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  • The Complimentary Close
    Salutation The Body The Complimentary Close The Additional Notation Resources Print Friendly Format About this Guide Contributors Citation Business Letters Format The Complimentary Close The complimentary close is placed two spaces below the last line of a letter s body Customary expressions used to close a formal business letter include Thank you Sincerely Sincerely yours and Yours truly Less formal expressions such as Regards Best regards and Best wishes should be used only when the writer is addressing a business associate that is also a friend When the expression contains two words such as Thank you only the first word receives an initial upper case letter A comma follows all forms of a complimentary close Allow four spaces between the complimentary close and the typed version of the writer s full name The space between is reserved for a handwritten signature The writer s job position or title should appear directly below his or her name The writer s signature should be identical to the printed version except in those situations where the recipient is also a friend in which case a first name only is fine Previous Continue Introduction Tweet HELP SITE INDEX ABOUT THIS SITE CONTACT Writing CSU

    Original URL path: http://writing.colostate.edu/guides/page.cfm?pageid=1478&guideid=72 (2015-10-15)
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  • The Additional Notation
    one or more documents that are enclosed by the writer for the recipient the enclosure is noted in one of the following ways Enclosure Wholesale Pricing Packet Enclosures 5 Enc Encs When a letter has been dictated to an assistant it should be initialed Both writer and assistant are acknowledged with their personal initials The writer s will appear in uppercase letters and the assistant s will appear in lowercase

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  • Generalizability
    assumption cautiously recognizing the possibility that the other driver might turn prematurely American drivers also generalize that everyone will drive on the right hand side of the road Yet if we try to generalize this assumption to other settings such as England we will be making a potentially disastrous mistake Thus it is obvious that generalizing is necessary for forming coherent interpretations in many different situations but we do not expect our generalizations to operate the same way in every circumstance With enough evidence we can make predictions about human behavior yet we must simultaneously recognize that our assumptions are based on statistical probability Consider this example of generalizable research in the field of English studies A study on undergraduate instructor evaluations of composition instructors might reveal that there is a strong correlation between the grade students are expecting to earn in a course and whether they give their instructor high marks The study might discover that 95 of students who expect to receive a C or lower in their class give their instructor a rating of average or below Therefore there would be a high probability that future students expecting a C or lower would not give their instructor high marks However the results would not necessarily be conclusive Some students might defy the trend In addition a number of different variables could also influence students evaluations of an instructor including instructor experience class size and relative interest in a particular subject These variables and others would have to be addressed in order for the study to yield potentially valid results However even if virtually all variables were isolated results of the study would not be 100 conclusive At best researchers can make educated predictions of future events or behaviors not guarantee the prediction in every case Thus before generalizing findings must be tested through rigorous experimentation which enables researchers to confirm or reject the premises governing their data set Considerations There are three types of generalizability that interact to produce probabilistic models All of them involve generalizing a treatment or measurement to a population outside of the original study Researchers who wish to generalize their claims should try to apply all three forms to their research or the strength of their claims will be weakened Runkel McGrath 1972 In one type of generalizability researchers determine whether a specific treatment will produce the same results in different circumstances To do this they must decide if an aspect within the original environment a factor beyond the treatment generated the particular result This will establish how flexibly the treatment adapts to new situations Higher adaptability means that the treatment is generalizable to a greater variety of situations For example imagine that a new set of heuristic prewriting questions designed to encourage freshman college students to consider audience more fully works so well that the students write thoroughly developed rhetorical analyses of their target audiences To responsibly generalize that this heuristic is effective a researcher would need to test the same prewriting

    Original URL path: http://writing.colostate.edu/guides/page.cfm?pageid=1373&guideid=65 (2015-10-15)
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  • Transferability
    person in one program However from the level of detail the researchers provide readers can take certain aspects of Nate s experience and apply them to other contexts and situations This is transferability First year graduate students who read the Berkenhotter Huckin and Ackerman study may recognize similarities in their own situation while professors may recognize difficulties their students are having and understand these difficulties a bit better The researchers do not claim that their results apply to other situations Instead they report their findings and make suggestions about possible causes for Nate s difficulties and eventual success Readers then look at their own situation and decide if these causes may or may not be relevant Considerations When designing a study researchers have to consider their goals Do they want to provide limited information about a broad group in order to indicate trends or patterns Or do they want to provide detailed information about one person or small group that might suggest reasons for a particular behavior The method they choose will determine the extent to which their results can be transferred since transferability is more applicable to certain kinds of research methods than others Thick Description When writing up the results of a study it is important that the researcher provide specific information about and a detailed description of her subject s location methods role in the study etc This is commonly referred to as thick description of methods and findings it is important because it allows readers to make an informed judgment about whether they can transfer the findings to their own situation For example if an educator conducts an ethnography of her writing classroom and finds that her students writing improved dramatically after a series of student teacher writing conferences she must describe in detail the classroom setting the students she observed and her own participation If the researcher does not provide enough detail it will be difficult for readers to try the same strategy in their own classrooms If the researcher fails to mention that she conducted this research in a small upper class private school readers may transfer the results to a large inner city public school expecting a similar outcome The Reader s Role The role of readers in transferability is to apply the methods or results of a study to their own situation In doing so readers must take into account differences between the situation outlined by the researcher and their own If readers of the Berkenhotter Huckin and Ackerman study are aware that the research was conducted in a small upper class private school but decide to test the method in a large inner city public school they must make adjustments for the different setting and be prepared for different results Likewise readers may decide that the results of a study are not transferable to their own situation For example if a study found that watching more than 30 hours of television a week resulted in a worse GPA for graduate students

    Original URL path: http://writing.colostate.edu/guides/page.cfm?pageid=1374&guideid=65 (2015-10-15)
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  • Generalizability and Transferability: Synthesis
    Citation Generalizability and Transferability Generalizability and Transferability Synthesis Generalizability allows us to form coherent interpretations in any situation and to act purposefully and effectively in daily life Transferability gives us the opportunity to sort through given methods and conclusions to decide what to apply to our own circumstances In essence then both generalizability and transferability allow us to make comparisons between situations For example we can generalize that most people in the United States will drive on the right side of the road but we cannot transfer this conclusion to England or Australia without finding ourselves in a treacherous situation It is important therefore to always consider context when generalizing or transferring results Whether a study emphasizes transferability or generalizability is closely related to the goals of the researcher and the needs of the audience Studies done for a magazine such as Time or a daily newspaper tend towards generalizability since the publishers want to provide information relevant to a large portion of the population A research project pointed toward a small group of specialists studying a similar problem may emphasize transferability since specialists in the field have the ability to transfer aspects of the study results to their own

    Original URL path: http://writing.colostate.edu/guides/page.cfm?pageid=1375&guideid=65 (2015-10-15)
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  • A Comparison of Generalizability and Transferability
    Ethnography Applications of Transferability and Generalizability Experimental Research Applications of Transferability and Generalizability Survey The Qualitative versus Quantitative Debate Annotated Bibliography Resources Print Friendly Format About this Guide Contributors Citation Generalizability and Transferability A Comparison of Generalizability and Transferability Although generalizability has been a preferred method of research for quite some time transferability is relatively a new idea In theory however it has always accompanied research issues It is important to note that generalizability and transferability are not necessarily mutually exclusive they can overlap From an experimental study to a case study readers transfer the methods results and ideas from the research to their own context Therefore a generalizable study can also be transferable For example a researcher may generalize the results of a survey of 350 people in a university to the university population as a whole readers of the results may apply or transfer the results to their own situation They will ask themselves basically if they fall into the majority or not However a transferable study is not always generalizable For example in case studies transferability allows readers the option of applying results to outside contexts whereas generalizability is basically impossible because one person or a small

    Original URL path: http://writing.colostate.edu/guides/page.cfm?pageid=1376&guideid=65 (2015-10-15)
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  • Controversy, Worth, and Function
    methods of natural science research to their own needs they adopted this preference for empirical research Therefore studies that are generalizable have long been thought to be more worthwhile the value of research was often determined by whether a study was generalizable to a population as a whole However more and more social scientists are realizing the value of using a variety of methods of inquiry and the value of transferability is being recognized It is important to recognize that generalizability and transferability do not alone determine a study s worth They perform different functions in research depending on the topic and goals of the researcher Where generalizable studies often indicate phenomena that apply to broad categories such as gender or age transferability can provide some of the how and why behind these results However there are weaknesses that must be considered Researchers can study a small group that is representative of a larger group and claim that it is likely that their results are applicable to the larger group but it is impossible for them to test every single person in the larger group Their conclusions therefore are only valid in relation to their own studies Another problem is that a non representative group can lead to a faulty generalization For example a study of composition students revision capabilities which compared students progress made during a semester in a computer classroom with progress exhibited by students in a traditional classroom might show that computers do aid students in the overall composing process However if it were discovered later that an unusually high number of students in the traditional classrooms suffered from substance abuse problems outside of the classroom the population studied would not be considered representative of the student population as a whole Therefore it would be problematic to

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  • Applications to Research Methods
    of Transferability and Generalizability Survey The Qualitative versus Quantitative Debate Annotated Bibliography Resources Print Friendly Format About this Guide Contributors Citation Generalizability and Transferability Applications to Research Methods The degree to which generalizability and transferability are applicable differs from methodology to methodology as well as from study to study Researchers need to be aware of these degrees so that results are not undermined by over generalizations and readers need to

    Original URL path: http://writing.colostate.edu/guides/page.cfm?pageid=1378&guideid=65 (2015-10-15)
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