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  • Types of Responses
    to craft an actual response it is likely that he she will find him herself combining elements of more than one response type or even using elements of all three techniques Even so it is beneficial in the beginning to have writers separate the techniques and learn the fundamentals of each one Any type or combination of responses should be supported by details examples facts and evidence This support can

    Original URL path: http://writing.colostate.edu/guides/teaching/summaryresponse/response.cfm (2015-10-15)
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  • Agree/Disagree Response
    how and why he she responded to the text as he she did Also in crafting a response writers don t have to focus on one or the other They might find that they disagree with some of the author s points but agree with others In that case their response will be a combination of agreeing and disagreeing Whether they agree or disagree or some combination of both the

    Original URL path: http://writing.colostate.edu/guides/teaching/summaryresponse/agree.cfm (2015-10-15)
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  • Interpretive/Reflective Response
    Interpretive Reflective Response In this type of response writers focus on a key passage or idea from the text explaining and or exploring it further They also might reflect on their own experiences attitudes or observations in relation to the ideas of the text The writer might use their response to consider how the author s ideas might be interpreted by other readers how the ideas might be applied or

    Original URL path: http://writing.colostate.edu/guides/teaching/summaryresponse/interpret.cfm (2015-10-15)
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  • Analytic Response
    ideas the argument the organization and focus the evidence and the style For example how clear is the main idea What sort of evidence is used to support the author s thesis and is it effective Is the argument organized and logical How are elements such as the author s style tone and voice working This type of response looks at the essay in terms of the effectiveness of specific

    Original URL path: http://writing.colostate.edu/guides/teaching/summaryresponse/analytic.cfm (2015-10-15)
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  • Print-Friendly Page
    of ideas One reason to use this sort of summary would be if the writer intended to respond to the author s arguement using an agree disagree response model In such a case there may be some of the author s ideas that the writer agrees with but others with which the writer disagrees In his essay Dropping the Sat which is posted on the Affirmative Action and Diversity Project s Website George Will considers the proposal by some that schools stop using student s SAT scores when choosing which students to admit Mr Will explains that at most prominent schools in America the SAT is a key factor in determining college admissions Will argues that the SAT is an important tool in predicting the ability of prospective students to perform in college and therefore should continue to be a factor in college admissions As part of his argument Mr Will discusses the origins of the SAT considers the SAT s effect on campus diversity challenges the validity of some of the common arguments against using the SAT test and explains why he believes the SAT to be a necessary tool in determining college admissions Mr Will concludes that the SAT is still necessary because we need some generally accepted means of making millions of annual assessments roughly predictive of ability to perform well in particular colleges 2 Outline Summary This type of summary mimics the structure of the text being summarized It includes the main points and argument in the same order they appear in the original text This is an especially effective technique to use when the accompanying response will be analytic such as an evaluation of the logic or evidence used in a text In his essay Dropping the Sat which is posted on the Affirmative Action and Diversity Project s Website George Will argues for the continued use of the SAT in determining college admissions He mentions Richard Atkinson president of the University of California as a specific example of those who want to stop using SAT scores in their admissions process Part of Atkinson s reasoning is that without the SAT his school would be better able to create a more racially and ethnically diverse campus However George Will argues something must perform the predictive function assigned to the SAT 1 George Will goes on to discuss that the SAT was created in order to make an education at a prestigious school available not just to those who could afford it but also to those with sufficient intellectual merit However he states b y purporting to measure intellectual merit the SAT served equality of opportunity but the result was opportunity from which not all racial and ethnic groups benefited equally 1 Mr Will says that while some of the original goals of the SAT have been accomplished it is not yet time to abandon its use He challenges the validity of some of the most common arguments against the SAT He suggests that there is

    Original URL path: http://writing.colostate.edu/guides/teaching/summaryresponse/printformat.cfm?printformat=yes (2015-10-15)
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  • Nuts and Bolts of the Process
    researchers begin the process by crafting a research question and then designing a research plan to answer that question They may work through a specific research design protocol as Yin suggests for Case Study Research or they may start by drafting interview or survey questions descriptions of study populations or multiple method plans At some point graduate students start drafting a methodology chapter or pages for their theses or projects The greatest advantage of working on an IRB review is that the thought processes required by the research protocol here captured electronically through e protocol give researchers a new way to approach the research question so integral to the process overall In effect thinking about the research process by means of a research question and design a methodology chapter and an IRB review can improve the design the chapter and the review The complementarity of these elements will result in a stronger more productive research process You can begin the IRB review process either by drafting the methodology section of your thesis or project or by completing an eProtocol application Your advisor will need to be the Principal Investigator on your project and you will be listed as the Co Principal Investigator You or your advisor can go to eProtocol and begin working through the questions These detailed questions will help you organize the details of your data collection so plan to work back and forth between the eProtocol and your methodology draft When completed your advisor must be the one to submit the eProtocol In addition to the eProtocol application you ll need to prepare for the IRB all the materials you ll use for data collection recruitment texts interview survey or questionnaire questions consent forms Again work back and forth between data collection materials and your methods chapter

    Original URL path: http://writing.colostate.edu/guides/page.cfm?pageid=1424&guideid=69 (2015-10-15)
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  • Types of Review
    protocol in detail raising any questions or concerns about any of the documents The committee may require revisions large and small before final approval In rare instances the researcher may be invited to meet with the committee At CSU the IRB meets only once a month The typical deadline for submitting copies of all materials is 5 p m on the second Thursday of the month RICRO sends materials to committee members who meet the following week to approve protocols or request revisions before approval Reports are emailed to PIs within 10 working days following the meeting Meeting dates are posted on the IRB Webpage http web research colostate edu ricro hrc dates aspx Expedited Review For those projects that involve no more than minimal risk to subjects and that involve the specific procedures noted below expedited review by two IRB members is an option The researcher submitting the protocol requests an expedited review and an IRB administrator determines whether expedited review is appropriate Thus researchers should submit thorough applications for this initial judgment Protocols requesting expedited review can be submitted at any time Responses from RICRO are sent to PIs within 15 working days If the IRB administrator asks for full review the researcher will be informed of the new review date Alternatively meeting with an IRB administrator to talk about the protocol will usually result in a determination about whether expedited review is probable Especially for graduate students on a tight deadline this conversation can help students to understand what materials to submit and when saving time in the long run even if a full review is required Only limited data collection methods qualify for expedited review and many of these relate to clinical studies and physiological samples not summarized here Those methods pertinent to studies in rhetoric

    Original URL path: http://writing.colostate.edu/guides/page.cfm?pageid=1425&guideid=69 (2015-10-15)
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  • Informed Consent
    it appears on the consent form will be the same as the project title approved on the e protocol The title should indicate the focus of your project though you may well discover after completing your data analysis that you want to change the title of your thesis or project report That s no problem so long as all the work relating to data collection uses the title of the approved research protocol Purpose Students sometimes worry that if they disclose too clearly the purpose of the research they will initiate the Hawthorne effect so that subjects report data to confirm researchers goals Remember however that little research is conducted to substantiate a foregone conclusion Rather most research investigates so researchers can certainly explain in brief what the focus of the research is and why it matters Jared Tomlin in 2004 noted this purpose for his research Information collected in this study may help teachers to develop more effective writing heuristics provide necessary resources to facilitate student writing and improve our understanding of the complexity of the writing process The general description of the purpose would not help even the most suggestible subjects know just what responses would make the researcher happy What will I be asked to do In this section lay out clearly but briefly what you expect participants to do Again Jared Tomlin s project gives a good example of a crisp description of procedures Study participants will complete surveys about their writing processes at the beginning middle and end of the semester each taking approximately 10 minutes to complete The students selected for case studies will participate in three one hour writing sessions some involving protocol analysis where they will be videotaped and asked to speak aloud while writing as well as three one hour audiotaped interviews throughout the semester Minimal risk means that the probability and magnitude of harm or discomfort anticipated in the research are not greater than those ordinarily encountered in daily life Most of our research projects involve no risk but in some studies breach of confidentiality can pose minimal risk to participants Be sure to evaluate risk factors carefully and to be clear about what you will do to protect subjects from even minimal risk If your project involves more than minimal risk then you need to be explicit about how you will safeguard participants and how the benefits to them balance such risks Benefits might not accrue to the participants of the project itself rather benefits from the study might apply to a larger group of people at a later time In many projects in English studies the benefits show up for students in other classes as teaching methods get refined over time In other projects data collected in one site is transferred to help writers in another site Be realistic about immediate benefits to your subjects you might learn more about your own writing process as well as larger benefits to other groups Confidentiality Because we characterize writers and

    Original URL path: http://writing.colostate.edu/guides/page.cfm?pageid=1426&guideid=69 (2015-10-15)
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