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  • Organizing
    on how a topic will be developed A well organized presentation maximizes the likelihood that your reader will easily comprehend the scope of your writing task the more likely it is that these groups will develop into distinct sections of your finished document Once your notes are organized you are ready to construct an outline the scaffolding upon which you hang the beginning middle and ending of your writing project

    Original URL path: http://writing.colostate.edu/guides/page.cfm?pageid=1453&guideid=70 (2015-10-15)
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  • Outlining
    in their levels of formality Sample 2 falls midway between a low level and a high level of formality and might be used for a summary report Regardless of its complexity an outline describes the decisions you have already thought out and places the content you intend to include in your document in a sequential order A well built one serves as a guideline when developing your rough draft and a point of reference when reviewing and revising your writing It will help keep you on track Sample 1 Simple List A simple list is an informal ordering of the main points a writer intends to include in a written document Like a grocery list its purpose is largely as a reminder and can be made of words phrases or complete sentences In the sample below Ms Ida Mae Knott the purchasing agent for Better Widget Makers Inc has outlined the main points she intends to include in an inquiry letter to the Vice President of Sales and Marketing at the Golden Bread Company She has made a simple list of phrases and notes to help guide her letter writing task Ms Ida Mae Knott s Inquiry Letter Outline 1 Contact Person Mr Russ Hamilton VP Sales Marketing Get address 2 New cafeteria almost complete Need food vendors 3 Bakery goods to be outsourced Need wholesale contract soon 4 Dangle carrot buying locally is company policy 5 Building pro forma Supply internal logistics Ask for help 6 List of info needed Price sheets Cost breaks Annual discounts Other 7 Mention deadline Not all lists are as simple as Ms Ida Mae s An outline for a short summary of an annual stockholder s report might include whole paragraphs as in Sample 2 with more details regarding which important points from

    Original URL path: http://writing.colostate.edu/guides/page.cfm?pageid=1454&guideid=70 (2015-10-15)
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  • Drafting
    research and organize their ideas and information before beginning a draft Once these preparations are well in hand it is time to start a rough draft of a writing project This task is not without its difficulties but neither is it as hard as you might think Remember that you are already prepared that you already have an outline All you are going to do now is enlarge it fill it in with details from your research notes Keep a few things in mind A rough draft is not a finished document No one but you ever has to see it Don t worry about polishing what you write Just write Don t worry about beginnings middles and endings Just write Start where you are most comfortable and most knowledgeable Don t worry about spelling grammar and punctuation Don t worry about fragments run on sentences or transitions A rough draft is supposed to be rough If it is not you have gotten ahead of yourself in the writing process Focus on the ideas you want to present Get them down on paper as straightforward as possible Consult your outline as you work You might consider sharing your work with others early on in the drafting process Collaborative input from business associates can be very helpful in evaluating how well your objective is being met Collaboration at this stage also acts as a safety net Two sets of eyes will analyze content and spot mistakes quicker than one This can be a real time saver and in business time is money And finally don t get discouraged if writing a rough draft turns out to be rough going Even experienced business writers encounter obstacles at this stage of the process It is often called writer s block and there are

    Original URL path: http://writing.colostate.edu/guides/page.cfm?pageid=1455&guideid=70 (2015-10-15)
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  • Reviewing and Revising
    Distancing yourself like this will do you a world of good it will clear your head When you return to your draft you will be able to review and revise it with a sharper more objective and critical eye first as its reader and then as its writer Adopting the reader s point of view will allow you to assess whether or not the writer s objective was met Being both reader and writer places you in a unique position to analyze what you have written After all you are the only reader who knows what the writer was thinking and what the intended scope of the document is and what message it is supposed to convey This is a distinct advantage Be painstakingly honest with yourself and fussy too Remember whether by a large or a small degree once you have reviewed and revised your draft you and your writing are going public Critiquing your own writing can be a daunting challenge but with practice and a good set of guidelines this step of the writing process does become easier A handful of key questions encompass the main points that review and revision should cover By approaching the process

    Original URL path: http://writing.colostate.edu/guides/page.cfm?pageid=1456&guideid=70 (2015-10-15)
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  • Review and Revision Checklist
    of where you begin be meticulous Have your outline handy and refer to it as you work Is your document complete If not what is missing Does it begin with an appropriate opening or introduction Does it end with a logical conclusion It is not unusual for these items to be left out until the body of the document has been drafted Does the content of your document read with a sense of unity and coherence If not why Are the transitions between paragraphs weak Is the point of view consistent Unity and coherence will be evident when each sentence in a paragraph advances the main point stated in the topic sentence and each paragraph advances the main topic of the document and each of these units is clearly related to the one before it and the one following Do the most important points in your document stand out from the lesser ones If not how can they be repositioned The proper emphasis and subordination of ideas can be achieved through changing their placement within a sentence paragraph or document Are the ideas in your document clearly stated If not what obstructs their clarity Is your word choice appropriate throughout the document Have new or unfamiliar terms been properly defined or explained Are there any phrases that obscure the clarity of your ideas Is your document presented in an appropriate style If not how can it be corrected Is your voice active or passive Is your writing positive or negative Is the pace appropriate Style is concerned with readability the manner in which a document is written rather than its substance Good writing style helps the reader comprehend the substance of your document Does your document sound awkward If so how can its content be better articulated Is your tone

    Original URL path: http://writing.colostate.edu/guides/page.cfm?pageid=1457&guideid=70 (2015-10-15)
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  • Overview
    an event or situation as possible This type of comprehensive understanding is arrived at through a process known as thick description which involves an in depth description of the entity being evaluated the circumstances under which it is used the characteristics of the people involved in it and the nature of the community in which it is located Thick description also involves interpreting the meaning of demographic and descriptive data such as cultural norms and mores community values ingrained attitudes and motives Unlike quantitative methods of research like the survey which focus on the questions of who what where how much and how many and archival analysis which often situates the participant in some form of historical context case studies are the preferred strategy when how or why questions are asked Likewise they are the preferred method when the researcher has little control over the events and when there is a contemporary focus within a real life context In addition unlike more specifically directed experiments case studies require a problem that seeks a holistic understanding of the event or situation in question using inductive logic reasoning from specific to more general terms In scholarly circles case studies are frequently discussed within the context of qualitative research and naturalistic inquiry Case studies are often referred to interchangeably with ethnography field study and participant observation The underlying philosophical assumptions in the case are similar to these types of qualitative research because each takes place in a natural setting such as a classroom neighborhood or private home and strives for a more holistic interpretation of the event or situation under study Unlike more statistically based studies which search for quantifiable data the goal of a case study is to offer new variables and questions for further research F H Giddings a sociologist in

    Original URL path: http://writing.colostate.edu/guides/page.cfm?pageid=1286&guideid=60 (2015-10-15)
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  • History
    the clinical methods of doctors the casework technique being developed by social workers the methods of historians and anthropologists plus the qualitative descriptions provided by quantitative researchers like LePlay and in the case of Robert Park the techniques of newspaper reporters and novelists Park was an ex newspaper reporter and editor who became very influential in developing sociological case studies at the University of Chicago in the 1920s As a newspaper professional he coined the term scientific or depth reporting the description of local events in a way that pointed to major social trends Park viewed the sociologist as merely a more accurate responsible and scientific reporter Park stressed the variety and value of human experience He believed that sociology sought to arrive at natural but fluid laws and generalizations in regard to human nature and society These laws weren t static laws of the kind sought by many positivists and natural law theorists but rather they were laws of becoming with a constant possibility of change Park encouraged students to get out of the library to quit looking at papers and books and to view the constant experiment of human experience He writes Go and sit in the lounges of the luxury hotels and on the doorsteps of the flophouses sit on the Gold Coast settees and on the slum shakedowns sit in the Orchestra Hall and in the Star and Garter Burlesque In short gentlemen sic go get the seats of your pants dirty in real research But over the years case studies have drawn their share of criticism In fact the method had its detractors from the start In the 1920s the debate between pro qualitative and pro quantitative became quite heated Case studies when compared to statistics were considered by many to be unscientific From the

    Original URL path: http://writing.colostate.edu/guides/page.cfm?pageid=1287&guideid=60 (2015-10-15)
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  • Types of Case Studies
    Case Studies Types of Case Studies Under the more generalized category of case study exist several subdivisions each of which is custom selected for use depending upon the goals and or objectives of the investigator These types of case study include the following Illustrative Case Studies These are primarily descriptive studies They typically utilize one or two instances of an event to show what a situation is like Illustrative case studies serve primarily to make the unfamiliar familiar and to give readers a common language about the topic in question Exploratory or pilot Case Studies These are condensed case studies performed before implementing a large scale investigation Their basic function is to help identify questions and select types of measurement prior to the main investigation The primary pitfall of this type of study is that initial findings may seem convincing enough to be released prematurely as conclusions Cumulative Case Studies These serve to aggregate information from several sites collected at different times The idea behind these studies is the collection of past studies will allow for greater generalization without additional cost or time being expended on new possibly repetitive studies Critical Instance Case Studies These examine one or more sites

    Original URL path: http://writing.colostate.edu/guides/page.cfm?pageid=1290&guideid=60 (2015-10-15)
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