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  • Displaying Data
    explanatory Tables have several basic components the table number table title table body cells column heads stub head stub column and table notes Table Number X Table Title Stub Head Column Head Column Head x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x Table Note Use this space for general notes on a table The column to the farthest left in a table is the stub column The stub column lists the major independent or predictor variables A cell is the point of intersection between a row and a column represented in the example table by an x The rows of cells which contain data comprise the table body Table 1 Temperature Ranges and Averages for Narnia January through June Month Low Temperature High Temperature Average January 2 34 16 February 4 26 14 March 12 41 28 April 19 52 43 May 34 68 54 June 47 75 61 Totals 19 6 49 3 36 Note All temperatures are in degrees Fahrenheit Additional table elements are the column spanner table spanner decked heads or different types of table notes A column spanner is a heading that identifies more than one column vs a column heading which can only identify one column A table spanner is a heading that covers the entire table body Decked heads are stacked headings done to avoid word repetition In Table 2 the column spanner and the column headings are decked allowing the column headings to use less words and have less space in between the columns than in Table 1 The column headings Low and High are better than Low Temperature and High Temperature as in Table 1 It is better to have briefly worded column headings Try not to have more than two levels of decked heads Table X Table Title Column spanner Column spanner Stub head Column head Column head Column head Column head Table spanner x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x Table Note Use this space for general notes on a table a Specific notes are denoted with a b c in superscript A specific note explains something about a cell or piece of data and should go below any general table notes Probability notes p value are denoted with a symbol below any specific notes Table 2 Temperature Ranges and Averages for Narnia January Through June Years One and Two Temperature range Month Low High Average Year one January 2 34 16 February 4 26 14 March 12 41 28 April 19 52 43 May 34 68 54 June 47 75 61 Totals 19 6 49 3 36 Year two January 2 4 3 a February 3 25 10 March 8 41 18 April 18 52 33 May 29 68 48 June 45 72 57 Totals 17 5 47 3 29 6 Note All temperatures are in degrees Fahrenheit a The White Witch is believed

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  • In-Text Citations
    growing trend of practitioner research In text link them with the word and and parenthetically link the author s names with an ampersand Work with Three or More Authors If a source has three to five authors they should all be cited the first time and subsequent times only the first author should be listed followed by et al Latin for and others Goswami Lewis Rutherford and Waff 2009 review accepted practices for teacher research Goswami et al 2009 go on to explain how teacher research can benefit students Three to five authors should be cited this way even when all the information is cited parenthetically The authors assert that while there is no blueprint there are in fact shared characteristics held in common by teacher research Goswami Lewis Rutherford Waff 2009 p 1 They also explain that the challenge becomes choosing among different methodologies Goswami et al 2009 p 2 For six or more authors use only the last name of the first author followed by et al both the first and subsequent times Include the date of publication every time For greater detail about how and when to use et al see the sixth edition of the APA Publication Manual section 6 12 Work with Corporate or Group Author If the author of a work is a group use the group name The first time the group name is used spell out the entire name If there is an easily recognizable abbreviation then that abbreviation can be used in subsequent citations The study was published by the National Council for Teachers of English 2012 It discusses the importance of using discussion to further students thinking about literature NCTE 2012 p 4 Two or More Works Within the Same Parenthetical Reference If you are citing more than one work within the same set of parentheses then list them alphabetically in the same order in which they appear in the References list and separate them using a semi colon Several studies demonstrate this idea Cochran Smith Lytle 2009 Goswami et al 2009 Huerta 2009 If you have two or more works by the same author then list them parenthetically by publication year List the author s name once and then list the publication dates of each work Research on informational text Duke 1998 2000 2003a 2003b 2004 dates back to the late 1990 s and continues today If there are multiple works with the same publication date differentiate them with suffixes a b c after the year Use the suffixes as they are assigned in the References list Suffixes are assigned alphabetically according to the title of the work Personal Communications A personal communication is any source that is not archived and therefore is not recoverable Private letters lectures emails memos telephone conversations and personal conversations or personal interviews are all considered personal communications They are not archived and recoverable by others Because of this personal communications are not listed in the References list at the end of a paper

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  • References- Print Books
    Collection Author B B Year Title of chapter or entry In A Editor B Editor Eds Title of book pp xxx xxx Location Publisher Turgenev I 1950 The district doctor In C Neider Ed Great short stories of the masters pp 468 477 New York Cooper Square Press Book Author with Editor Editor C C Ed Year Title of work Location Publisher Ragan K Ed 1998 Fearless girls wise women beloved sisters New York W W Norton In an edited book where you are only using a chapter written by a specific author see the section Author in an Anthology Keep the publisher name brief but do not abbreviate or shorten names Omit extra words such as Publishers Company Co or Inc but include Books or Press Book Multiple Authors Author D D Author E E Author F F Year Title of work Location Publisher Sebranek P Meyer V Kemper D 1992 Writers INC A guide to writing thinking learning Burlington WI Write Source Educational Publishing House List up to seven author s names For more than seven authors list the first six authors insert three ellipsis points and add the last author For two or more authors use an ampersand before the last author For a group author i e Department of Education spell out the entire name Book Unidentified Author Title of work Year Location Publisher Sir Gawain and the Green Night 1975 New York NY Ballantine Books Alphabetize by the first significant word in the title If the work is actually signed Anonymous begin the reference with the word Anonymous and alphabetize in the References Reference Books Editor G G Ed Year Title Location Publisher McKean E et al Eds 2004 Oxford American Writer s Thesaurus Oxford Oxford University Press For reference works with a long list

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  • References- Print Periodicals
    of a journal begins on page 1 include the issue number in parentheses after the volume number In the examples below xx s represent numbers either volume numbers or issue numbers Article Abstract Author A A year Title of article Abstract Title of Journal xx pp pp Mortimer J A Pirozzolo F J 1985 Remote effects of head trauma Abstract Alzheimer s disease Abstracts of the psychological and behavioral literature 201 Article in a Scholarly Journal Author A A Author B B Author C C year Title of article Title of J ournal xx pp pp Raloff J 2008 Nurturing our microbes Science News 173 138 140 Author E E year Title of article Title of Periodical xx x pp pp Buecher R 2011 Queering notions of the others A conversation with Dr Mollie Blackburn about inclusive teaching practices Statement 47 2 3 21 23 If the journal begins each issue with page 1 give the issue number in parentheses after the volume number Article in a Magazine Author D D year month season Title of article Title of Magazine xx x pp pp Wood G 2011 April The Fortunate ones The Atlantic 307 3 72 80 If the magazine begins each issue with page 1 give the issue number in parentheses after the volume number Article in a Newspaper Author F F year month day Title of article Title of Newspaper pp pp Myers S L 2012 April 6 Emirates detains pair from U S backed group New York Times p A10 Precede page numbers for newspaper articles with p or pp Editorial without a Signature Editorial Title of editorial Editorial year month day Title of Newspaper or Journal xx pp pp Editorial Banks always win Editorial 2012 April 6 The New York Times p A20 Provide the appropriate

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  • References- Print Other
    similar to that for books If obtained from the U S Government Printing Office then the location is Washington DC and the Publisher is the Government Printing Office For Author list the issuing agency i e Department of Education Legal Publications Legal publications have their own unique format depending on the type and source of the document They should be treated the same way as reference entries with no author alphabetize them by the first significant word in the entry For more information refer to Appendix 7 1 of the sixth edition of the APA Publication Manual Below are some of the more common types of legal documents that are often cited Court Decisions Name v Name Volume Source Page Court Location and Date Meyer v State of Nebraska 262 U S 390 S Ct 625 1923 Statues Name of Act Volume Source section number year Farm Credit Act 42 U S C A sec 410 1959 Legislative Materials enacted Federal bills and resolutions xx Res xxx xxx Cong Volume Source page year enacted S Res 223 103d Cong 2nd Sess 140 Cong Rec 6871 1993 enacted Administrative and Executive Materials Exec Order No xxxx 3 C F R Page year Exec Order No 12149 3 C F R 420 22 1979 Review Reviewer D D year month day Title of review Review of the book article etc Title of book article etc by A A Author Title of complete work xx xxx xxx Rose T 1998 February 24 Blues sisters Review of the book Blues legacies and black feminism Gertrude Ma Rainey Bessie Smith and Billie Holliday by A Y Davis Village Voice 8 139 141 Depending on where the review is published the format will vary Use brackets after the title to describe the type of review Technical

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  • References- Electronic/Online
    a doctoral dissertation or a master s thesis E Books Author H H date Title of book e reader version if applicable Retrieved from http www xxx xxx xxx Author I I date Title of book e reader version if applicable doi xxx xxx xxx Gallagher K 2009 Readicide Kindle Fire version Retrieved from Amazon com Include a DOI if assigned or the retrieval information Non routine information should always be placed after the title and in brackets instead of parentheses i e if the document is a pamphlet or brochure For texts that are available only online substitue the retrieval statement for publisher information If the author and the publisher are the same the word Author should be used as the name of the publisher Email Email like personal letters and conversations are considered personal communications and do not need to be listed as entries in the References list They do need to be cited in text in the body of your paper To see how to do this visit the In Text Citation section Email Mailing List Author J date Re Title of message Electronic mailing list message Retrieved from http xxx xxx Dargon S 2012 May 11 Re Newsletter Electronic mailing list message Retrieved from https docs google com viewer a v pid gmail attid 0 1 thid 1373df3c2d12b5d4 mt application msw ord url https mail google com mail ui 3D2 26ik 3D43101f6eee 26view 3Datt 26th 3D1373df3c2d12b 5d4 26attid 3D0 1 26disp 3Dsafe 26zw sig AHIEtbQikDcv9fzy 3XrRlaDpmSk52XTQQ pli 1 Facebook First and Last Name date Facebook post or feed update url description of content Retrieved from url John Williams 2011 December 15 Don t I look like a Christmas Card Hallmark special print ad https www facebook com photo php fbid 10151105905370145 set a 129304765144 206915 790160144 type 1 facebook wall post Retrieved from https www facebook com kingjohnwilliams Do not invert the name List and alphabetize as it appears on Facebook If the post is long truncate it by only reprinting the first few words in the Title position After the title list the specific url that will link to that post followed by a description of content At the end include the Retrieved from url to link to the Author s Facebook page Forum and Discussion Boards Author K date Re Title of comment or post description of text Retrieved from http xxx xxx Hyde L 2004 June 11 Re Congress an affront to our democracy message posted to Newsgroup soc politics alt history future forum Retrieved from http groups google com groups dq hl en lr ie UTF 8 threadm f925918f 0406110232 1d59a039 40posting google com prev groups 3 Fhl 3Den 26lr 3D 26ie 3 DUTF 8 26group 3Dsoc politics Podcast Author L Producer date Title of podcast Audio podcast Retrieved from http xxx xxx Allison J Gediman D Gregory J Merrick V Producers 2009 April 26 Saying thanks to my ghosts by Amy Tan Audio podcast Retrieved from http www npr org templates

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  • References- Other Sources
    www pewhispanic org category datasets Italicize data set titles but not software programs or languages Unless there is an individual with proprietary rights to the software the reference should be displayed as an un authored work Identify the version number in parentheses immediately after the title unless there isn t one After the title version number put the description of form in brackets i e Computer program Data set In the publisher position give the location and name of the organization that produced the work Or if it can be downloaded or ordered online provide that information instead in the same position The legal reference format should be used for an apparatus patent For more information particularly on measurements and apparatus see the sixth edition of the APA Publication Manual section 7 08 Film or Video Recording How the film motion picture or video recording is listed in the references depends on whether it is a film motion picture or a video recording Producer H H Producer Director I I Director year Title of film motion picture Motion picture Country of Origin Studio Burk B Chernov J Orci R Kurtzman A Executive Producers Abrams J J Director 2009 Start trek Motion Picture USA Paramount Pictures Video Producer J J Producer year Title of video Video or DVD Available from http xxx xxx American Psychological Association Producer 2012 May Culturally responsive cognitive behavioral therapy in practice DVD Available from http www apa org pubs videos 4310900 aspx Aspell P Executive Producer 1995 March 15 Nova Television Broadcast Boston WGBH List primary contributors in the author position use parentheses to identify their contribution Interview How interviews are cited and listed in the references depends on the original format of the interview If the interview is a 3rd party interview not conducted by you and is recoverable it is published or recorded and archived and can be retrieved by someone else then use the appropriate reference format i e video sound recording article etc If the interview was conducted by you for information purposes and that person agrees to be identified as a source then it falls under personal communication and is cited in text only A reference entry is not required for it because it cannot be retrieved If the interview involved a research participant no citation is necessary Do not cite in text or list as a reference entry as this would constitute a breach in confidentiality Lecture or Speech Lectures and speeches are cited and listed in the references depending on their format If they are recoverable i e TV video podcast then create a reference entry appropriate to that format If they are not recoverable they should not be listed in the references only in text as a personal communication See the section on in text citations personal communications for more information Letter or Memo Letters and memos are considered personal communications and as such do not require a reference entry because they are not recoverable They do need

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  • Additional Resources
    Print Books References Print Periodicals References Print Other References Electronic Online References Other Sources Additional Resources Resources Print Friendly Format About this Guide Contributors Citation Citation Guide American Psychological Association APA Additional Resources Print Resources Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association sixth edition 2008 Online Resources APA style website http www apastyle org index aspx Purdue Owl website http owl english purdue edu owl section 2 10 Previous Introduction

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