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  • Guide: Executive Summaries
    of the content of a longer report T he executive summary is usually no longer than 10 of the original document It can be anywhere from 1 10 pages long depending on the report s length Executive summaries are written literally for an executive who most likely DOES NOT have the time to read the original Executive summaries make a recommendation Accuracy is essential because decisions will be made based

    Original URL path: http://writing.colostate.edu/guides/guide.cfm?guideid=76 (2015-10-15)
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  • Guide: Experimental and Quasi-Experimental Research
    the left you see two buttons on the wall to the right You press the top button and it lights up A soft tone sounds and the two halves of the wall slide apart to reveal a small room You step into the room Looking to the left then to the right you see a panel of more buttons You know that you seek a room marked with the numbers 1 0 1 2 so you press the button marked 10 The halves slide shut and enclose you within the cubicle which jolts upward Soon the soft tone sounds again The door opens again On the far wall a sign silently proclaims 10th floor You have engaged in a series of experiments A ride in an elevator may not seem like an experiment but it and each step taken towards its ultimate outcome are common examples of a search for a causal relationship which is what experimentation is all about You started with the hypothesis that this is in fact an elevator You proved that you were correct You then hypothesized that the button to summon the elevator was on the left which was incorrect so then you hypothesized it

    Original URL path: http://writing.colostate.edu/guides/guide.cfm?guideid=64 (2015-10-15)
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  • Fiction
    a their writing skills in fiction writing Here writers will find video commentary on writing from experts in the genre of fiction and video clips of experienced writers reading their work as well as annotated examples online templates and step by step guides Revising Fiction Fiction Writing Practice Activities Fiction Writers on Writing Videos Fiction Writers Read Their Work Videos Tweet HELP SITE INDEX ABOUT THIS SITE CONTACT Writing CSU

    Original URL path: http://writing.colostate.edu/collections/collection.cfm?id=2 (2015-10-15)
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  • Fiction Writers Read Their Work
    at Colorado State University visiting the English Department Web site Stephanie Stickney Thursday February 17 2005 at Hatton Gallery Introduction by Leslee Becker 51 minutes Juliette J Guilmette Thursday February 17 2005 at Hatton Gallery Introduction by Steven Schwartz 30 minutes Judea Franck Thursday February 17 2005 at Hatton Gallery Introduction by Judy Doenges 40 minutes Kent Haruf Friday November 5 2004 at the Writers Harvest Introduction by Judy Doenges

    Original URL path: http://writing.colostate.edu/collections/fiction/readings.cfm (2015-10-15)
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  • Guide: Business Letters: Format
    stationery they are generally formatted in a full block style with each part of the letter justified to the left margin Letters not on company letterhead stationery are written in a modified block style with the heading date and complimentary close left justified to the center line and the inside address salutation and body justified to the left margin When a business letter requires more than one page the secondary

    Original URL path: http://writing.colostate.edu/guides/guide.cfm?guideid=72 (2015-10-15)
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  • Guide: Generalizability and Transferability
    throughout the research process Generalizability Overview Generalizability is applied by researchers in an academic setting It can be defined as the extension of research findings and conclusions from a study conducted on a sample population to the population at large While the dependability of this extension is not absolute it is statistically probable Because sound generalizability requires data on large populations quantitative research experimental for instance provides the best foundation for producing broad generalizability The larger the sample population the more one can generalize the results For example a comprehensive study of the role computers play in the writing process might reveal that it is statistically probable that students who do most of their composing on a computer will move chunks of text around more than students who do not compose on a computer Transferability Overview Transferability is applied by the readers of research Although generalizability usually applies only to certain types of quantitative methods transferability can apply in varying degrees to most types of research Unlike generalizability transferability does not involve broad claims but invites readers of research to make connections between elements of a study and their own experience For instance teachers at the high school level might selectively apply to their own classrooms results from a study demonstrating that heuristic writing exercises help students at the college level Interrelationships Generalizability and transferability are important elements of any research methodology but they are not mutually exclusive generalizability to varying degrees rests on the transferability of research findings It is important for researchers to understand the implications of these twin aspects of research before designing a study Researchers who intend to make a generalizable claim must carefully examine the variables involved in the study Among these are the sample of the population used and the mechanisms behind formulating a

    Original URL path: http://writing.colostate.edu/guides/guide.cfm?guideid=65 (2015-10-15)
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  • Generating Ideas
    Writing Center Sign In or Create an Account Home Writing Collections Generating Ideas Generating Ideas A collection of resources that can help writers generate ideas to write about Generating Ideas Tweet HELP SITE INDEX ABOUT THIS SITE CONTACT Writing CSU is an open access educational Web site supported by Colorado State University Content on this site is Copyright 1993 2015 Colorado State University and or this site s authors developers

    Original URL path: http://writing.colostate.edu/collections/collection.cfm?id=41 (2015-10-15)
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  • Guide: Glossary of Key Terms
    emerge from observing a group Theories are grounded in the group s observable experiences but researchers add their own insight into why those experiences exist Holistic perspective Taking almost every action or communication of the whole phenomenon of a certain community or culture into account in research Hypertext A nonsequential text composed of links and nodes Hypothesis A tentative explanation based on theory to predict a causal relationship between variables Independent Variable A variable that is part of the situation that exist from which originates the stimulus given to a dependent variable Includes treatment state of variable such as age size weight etc Inductive A form of reasoning in which a generalized conclusion is formulated from particular instances Inductive analysis A form of analysis based on inductive reasoning a researcher using inductive analysis starts with answers but forms questions throughout the research process Internal Consistency The extent to which all questions or items assess the same characteristic skill or quality Internal Validity 1 The rigor with which the study was conducted e g the study s design the care taken to conduct measurements and decisions concerning what was and wasn t measured and 2 the extent to which the designers of a study have taken into account alternative explanations for any causal relationships they explore Huitt 1998 In studies that do not explore causal relationships only the first of these definitions should be considered when assessing internal validity See also validity Interrater Reliability The extent to which two or more individuals agree It addresses the consistency of the implementation of a rating system Interval Variable A variable in which both order of data points and distance between data points can be determined e g percentage scores and distances Interviews A research tool in which a researcher asks questions of participants interviews are often audio or video taped for later transcription and analysis Irrelevant Information One must decide what to do with the information in the text that is not coded One s options include either deleting or skipping over unwanted material or viewing all information as relevant and important and using it to reexamine reassess and perhaps even alter the one s coding scheme Kinesics Kinesic analysis examines what is communicated through body movement Level of Analysis Chosen by determining which word set of words or phrases will constitute a concept According to Carley 100 500 concepts is generally sufficient when coding for a specific topic but this number of course varies on a case by case basis Level of Generalization A researcher must decide whether concepts are to be coded exactly as they appear or if they can be recorded in some altered or collapsed form Using Horton as an example again she could code profanity individually and code damn and dammit as two separate concepts Or by generalizing their meaning i e they both express the same idea she could group them together as one item i e damn words Level of Implication One must determine whether to code simply for explicit appearances of concepts or for implied concepts as well For example consider a hypothetical piece of text about skiing written by an expert The expert might refer several times to as well as various other kinds of turns One must decide whether to code as an entity in and of itself or if coding for turn references in general to code as implicitly meaning turn Thus by determining that the meaning turn is implicit in the words anytime the words or turn appear in the text they will be coded under the same category of turn Link In hypertext a pointer from one node to another Matched T Test A statistical test used to compare two sets of scores for the same subject A matched pairs T test can be used to determine if the scores of the same participants in a study differ under different conditions For instance this sort of t test could be used to determine if people write better essays after taking a writing class than they did before taking the writing class Matching Process of corresponding variables in experimental groups equally feature for feature Mean The average score within a distribution Mean Deviation A measure of variation that indicates the average deviation of scores in a distribution from the mean It is determined by averaging the absolute values of the deviations Median The center score in a distribution Mental Models A group or network of interrelated concepts that reflect conscious or subconscious perceptions of reality These internal mental networks of meaning are constructed as people draw inferences and gather information about the world Mode The most frequent score in a distribution Multi Modal Methods A research approach that employs a variety of methods see also triangulation Narrative Inquiry A qualitative research approach based on a researcher s narrative account of the investigation not to be confused with a narrative examined by the researcher as data Naturalistic Inquiry Observational research of a group in its natural setting Node In hypertext each unit of information connected by links Nominal Variable A variable determined by categories which cannot be ordered e g gender and color Normal distribution A normal frequency distribution representing the probability that a majority of randomly selected members of a population will fall within the middle of the distribution Represented by the bell curve Ordinal Variable A variable in which the order of data points can be determined but not the distance between data points e g letter grades Parameter A coefficient or value for the population that corresponds to a particular statistic from a sample and is often inferred from the sample Phenomenology A qualitative research approach concerned with understanding certain group behaviors from that group s point of view Population The target group under investigation as in all students enrolled in first year composition courses taught in traditional classrooms The population is the entire set under consideration Samples are drawn from populations Precision In survey research the tightness of

    Original URL path: http://writing.colostate.edu/guides/guide.cfm?guideid=90 (2015-10-15)
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