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  • Establish Common Ground
    Academic Evidence Refuting Opposing Positions Using a Counter Example Outlining an Opposing Position Appealing to the Audience The Conclusion Reflecting Your Introduction Summarizing Key Points Logical Synthesis Evaluating the Solution Call to Action Emotional and Ethical Appeals Citations Resources Print Friendly Format About this Guide Contributors Citation Parts of an Argument Establish Common Ground What does everyone already know about the issue One of the best ways to attract the

    Original URL path: http://writing.colostate.edu/guides/page.cfm?pageid=1113&guideid=54 (2015-10-15)
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  • Clarify or Define a Problem
    Refuting Opposing Positions Using a Counter Example Outlining an Opposing Position Appealing to the Audience The Conclusion Reflecting Your Introduction Summarizing Key Points Logical Synthesis Evaluating the Solution Call to Action Emotional and Ethical Appeals Citations Resources Print Friendly Format About this Guide Contributors Citation Parts of an Argument Clarify or Define a Problem This is a strategy often found in the social sciences psychology sociology etc business and the

    Original URL path: http://writing.colostate.edu/guides/page.cfm?pageid=1117&guideid=54 (2015-10-15)
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  • The Argument/Presentation of Evidence
    Field Specific Academic Evidence Refuting Opposing Positions Using a Counter Example Outlining an Opposing Position Appealing to the Audience The Conclusion Reflecting Your Introduction Summarizing Key Points Logical Synthesis Evaluating the Solution Call to Action Emotional and Ethical Appeals Citations Resources Print Friendly Format About this Guide Contributors Citation Parts of an Argument The Argument Presentation of Evidence The bulk of an argument is given over to supplying and presenting

    Original URL path: http://writing.colostate.edu/guides/page.cfm?pageid=1121&guideid=54 (2015-10-15)
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  • Acceptable Academic Evidence
    Position Appealing to the Audience The Conclusion Reflecting Your Introduction Summarizing Key Points Logical Synthesis Evaluating the Solution Call to Action Emotional and Ethical Appeals Citations Resources Print Friendly Format About this Guide Contributors Citation Parts of an Argument Acceptable Academic Evidence Acceptable academic evidence depends a great deal on to whom it is going to be presented the field in which they work and the focus and goals of the position being argued To be convincing it must be founded on fact well reasoned logical and stand up against opposing arguments Included will be a mix of facts research findings quotes experience and the work of other people Logical and textual evidence is generally considered to be more authoritative stronger and more convincing than anecdotal evidence or emotional appeals For it to be academically acceptable the evidence must meet certain criteria Evidence Must Come from a Reputable Source Just because someone has written on a topic or issue doesn t mean your audience considers them an authority Authority is judged by how much experience a source has the viability of their research methods and their prior reputation Evidence Must Emerge from Acceptable Research Methods If you are using any form of quantitative or qualitative research look closely at the methods A survey of 5 people is hardly persuasive A survey of 100 may be acceptable in a sociology class but not authoritative to an audience of scientists Evidence must be Replicable If you use an original study replicating the same conditions and methods should produce the same results Using the same sources the same information should be found Personal experience and observation are hard to replicate however The onus to be ethical and honest is on the author Evidence Must be Authoritative and Factual What counts as factual varies

    Original URL path: http://writing.colostate.edu/guides/page.cfm?pageid=1122&guideid=54 (2015-10-15)
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  • Acceptable Field-Specific Academic Evidence
    and sociology where knowing the reaction or feelings of many individuals regarding a specific issue is relevant They are less acceptable in the biological and physical sciences Observational Research is acceptable in many fields Descriptive studies of human behavior are especially authoritative in education anthropology communication psychology sociology and many other social sciences They are less relevant when the object of study is more textual as in history or literature Case Studies are acceptable in the majority of fields as long as accepted methodologies are followed Case studies are especially prevalent in the health and human behavior fields human behavior education and business Academic Journals and other reputable publications including bona fide research studies are acceptable sources in all academic fields The key is the status of the publication Popular magazines for instance generally have a lower status than journals excepting in fields like political science journalism and sociology where societal issues are often addressed Popular Magazines are acceptable as evidence in fields where public opinion or current events are especially relevant such as political science or journalism Even here however information is expected to be analyzed from an academic perspective unless only facts and events are being cited Tabloids are seldom acceptable Note Depending on your topic The New York Times might be acceptable Biographical Information is generally not the best form of evidence unless you are actually writing a biographical or an historical paper In other words it s only acceptable if it s relevant In most cases what a person actually said did or discovered will be more useful and relevant Quotes or Summaries of work from established authorities those with reputations in their fields of study are more authoritative than that of work from those with little to no experience or publication record on which to judge their expertise Beliefs defined as opinions or truths based on intuition faith or other intangibles that can t be backed Back or empirically verified are generally not acceptable in an academic argument Exceptions may be made depending on relevancy for quoting a religious or theological authority Opinions are acceptable only when they have been substantiated through prior examination Quoting an expert or recognized authority in other words after they have already made a convincing argument can be considered evidentiary An unsubstantiated opinion from anyone expert or otherwise is not acceptable Statistics are accepted in every academic discipline especially those that rely heavily on quantitative research like science and engineering That said many of the social sciences like anthropology psychology and business management combine both quantitative and qualitative research making statistics just as applicable and acceptable in those fields as well Personal Experience was not considered acceptable in an academic argument until recently Gaining ground since the 1980 s it is particularly considered credible and acceptable in the humanities and liberal arts More so in other words than in business social sciences or any of the harder sciences but that too is changing Check with your professor and read your

    Original URL path: http://writing.colostate.edu/guides/page.cfm?pageid=1123&guideid=54 (2015-10-15)
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  • Refuting Opposing Positions
    Opposing Positions Refuting opposing positions is an important part of building an argument Not only is it important it is expected Addressing the arguments of those who disagree is a way of identifying the opposition and exposing the primary weakness s in their argument Doing so helps establish the contextual parameters or boundaries in which your argument will be contained It s best to start with a summary Summarizing the opposing positions demonstrates that you are being fair to the other side It also allows you to set the table for the claims you are going to be laying out Here are a few general guidelines for composing a summary Provide only a sentence or two describing the focus of the opposing argument Focus only on the details that will be important to what you are going to present Avoid slanting the summary It provides grounds for discounting your position For example George Will s editorial in Newsweek states that the reason Johnny Can t Write is the misguided nature of English teachers who focus more on issues of multiculturalism political correctness new theories of reading such as deconstruction and so on than on the hard and fast rules for

    Original URL path: http://writing.colostate.edu/guides/page.cfm?pageid=1124&guideid=54 (2015-10-15)
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  • Using a Counter-Example
    Opposing Position Appealing to the Audience The Conclusion Reflecting Your Introduction Summarizing Key Points Logical Synthesis Evaluating the Solution Call to Action Emotional and Ethical Appeals Citations Resources Print Friendly Format About this Guide Contributors Citation Parts of an Argument Using a Counter Example Using a counter example or an instance that flies in the face of the opposition s claim is one way of refuting an opposing argument If it can be shown that their research is inadequate it can be shown that their position is faulty or at least inconclusive Casting a shadow of doubt over the opposing argument provides strong evidence that your argument has merit Be sure to use real instances of how your opponent s position doesn t account for the counter example For example As Henry Johnson a vice president of student services at the University of Michigan explained To discuss sexual assault is to send a message to your potential student cohort that it is an unsafe campus and therefore institutions tend to play that down Warshaw 1994 When deciding which university to attend prospective students do compare statistics regarding the ratio of males to females student to faculty and yes the incidence of crime Therefore it is no surprise that more than 60 colleges rejected requests to conduct surveys concerning sexual assault at their schools even though anonymity was guaranteed Warshaw 1994 The writer sets up the opponents view that information about sexual assault on campus damages universities reputations Universities fear negative publicity but at Bates College a rally of 300 angry college students outside the president s house demanding to know why the college hadn t informed them of a recent series of sexual assaults on campus did get publicized This resulted in further negative publicity because it came out that

    Original URL path: http://writing.colostate.edu/guides/page.cfm?pageid=1125&guideid=54 (2015-10-15)
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  • Outlining an Opposing Position
    Outlining an opposing position as with a summary not only refutes or rebuts an argument it s also a way in which to introduce your position Explicitly addressing those who disagree provides an opportunity for demonstrating why the opposition is wrong why a new position is better where an argument falls short and quite often the need for further discussion For example Although there is obviously a strong case for introducing multicultural topics in the English classroom not all would agree with the argument I ve put forth here One of the most vocal critics of my position is George Will For example Will s editorial in Newsweek states that the reason Johnny Can t Write is the misguided nature of English teachers who focus more on issues of multiculturalism political correctness and new theories of reading such as deconstruction than on the hard and fast rules of paragraph development grammar and sentence structure Summary A concise yet fair summary of Will s main argument Yet as I have shown here multicultural methods clearly do not interfere with teaching writing Refutation 1 Disproves Will s position by referring to research already cited Further Will demonstrates a certain bit of nostalgia

    Original URL path: http://writing.colostate.edu/guides/page.cfm?pageid=1126&guideid=54 (2015-10-15)
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