching but is not essential and often is unnecessary Goldenson D R 1978 March An alternative view about the role of the secondary school in political socialization A field experimental study of theory and research in social education Theory and Research in Social Education 44 72 This study concludes that when political discussion among experimental groups of secondary school students is led by a teacher the degree to which the students views were impacted is proportional to the credibility of the teacher Grossman J and J P Tierney 1993 October The fallibility of comparison groups Evaluation Review 556 71 Grossman and Tierney present evidence to suggest that comparison groups are not the same as nontreatment groups Harnisch D L 1992 Human judgment and the logic of evidence A critical examination of research methods in special education transition literature In D L Harnisch et al Eds Selected readings in transition This chapter describes several common types of research studies in special education transition literature and the threats to their validity Hawisher G E 1989 Research and recommendations for computers and composition In G Hawisher and C Selfe Eds Critical Perspectives on Computers and Composition Instruction pp 44 69 New York Teacher s College Press An overview of research in computers and composition to date Includes a synthesis grid of experimental research Hillocks G Jr 1982 The interaction of instruction teacher comment and revision in teaching the composing process Research in the Teaching of English 16 261 278 Hillock conducted a study using three treatments observational or data collecting activities prior to writing use of revisions or absence of same and either brief or lengthy teacher comments to identify effective methods of teaching composition to seventh and eighth graders Jenkinson J C 1989 Research design in the experimental study of intellectual disability International Journal of Disability Development and Education 69 84 This article catalogues the difficulties of conducting experimental research where the subjects are intellectually disables and suggests alternative research strategies Jones R A 1985 Research Methods in the Social and Behavioral Sciences Sunderland MA Sinauer Associates Inc A textbook designed to provide an overview of research strategies in the social sciences including survey content analysis ethnographic approaches and experimentation The author emphasizes the importance of applying strategies appropriately and in variety Kamil M L Langer J A Shanahan T 1985 Understanding research in reading and writing Newton Massachusetts Allyn and Bacon Examines a wide variety of problems in reading and writing with a broad range of techniques from different perspectives Kennedy J L 1985 An Introduction to the Design and Analysis of Experiments in Behavioral Research Lanham MD University Press of America An introductory textbook of psychological and educational research Keppel G 1991 Design and analysis a researcher s handbook Englewood Cliffs NJ Prentice Hall This updates Keppel s earlier book subtitled a student s handbook Focuses on extensive information about analytical research and gives a basic picture of research in psychology Covers a range of statistical topics Includes a subject and name index as well as a glossary Knowles G Elija R Broadwater K 1996 Spring Summer Teacher research enhancing the preparation of teachers Teaching Education 8 123 31 Researchers looked at one teacher candidate who participated in a class which designed their own research project correlating to a question they would like answered in the teaching world The goal of the study was to see if preservice teachers developed reflective practice by researching appropriate classroom contexts Lace J De Corte E 1986 April 16 20 Research on media in western Europe A myth of sisyphus Paper presented at the annual meeting of the American Educational Research Association San Francisco Identifies main trends in media research in western Europe with emphasis on three successive stages since 1960 tools technology systems technology and reflective technology Latta A 1996 Spring Summer Teacher as researcher selected resources Teaching Education 8 155 60 An annotated bibliography on educational research including milestones of thought practical applications successful outcomes seminal works and immediate practical applications Lauer J M Asher J W 1988 Composition research Empirical designs New York Oxford University Press Approaching experimentation from a humanist s perspective to it authors focus on eight major research designs Case studies ethnographies sampling and surveys quantitative descriptive studies measurement true experiments quasi experiments meta analyses and program evaluations It takes on the challenge of bridging language of social science with that of the humanist Includes name and subject indexes as well as a glossary and a glossary of symbols Mishler E G 1979 Meaning in context Is there any other kind Harvard Educational Review 49 1 19 Contextual importance has been largely ignored by traditional research approaches in social behavioral sciences and in their application to the education field Developmental and social psychologists have increasingly noted the inadequacies of this approach Drawing examples for phenomenology sociolinguistics and ethnomethodology the author proposes alternative approaches for studying meaning in context Mitroff I Bonoma T V 1978 May Psychological assumptions experimentations and real world problems A critique and an alternate approach to evaluation Evaluation Quarterly 235 60 The authors advance the notion of dialectic as a means to clarify and examine the underlying assumptions of experimental research methodology both in highly controlled situations and in social evaluation Muller E W 1985 Application of experimental and quasi experimental research designs to educational software evaluation Educational Technology 25 27 31 Muller proposes a set of guidelines for the use of experimental and quasi experimental methods of research in evaluating educational software By obtaining empirical evidence of student performance it is possible to evaluate if programs are making the desired learning effect Murray S et al 1979 April 8 12 Technical issues as threats to internal validity of experimental and

    Original URL path: http://writing.colostate.edu/guides/page.cfm?pageid=1371&guideid=64 (2015-10-15)
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  • Writing for the Web
    Web This collection of resources is designed to support and help writers who want to design and code Web sites as well as understand how to write effective and interesting content for them Writing for the Web Category Revising Fiction Show Descriptions Writing Guides Editing and Proofreading Strategies Tweet HELP SITE INDEX ABOUT THIS SITE CONTACT Writing CSU is an open access educational Web site supported by Colorado State University

    Original URL path: http://writing.colostate.edu/collections/collection.cfm?collectioncategory_active=61 (2015-10-15)
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  • Writing for the Web
    for the Web This collection of resources is designed to support and help writers who want to design and code Web sites as well as understand how to write effective and interesting content for them Writing for the Web Category Fiction Writing Practice Activities Show Descriptions Tweet HELP SITE INDEX ABOUT THIS SITE CONTACT Writing CSU is an open access educational Web site supported by Colorado State University Content on

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  • Heading
    appears in the complimentary close at the end of the letter It should include only the street city state and zip code of the letter writer Identifying words such as Avenue Circle Court Drive and Street should be spelled out rather than abbreviated Doing so reduces the chances of a response being sent to an incorrect address The state name can be either spelled out or abbreviated in upper case

    Original URL path: http://writing.colostate.edu/guides/page.cfm?pageid=1474&guideid=72 (2015-10-15)
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  • The Salutation
    greeting Its placement belongs two spaces below the inside address and always justified to the left margin of the letter It should include the title and full name of the recipient followed by a colon Customarily the salutation begins with Dear followed by a title such as Mr Ms Mrs however when the writer is on a first name basis with the recipient that formality can be dropped in favor of a first name The titles Mr Ms Mrs and Dr are always abbreviated Other titles such as Professor and Senator are never abbreviated Regardless of marital status women should always be addressed as Ms the only exception being when the recipient has personally expressed a desire to be addressed otherwise Miss or Mrs Avoid gender based salutations when it is not known if the recipient is a man or a woman Dear Student Dear Customer Dear Resident etc are perfectly acceptable options for gender neutral correspondence An impersonal device may be preferable when addressing a letter to a large organization where the recipient s name is not likely to be known For example Attention Accounts Receivable or Subject Billing Error may replace more familiar forms of greeting The salutation

    Original URL path: http://writing.colostate.edu/guides/page.cfm?pageid=1476&guideid=72 (2015-10-15)
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  • The Body
    a business letter two spaces below the salutation or attention getting device Each paragraph should be single spaced and justified to the left margin of the page with a double space separating each paragraph It is acceptable to double space the text of a letter when the body is very short This is done purely for cosmetic reasons giving the letter a more visually balanced appearance on the page In

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