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  • Research
    Research T his page is under construction Please check again later Last updated February 26 2001

    Original URL path: http://www.cs.columbia.edu/async/research.html (2016-02-17)
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  • Selected Publications
    Algorithms and Tools pdf ps R M Fuhrer PhD Thesis Computer Science Department Columbia University 1999 MINIMALIST An Environment for the Synthesis Verification and Testability of Burst Mode Asynchronous Machines pdf ps R M Fuhrer S M Nowick M Theobald N K Jha B Lin and L Plana Technical Report CUCS 020 99 Computer Science Department Columbia University July 1999 1998 Fast Heuristic and Exact Algorithms for Two Level Hazard Free Logic Minimization pdf M Theobald and S Nowick IEEE Transactions on Computer Aided Design Volume 11 Nov 1998 Pp 1130 1147 An Implicit Method for Hazard Free Two Level Logic Minimization pdf M Theobald and S Nowick IEEE International Symposium on Advanced Research in Asynchronous Circuits and Systems ASYNC 98 March 1998 Pp 58 69 Best Paper Finalist A Fast Asynchronous Huffman Decoder for Compressed Code Embedded Processors pdf ps R Benes S M Nowick and A Wolfe Proceedings of the Fourth International Symposium on Advanced Research in Asynchronous Circuits and Systems ASYNC 98 March 1998 Pp 43 56 1997 Synthesis of Low Power Asynchronous Circuits in a Specified Environment pdf S M Nowick and M Theobald International Symposium on Low Power Electronics and Design August 1997 Pp 92 95 A High Speed Asynchronous Decompression Circuit for Embedded Processors pdf ps M Benes A Wolfe and S M Nowick Proceedings of the Seventeenth Conference on Advanced Research in VLSI 1997 Pp 219 236 Synthesis of Asynchronous Circuits for Stuck at and Robust Path Delay Fault Testability pdf ps S M Nowick N K Jha and F C Cheng IEEE Transactions on Computer Aided Design of Integrated Circuits and Systems Volume 16 Issue 12 Dec 1997 Pp 1514 1521 Speculative Completion for the Design of High Performance Asynchronous Dynamic Adders pdf ps S M Nowick K Y Yun P A

    Original URL path: http://www.cs.columbia.edu/async/publications.html (2016-02-17)
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  • Tools(Minimalist)
    our comprehensive CAD package for the automated synthesis and optimization of asynchronous controllers Download the CAD tool Download Technical Report ps PDF Download Tutorial Powerpoint Parts I and II Last

    Original URL path: http://www.cs.columbia.edu/async/tools-minimalist.html (2016-02-17)
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  • IHT: As Chips Reach Speed Limit, Makers Tap Into 'Clockless' Logic
    mobile phones smart cards and embedded medical devices I d be surprised to see your next laptop be fully asynchronous in the processing department but I would be less surprised to see that of your next mobile phone said Steve Furber a professor at the University of Manchester and founder of Self Timed Solutions an asynchronous chip company connected with the university The personal computer industry has lived for so long with clocked chips that it will take years to develop the infrastructure necessary to mass produce asynchronous systems for computers But the smaller devices have begun to enter the market Philips Electronics NV of the Netherlands began developing tools for asynchronous chips in the late 1980s It introduced its Myna pager in 1998 with an asynchronous chip because it produced less radio interference and extended battery life Sharp Corp of Japan built an asynchronous media player in 1997 for computers audiovisual equipment and mobile devices to process video graphics and audio files Intel Corp has researched asynchronous design and its latest processor the Pentium 4 incorporates some aspects of asynchronous logic But it falls far short of the kind of future envisioned by Ivan Sutherland head of asynchronous research at Sun Microsystems Inc who told the computer industry last March that asynchronous chips could revolutionize the microprocessor Although the asynchronous approach has existed for decades the industry grew up around synchronous chips which were simpler and more reliable They were also easier for consumers to understand The processor wars between such companies as Intel Corp and Advacned Micro Devices Inc are still based on the idea that the faster the clock the faster the computer In fact where a synchronized processor will operate only as quickly as the slowest of its parts some 700 megahertz processors work more quickly than other 1 gigahertz processors asynchronous processors operate at the average speed of their components Where the synchronous processor waits for a clock cycle to finish before starting the next task an asynchronous one can do multiple tasks at different speeds It s very much more the way that people normally work said Jim Garside a senior lecturer in Mr Furber s group at the University of Manchester You don t do one thing per hour before going on to the next thing You don t say That task only took five minutes now I ll have to wait for the clock to go around again before doing the next job Data crunching also gets done more quietly in an asynchronous chip in which lower radio signal noise causing less interference with other parts of the system Mr Garside compared it to the noise made by a group of marching soldiers versus the sound made by the random footsteps of the general public Asynchronous chips use 10 percent to 50 percent less energy than synchronous chips in which the clocks are constantly drawing power That makes them ideal for mobile communications applications which usually need low power sources and the

    Original URL path: http://www.cs.columbia.edu/async/misc/IHT_As_Chips_Reach_Speed_Limit.html (2016-02-17)
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  • Technology Review - It's Time for Clockless Chips
    brilliant ideas in design says Kevin Normoyle a Distinguished Engineer at Sun who works on the design of Sun s Sparc microprocessors It s so simple and yet it s an approach that has scaled up and now works for millions of transistors But after a point cranking up the clock speed becomes an exercise in diminishing returns That s why a one gigahertz chip doesn t run twice as fast as a 500 megahertz chip The clock through the work it must do to coordinate millions of transistors on a chip generates its own overhead The faster the clock the greater the overhead becomes The clock in a state of the art microprocessor can consume up to 30 percent of the chip s computing capability with that percentage increasing at an ever faster rate as clock speeds increase It s as if a factory became overrun with stopwatch wielding supervisors who improved efficiency but also took up more and more space held by workers and machines Clocked chips are becoming serious power hogs too the job of coordinating tens of millions of transistors at a billion ticks per second requires the consumption of a lot of energy most of which ends up as heat Patrick Gelsinger chief technology officer at Intel referred to the problem in his keynote speech at the International Solid State Circuits Conference last February Gelsinger was only half joking when he said that if microprocessors continue to be run by ever faster clocks then by 2005 a chip will run as hot as a nuclear reactor Perhaps the most pressing problem with conventional microprocessors though is that you can only speed up the chip s clock so much before banging into some inconvenient physical realities In today s one gigahertz chips electronic pulses signifying binary ones and zeroes can just barely make it across the chip within a single beat of the clock But in the two gigahertz chips expected to arrive in the next couple of years that will no longer be true The role the clock plays now synchronizing all the work on a chip will begin to break down Clockless to the Rescue Clocked vs Clockless Click image for details By throwing out the clock chip makers will be able to escape from this bind Clockless chips draw power only when there is useful work to do enabling a huge savings in battery driven devices an asynchronous chip based pager marketed by Philips Electronics for example runs almost twice as long as competitors products which use conventional clocked chips Like a team of horses that can only run as fast as its slowest member a clocked chip can run no faster than its most slothful piece of logic the answer isn t guaranteed until every part completes its work By contrast the transistors on an asynchronous chip can swap information independently without needing to wait for everything else The result Instead of the entire chip running at the speed of its slowest components it can run at the average speed of all components At both Intel and Sun this approach has led to prototype chips that run two to three times faster than comparable products using conventional circuitry Look at it this way says Sun s Ebergen You give me a folder I work on it I give it back to you and the fact that I give it back indicates I m done We don t have to communicate every five seconds We might do the job much faster by agreeing between the two of us when to get things started and when to get things done and not worry about synchronizing our work every step along the way Another advantage of clockless chips is that they give off very low levels of electromagnetic noise The faster the clock the more difficult it is to prevent a device from interfering with other devices dispensing with the clock all but eliminates this problem The combination of low noise and low power consumption makes asynchronous chips a natural choice for mobile devices The low hanging fruit for clockless chips will be in communications devices starting with cell phones says Yobie Benjamin a technology strategist for the consulting firm Ernst and Young So convinced is Benjamin of the technology s promise that he has personally invested in Asynchronous Digital Design a clockless startup out of Caltech Two other new firms Theseus and Manchester England based Self Timed Solutions are focusing on clockless chips for smart cards Fant maintains that a key problem holding back smart cards is that conventional chips make it easy to crack the chip s security codes by watching the signals The clock is like a big signal that says Okay look now says Fant It s like looking for someone in a marching band Asynchronous is more like a milling crowd There s no clear signal to watch Potential hackers don t know where to begin Speed energy efficiency and stealth sound like important goals for any chip not just those used in a few niche applications But while Sun IBM and Intel all have small research groups working on asynchronous designs for specialty applications neither they nor anyone else has announced work on a general purpose clockless microprocessor This seems an odd oversight An industry that considers the improvement of processor speed to be an almost sacred goal has forsaken one of the most promising avenues for making chips go faster You just have to ask why Why for example did Intel scrap its asynchronous chip The answer is that although the chip ran three times as fast and used half the electrical power as clocked counterparts that wasn t enough of an improvement to justify a shift to a radical technology An asynchronous chip in the lab might be years ahead of any synchronous design but the design testing and manufacturing systems that support conventional microprocessor production still have about a 20 year head start on anything that

    Original URL path: http://www.cs.columbia.edu/async/misc/technologyreview_oct_01_2001.html (2016-02-17)
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  • Columbia Computer Graphics Group
    the Junior Researcher Prize at the MGMAS conference 2014 04 01 Alec Jacobson joins our group as a postdoctoral fellow 2014 01 15 Eitan Grinspun invited to give the Porter Public Lecture at the AMS Joint Mathematics Meetings 2013 09 23 The Scientific American article In Love With Geometry features Keenan Crane and his participation in the Heidelberg Laureate Forum 2013 09 06 Keenan Crane joins our group as a

    Original URL path: http://www.cs.columbia.edu/cg/news.php (2016-02-17)
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  • Columbia Computer Graphics Group
    Fang Da PhD Student http www cs columbia edu fang Yun Fei PhD Student http www columbia edu yf2320 Akash Garg PhD Student http www cs columbia edu akash Dingzeyu Li PhD Student http dingzeyu li Henrique Maia PhD Student Breannan Smith PhD Student http www cs columbia edu smith Timothy Sun PhD Student http www cs columbia edu tim Papoj Thamjaroenporn PhD Student Undergraduates Lucas Schuermann Undergraduate http lucasschuermann com Vaibhav Siva Vavilala Undergraduate Former Members Angela Wei Next Stop Floored Pilar Molina Lopez Next Stop Disney Stephen Robinson Next Stop D E Shaw Ridwan Sami Next Stop Two Sigma Amanda Cormier Next Stop The New Yorker Maddy Kloss Next Stop Yale U Press Christine Jordan Next Stop Morgan Stanley Samantha Ainsley Next Stop MIT Pei Lun Hsieh Next Stop Weta Digitial Jungseock Joo Next Stop UCLA Rony Goldenthal Next Stop ILM Danny Kaufman Next Stop Adobe Etienne Vouga Next Stop Harvard Christopher Batty Next Stop UWaterloo Hao Li Next Stop ILM Yotam Gingold Next Stop GMU Andres Uribe Next Stop H Bloom Kevin Egan Next Stop D E Shaw Charles Han Next Stop Google Simon Premoze Next Stop ILM Sebastian Enrique Next Stop Electronic Arts Kalyan Sunkavalli Next

    Original URL path: http://www.cs.columbia.edu/cg/people.php (2016-02-17)
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  • Columbia Computer Graphics Group
    Computer Science Columbia University 2010 Paper PDF BibTeX Affine Double and Triple Product Wavelet Integrals for Rendering Bo Sun and Ravi Ramamoorthi ACM Transactions on Graphics pp 1 17 2009 Paper PDF BibTeX Project Video Implicit Explicit Variational Integration of Highly Oscillatory Problems Ari Stern Eitan Grinspun SIAM Multiscale Modeling and Simulation pp 1779 1794 2009 Paper PDF BibTeX An Empirical BSSRDF Model Craig Donner and Jason Lawrence and Ravi Ramamoorthi and Toshiya Hachisuka and Henrik Wann Jensen and Shree Nayar SIGGRAPH ACM Transactions on Graphics pp 30 1 30 10 2009 Paper PDF BibTeX Asynchronous Contact Mechanics David Harmon Etienne Vouga Breannan Smith Rasmus Tamstorf Eitan Grinspun SIGGRAPH ACM Transactions on Graphics 2009 Paper PDF BibTeX Project Video Enrichment Textures for Detailed Cutting of Shells Peter Kaufmann Sebastian Martin Mario Botsch Eitan Grinspun Markus Gross SIGGRAPH ACM Transactions on Graphics 2009 Paper PDF BibTeX Video Frequency Analysis and Sheared Reconstruction for Rendering Motion Blur Kevin Egan Yu Ting Tseng Nicolas Holzschuch Frà do Durand Ravi Ramamoorthi SIGGRAPH ACM Transactions on Graphics pp 93 1 93 13 2009 Paper PDF BibTeX Project Video Harmonic Fluids Changxi Zheng and Doug L James SIGGRAPH ACM Transactions on Graphics 2009 Paper PDF BibTeX Project Video Semantic Deformation Transfer Ilya Baran Daniel Vlasic Eitan Grinspun Jovan Popovic SIGGRAPH ACM Transactions on Graphics 2009 Paper PDF BibTeX Video Adaptive Wavelet Rendering Ryan S Overbeck and Craig Donner and Ravi Ramamoorthi SIGGRAPH Asia ACM Transactions on Graphics pp 1 12 2009 Paper PDF BibTeX Project A Precomputed Polynomial Representation for Interactive BRDF Editing with Global Illumination Aner Ben Artzi Kevin Egan Frà do Durand Ravi Ramamoorthi ACM Transactions on Graphics 2008 Paper PDF BibTeX Video Multiscale Texture Synthesis Charles Han Eric Risser Ravi Ramamoorthi Eitan Grinspun SIGGRAPH ACM Transactions on Graphics pp 51 2008 Paper PDF BibTeX Project Video Discrete Elastic Rods Miklós Bergou Max Wardetzky Stephen Robinson Basile Audoly Eitan Grinspun SIGGRAPH ACM Transactions on Graphics pp 1 12 2008 Paper PDF BibTeX Project Video Light Field Transfer Global Illumination Between Real and Synthetic Objects Oliver Cossairt Shree Nayar Ravi Ramamoorthi SIGGRAPH ACM Transactions on Graphics 2008 Paper PDF BibTeX Project Video Robust Treatment of Simultaneous Collisions David Harmon Etienne Vouga Rasmus Tamstorf and Eitan Grinspun SIGGRAPH ACM Transactions on Graphics pp 1 4 2008 Paper PDF BibTeX Project Video A Layered Heterogeneous Reflectance Model for Acquiring and Rendering Human Skin Craig Donner Tim Weyrich Eugene d Eon Ravi Ramamoorthi Szymon Rusinkiewicz SIGGRAPH Asia ACM Transactions on Graphics 2008 Paper PDF BibTeX Project Compressive Structured Light for Recovering Inhomogeneous Participating Media Jinwei Gu Shree Nayar Eitan Grinspun Peter Belhumeur Ravi Ramamoorthi Europian Conference on Computer Vision ECCV 2008 Paper PDF BibTeX Project Large Ray Packets for Real time Whitted Ray Tracing Ryan Overbeck Ravi Ramamoorthi and William R Mark IEEE EG Symposium on Interactive Ray Tracing IRT pp 41 48 2008 Paper PDF BibTeX Project Analytical Wavelet and Frequency based Mathematical Models for Real Time Rendering Bo Sun PhD Thesis Department of Computer Science Columbia University 2008 Paper PDF BibTeX A First Order Analysis of Lighting Shading and Shadows Ravi Ramamoorthi Dhruv Mahajan and Peter Belhumeur ACM Transactions on Graphics 2007 Paper PDF BibTeX Project Discrete Quadratic Curvature Energies CAGD Most Cited Paper Award for 2010 Max Wardetzky Miklós Bergou David Harmon Denis Zorin and Eitan Grinspun Computer Aided Geometric Design pp 499 518 2007 Paper PDF BibTeX Project Video A Theory of Frequency Domain Invariants Spherical Harmonic Identities for BRDF Lighting Transfer and Image Consistency Dhruv Mahajan Ravi Ramamoorthi Brian Curless IEEE Transactions on Pattern Analysis and Machine Intelligence pp 197 213 2007 Paper PDF BibTeX Project Time Varying BRDFs Bo Sun Kalyan Sunkavalli Ravi Ramamoorthi Peter Belhumeur and Shree Nayar IEEE Transactions on Visualization and Computer Graphics pp 595 609 2007 Paper PDF BibTeX Project Video A Theory of Locally Low Dimensional Light Transport Dhruv Mahajan Ira Kemelmacher Shlizerman Ravi Ramamoorthi Peter Belhumeur SIGGRAPH ACM Transactions on Graphics 2007 Paper PDF BibTeX Project Video Active Refocusing of Images and Videos Francesc Moreno Noguer Peter N Belhumeur Shree K Nayar SIGGRAPH ACM Transactions on Graphics 2007 Paper PDF BibTeX Video Efficient Simulation of Inextensible Cloth Rony Goldenthal David Harmon Raanan Fattal Michel Bercovier Eitan Grinspun SIGGRAPH ACM Transactions on Graphics 2007 Paper PDF BibTeX Project Video Frequency Domain Normal Map Filtering Charles Han Bo Sun Ravi Ramamoorthi and Eitan Grinspun SIGGRAPH ACM Transactions on Graphics pp 28 2007 Paper PDF BibTeX Project Video Prakash Lighting Aware Motion Capture using Photosensing Markers and Multiplexed Illuminators Ramesh Raskar Hideaki Nii Bert deDecker Yuki Hashimoto Jay Summet Dylan Moore Yong Zhao Jonathan Westhues Paul Dietz John Barnwell Shree Nayar Masahiko Inami Philippe Bekaert Michael Noland Vlad Branzoi Erich Bruns SIGGRAPH ACM Transactions on Graphics 2007 Paper PDF BibTeX Project Video TRACKS Toward Directable Thin Shells Miklós Bergou Saurabh Mathur Max Wardetzky and Eitan Grinspun SIGGRAPH ACM Transactions on Graphics pp 50 2007 Paper PDF BibTeX Project Video 4D Compression and Relighting with High Resolution Light Transport Matrices Ewen Cheslack Potava Nolan Goodnight Ren Ng Ravi Ramamoorthi and Greg Humphreys ACM Symposium on Interactive 3D Graphics and Games 2007 Paper PDF BibTeX Video A Real time Beam Tracer with Application to Exact Soft Shadows Ryan Overbeck Ravi Ramamoorthi and William R Mark Eurographics Symposium on Rendering 2007 Paper PDF BibTeX Video Dirty Glass Rendering Contamination on Transparent Surfaces Jinwei Gu Ravi Ramamoorthi Peter Belhumeur Shree Nayar EuroGraphics Symposium on Rendering 2007 Paper PDF BibTeX Project Video Material Based Splashing of Water Drops Kshitiz Garg and Gurunandan Krishnan and Shree K Nayar EuroGraphics Symposium on Rendering 2007 Paper PDF BibTeX Project Video Scene Collages and Flexible Camera Arrays Yoshikuni Nomura Li Zhang and Shree Nayar EuroGraphics Symposium on Rendering 2007 Paper PDF BibTeX Project Video Viewpoint Coded Structured Light Mark Young Erik Beeson James Davis Szymon Rusinkiewicz and Ravi Ramamoorthi IEEE Conference on Computer Vision and Pattern Recognition CVPR 2007 Paper PDF BibTeX Project SimX meets SCIRun A Component based Implementation of a Computational Study System Siu Man Yau

    Original URL path: http://www.cs.columbia.edu/cg/pubs.php (2016-02-17)
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