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  • Academic Arguments
    from the literary text in question a biology argument will include data from field or laboratory research Before beginning your argument ask your instructor what academic conventions you will be expected to follow Though many elements will remain the same the norms for stating a claim or position organizing the argument s evidence structuring and styling its presentation and citing its sources will differ from one discipline to the next and from context to context Common to all academic arguments however are the following The claim must be arguable A disagreement or a number of legitimate points of view must exist regarding the claim If everyone in the audience is in agreement there really isn t anything to argue over The argument must be rational An argument must be based in fact not emotion The claim must be meticulously considered the evidence thoroughly researched and carefully selected the audience correctly assessed The logic must be cohesive A claim must be argued linearly step by step with appropriate transitions revealing the logic that ties one point to the next If a minor point doesn t add to the main point it doesn t belong Credit must be given where credit is

    Original URL path: http://writing.colostate.edu/guides/page.cfm?pageid=1081&guideid=53 (2015-10-15)
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  • Rogerian Method
    more than one viewpoint may be valid you may want to try drafting an argument that is oriented more toward mediation Unlike adversarial arguments which typically begin with a firm claim an argument that mediates will postpone stating a position until much later in the presentation often the middle or the end There are a number of ways to do this one of the best being based on the work of psychologist Carl Rogers A Rogerian argument presumes that if author and audience find common ground regarding an issue or problem they will be more likely to find or agree upon a common solution It succeeds only when the author understands the audience He or she must present the audience s perspective clearly accurately and fairly before asking them to consider an alternative position or solution This method downplays emotional appeals in favor of the rational and is particularly useful in dealing with emotionally charged highly divisive issues and allows for people of good will on different sides of an issue to find or agree upon solutions together Parts of a Rogerian Argument The introduction typically points out how both the author and the audience are similarly affected Rather than presenting a thesis demanding agreement which is often seen as an attack on whomever holds an opposing view this presentation emphasizes unity putting the audience first The audience perspective comes next Described as clearly and accurately as possible typically in neutral language the author acknowledges their point of view and the circumstances and contexts in which their perspective or position is valid Done well the author builds good will and credibility with the audience a crucial step leading toward potential compromise Honest heartfelt sincerity is the key here if the audience perceives an attempt at manipulation the Rogerian argument strategy

    Original URL path: http://writing.colostate.edu/guides/page.cfm?pageid=1197&guideid=56 (2015-10-15)
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  • Deductive Method
    About this Guide Contributors Citation Drafting an Argument Deductive Method The traditional academic argument is deductive placing the author s position in the introduction and devoting the rest of the argument to presenting the evidence Unless you are in a field where inductive reasoning is the norm you can hardly go wrong with this method In some cases all the evidence may be directed at proving the main point in

    Original URL path: http://writing.colostate.edu/guides/page.cfm?pageid=1198&guideid=56 (2015-10-15)
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  • When All Evidence Relates...
    an Audience Partially Disagrees When an Audience is Completely Unfamiliar When Original Research Forms the Basis Tying it All Together Toulmin Method Using Subheadings and Transitions Using Topic Sentences or Explanatory Paragraphs Example of When Methods are Combined Reviewing and Revising Your Connections Resources Print Friendly Format About this Guide Contributors Citation Drafting an Argument When All Evidence Relates When all evidence relates directly to your main point or thesis and each piece of evidence is equally relevant a typical arrangement simply introduces the position and presents each piece Transitions connect each to the thesis Depending on their strengths and weaknesses the order in which each piece of evidence is presented as well as the rebuttals of opposing arguments can differ greatly More often than not even when all evidence is directly relevant some pieces may be more convincing less open to question or interpretation than others In these cases arguments are typically arranged as follows Introduction establishing the context of the argument as well as the author s position Body of Evidence presented depending on the audience analysis from most to least or least to most convincing Conclusion summarizing the argument presenting a call to action or suggesting further

    Original URL path: http://writing.colostate.edu/guides/page.cfm?pageid=1199&guideid=56 (2015-10-15)
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  • When Seemingly Unrelated Sub-Points...
    Drafting an Argument When Seemingly Unrelated Sub Points When seemingly unrelated sub points need to be made and proven in order to prove the main point the author must show how the particular premises of each along with its supporting evidence connect collectively and logically to support the main position An argument supporting a ban on logging in rain forests might first need to establish and provide evidence regarding five other environmental premises each supporting the author s position regarding the effects of logging For instance It causes soil erosion It affects global warming It destroys native species It alters water routes and levels It destroys indigenous lifestyles Each premise is a debatable issue in and of itself Therefore some measure of the supportive evidence behind each at least enough to connect them as reasonably evidentiary links must be given before they can be used to collectively support the author s main position In these cases arguments are typically arranged as follows Introduction establishing the context of the argument as well as the author s position Brief Preview outlining each premise or reason to be used as evidence supporting the claim Body of Evidence presented depending on audience analysis in

    Original URL path: http://writing.colostate.edu/guides/page.cfm?pageid=1200&guideid=56 (2015-10-15)
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  • When Opposing Arguments...
    Audience is Completely Unfamiliar When Original Research Forms the Basis Tying it All Together Toulmin Method Using Subheadings and Transitions Using Topic Sentences or Explanatory Paragraphs Example of When Methods are Combined Reviewing and Revising Your Connections Resources Print Friendly Format About this Guide Contributors Citation Drafting an Argument When Opposing Arguments When opposing arguments or points of view must be addressed there are a variety of ways to argue against or refute them They can be place almost anywhere in the text however the strength and power of the opposing arguments and how familiar your audience is with them should be your main considerations Here are a couple of options When opposing arguments are less persuasive or at best equal to rebuttals are best saved till last where the opposing argument will appear less credible in light of your own Introduction Your argument and evidence Rebuttal of opposition claims Conclusion When opposing arguments are particularly strong and readily accepted discrediting them point by point may be the best strategy for convincing an audience to consider alternative points or support a different position Introduction Rebut first opposing argument followed by first counter argument Rebut next opposing arguments followed by further

    Original URL path: http://writing.colostate.edu/guides/page.cfm?pageid=1201&guideid=56 (2015-10-15)
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  • Inductive Method
    Forms the Basis Tying it All Together Toulmin Method Using Subheadings and Transitions Using Topic Sentences or Explanatory Paragraphs Example of When Methods are Combined Reviewing and Revising Your Connections Resources Print Friendly Format About this Guide Contributors Citation Drafting an Argument Inductive Method Inductive arguments are more difficult for an audience to follow thus they are less commonly found in the academic world than deductive arguments Typically they begin with the author introducing an issue without proposing a solution or stating a position Instead various takes and opposing positions are introduced and argued for and against all of which then leads up to the author stating his or her position The goal of an inductive strategy is to present all the evidence and information in a manner such that when the author s position is finally stated the audience has been moved or persuaded to agree that it is the one and only logical conclusion Inductive arguments can be organized in a variety of ways depending either on your assessment of what position the audience already holds or on whether you are arguing a position from original research It may be completely inductive saving your position for the end

    Original URL path: http://writing.colostate.edu/guides/page.cfm?pageid=1202&guideid=56 (2015-10-15)
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  • When an Audience Completely Disagrees...
    Points When Opposing Arguments Inductive Method When an Audience Completely Disagrees When an Audience Partially Disagrees When an Audience is Completely Unfamiliar When Original Research Forms the Basis Tying it All Together Toulmin Method Using Subheadings and Transitions Using Topic Sentences or Explanatory Paragraphs Example of When Methods are Combined Reviewing and Revising Your Connections Resources Print Friendly Format About this Guide Contributors Citation Drafting an Argument When an Audience Completely Disagrees When an audience completely disagrees with your position convincing them that their reasons for disagreeing are faulty before presenting your own position may be the best strategy Introduction States the issue to be addressed and why it is important Body of Argument Examines positions already proposed and refutes each one showing why they are inadequate Typically organized like this Position 1 Your refutation of position 1 Position 2 Your refutation of position 2 Alternatively all positions might be examined first and then refuted second Position 1 Position 2 Your refutation of position 1 Your refutation of position 2 Conclusion Position Statement Once all other positions are shown to be inadequate conclude with your position as the only logical choice Previous Continue Introduction Tweet HELP SITE INDEX ABOUT THIS

    Original URL path: http://writing.colostate.edu/guides/page.cfm?pageid=1203&guideid=56 (2015-10-15)
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