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  • Arriving at a Possible Thesis for an Essay Requiring Research
    Thesis Developing a Working Thesis Arriving at a Possible Thesis for an Essay Requiring Research Arriving at a Possible Thesis for an Essay Requiring You to Take a Position Working With Topics in Different Disciplines Resources Print Friendly Format About this Guide Contributors Citation Choosing and Refining Topics Arriving at a Possible Thesis for an Essay Requiring Research A In The St Martin s Handbook Third Edition italics Andrea Lunsford and Robert Connors suggest a process for moving from a topic to a research hypothesis by way of examining the issue at hand and framing this issue as a research question The following is an example of how I might move from topic to hypothesis if my narrowed topic is rising property taxes in small towns in the Rocky Mountain region Topic Rising property taxes in small towns in the Rocky Mountain region Issue The effects of these rising taxes on long time residents and landowners in the small towns Research Question What are the effects of rising property taxes on long time residents and landowners in small towns in the Rocky Mountain region Hypothesis Because these taxes are increasingly difficult to pay small town natives find themselves unable to

    Original URL path: http://writing.colostate.edu/guides/page.cfm?pageid=429&guideid=20 (2015-10-15)
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  • Arriving at a Possible Thesis for an Essay Requiring You to Take a Position
    Choosing and Refining Topics Arriving at a Possible Thesis for an Essay Requiring You to Take a Position O ne of the greatest challenges in written argument is determining what it is that you would like to and are able to say about your topic Narrowing from Topic to Thesis in Argument Before you begin drafting an argument paper you need to decide tentatively at least what it is that you will be arguing about the topic you have chosen The following prompts should help you focus your argument from a topic to a position on that topic What is your topic e g Rising property taxes in small towns in the Rocky Mountain region What are three controversies associated with this topic e g Rising property taxes make the town affordable only to the wealthy This changes the flavor the flavor of the town It forces long time land owners to sell their land What are three questions people might ask about these controversies e g Are these rising property taxes which are the results of development in small towns in the Rocky Mountain region forcing long time land owners out of their home towns Are rising taxes and land values changing the whole cultural and economic foundation of the towns Given the effects of rising property taxes on impoverished land owners in small towns is development in this area a good idea Decide which of these questions you are most interesting in exploring e g Given the effects of rising property taxes on impoverished land owners in small towns is development in this area a good idea Now list several ways people might respond if you asked them your question e g No because impoverished land owners are unable to maintain the new standard of living Yes because

    Original URL path: http://writing.colostate.edu/guides/page.cfm?pageid=430&guideid=20 (2015-10-15)
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  • Working With Topics in Different Disciplines
    Topic Is Too Narrow General Strategies for Narrowing Topics Research Considerations Moving from Topic to Thesis Developing a Working Thesis Arriving at a Possible Thesis for an Essay Requiring Research Arriving at a Possible Thesis for an Essay Requiring You to Take a Position Working With Topics in Different Disciplines Resources Print Friendly Format About this Guide Contributors Citation Choosing and Refining Topics Working With Topics in Different Disciplines Don Zimmerman Journalism and Technical Communication Professor Writers understanding of topics and their fields of study allow them to focus on a specific topic Following a good problem solving process or scientific method can help you select a topic Whereas on the job topics emerge from day to day activities When working you don t need to look for topics to write about Your respective field job responsibilities allow you to find the problems The ways that topics are approached and the types of topics that are discussed vary from discipline to discipline It is important to investigate the types of topics that are discussed and the ways that they are discussed in your own discipline As a writer it is necessary to determine what topics are talked about and why

    Original URL path: http://writing.colostate.edu/guides/page.cfm?pageid=431&guideid=20 (2015-10-15)
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  • Document Format
    page numbers every page should include a running head The running head is the title of the paper or a shortened version of the title On the title page the words Running Head should appear in the left hand corner followed by the title or shortened title in all capital letters The page number should appear in the right hand corner Subsequent pages should repeat this format minus the Running Head portion Abstract An abstract is a summary of the paper It is appropriate to include the results and your conclusions in the abstract Succinctly explain the type of research done and the conclusions reached Be sure to use key words and important information in the abstract remembering to be accurate and coherent without giving an evaluation The abstract should be objective telling readers what was done but without opinion Meaning do not imply that the research is groundbreaking or the conclusions unexpected or surprising Most abstracts have word limits usually between 150 and 250 words A good abstract takes practice and revision much like a good title Writing and Grammar Tips Good writing should be clear concise and free of biased language Read your writing with this in mind Do not use vague words or phrases avoid euphemisms and irrelevant evaluation and keep your audience in mind For guidelines on reducing bias and writing clearly refer to chapter three in the sixth edition of the APA Publication Manual APA style allows for the use of personal pronouns such as I or we if there are coauthors when discussing actions and research that you have conducted There is no need to speak in the third person the researchers when you are conducting the research Use the active voice avoiding the passive voice unless specifically directed to do so by your instructor When referring to actions that occurred as a specific time in the past use the past tense If referring to an action that is still occurring into the present or that did not occur at a specific time use the present perfect i e have conducted When writing numbers use numerals for numbers 10 and above and write numbers out below 10 Parallel construction is a way to structure your sentences and it can enhance your writing as well as your readers understanding of the ideas in your paper To create parallelism use a pair of coordinating conjunctions between and both and neither nor either or not only but also placing the first conjunction immediately before the first clause or phrase making up the parallel structure The forward moved downfield while dribbling the ball and looking for defenders The phrases in italics create the parallelism because they are both constructed using the participle of a verb While and is the pair of coordinating conjunctions Neither the cat in the tree nor the fireman in the street knew what to do Part of the key to creating parallelism is to use the same words or to structure the parallel elements

    Original URL path: http://writing.colostate.edu/guides/page.cfm?pageid=367&guideid=8 (2015-10-15)
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  • Levels of Headings
    APA The section headings Methods Results Discussion etc would be the highest or the first level and then depending on how many levels of subheadings there are progress downward to the next level Heading Level Format 1 Centered Boldface Uppercase and Lowercase Heading 2 Flush left Boldface Uppercase and Lowercase Heading 3 Indented boldface lowercase paragraph heading ending with a period 4 Indented boldface italicized lowercase paragraph heading ending with

    Original URL path: http://writing.colostate.edu/guides/page.cfm?pageid=104&guideid=8 (2015-10-15)
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  • In-Text Citation Format
    it emphasizes authors and dates of publication because authors and dates of research are important benchmarks denoting relevancy and validity in both the social and the natural sciences Format APA uses an in text author date citation system The in text citation directs readers to the References list at the end of the paper where every source that is cited in text is listed alphabetically If a source is not cited in text it should not appear in the References list However there are two types of sources that are cited in text but not listed in the References list classical works and personal communications Some general rules for APA in text citations are If someone s ideas research or theories have influenced your thinking or work you should cite them in your writing Cite facts or figures that are not common knowledge Always give the author s last name and the publication date Place a comma between the author s name and the year of publication Fisher 2012 If the author s name is given in the sentence where the citation appears only the publication date needs to be given in parentheses If the author s name is not

    Original URL path: http://writing.colostate.edu/guides/page.cfm?pageid=370&guideid=8 (2015-10-15)
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  • References Format
    an eight page assignment The page itself should be formatted with the title of the page References centered one inch from the top of the page Double space between the title and the first entry then double space all entries Individual entries should be formatted in the following way The first line of an entry is flush with the left margin When the entry has a second line give that line a hanging indent five spaces in from the margin Entries are listed alphabetically by author last name first Use only one space after periods and colons Spell out the names of months This guide includes only the most common formatting rules If what you are looking for is not included here please click on Additional Resources for more information When formatting online electronic sources becomes confusing clarify expectations with your instructor Abbreviations Below is a list of accepted abbreviations for the References list to use in entries Abbreviation Book or publication part ed edition Rev ed Revised edition 2nd ed second edition Ed Eds Editor Editors Trans Translator s n d no date p pp page pages Vol Volume as in Vol 4 Vols Volumes as in Vols 1 4 No Number Pt Part Tech Rep Technical Report Suppl Supplement Order of References The basic rule to alphabetize seems simple but questions and complications inevitably arise Below are some rules for the order of Reference entries Nothing precedes something Gold is listed before Gold ing Villavicencio is listed before Villa Zorro Muros is listed before Muros de Allende Several works by the same author If it is a one author entry arrange them by year of publication with the earliest date first Peterkin J 1927 Black April Indianapolis Bobbs Merrill 48 Peterkin J 1928 Scarlet sister Mary Indianapolis Bobbs

    Original URL path: http://writing.colostate.edu/guides/page.cfm?pageid=366&guideid=8 (2015-10-15)
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  • Sample Documents
    Electronic Online References Other Sources Additional Resources Related Resources APA Abstract and First Page APA Title Page APA References Resources Print Friendly Format About this Guide Contributors Citation Citation Guide American Psychological Association APA Sample Documents A sample title page abstract and first page and References list are located in the Related Resources in the menu to the right To return to the guide after viewing the samples select the

    Original URL path: http://writing.colostate.edu/guides/page.cfm?pageid=376&guideid=8 (2015-10-15)
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