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  • Hemophilia B in German Wirehaired Pointers
    a new screening test has been developed to accurately identify Hemophilia B carrier females DNA Analyses for Hemophilia B Carrier Detection Carrier detection is based on a direct DNA test DNA is isolated from a blood sample and a specific portion of the Factor IX gene is then amplified and scored to detect the presence or absence of a unique Factor IX mutation Hemophilia B carrier females have one copy of the mutant sequence and one copy of the normal Factor IX gene sequence Clear females have two copies of the normal Factor IX gene sequence DNA analysis can differentiate affected males from clear males however coagulation Factor IX assays can accurately and more rapidly define a male s genetic status Summary of Research Findings The carrier detection test is based on results of research sponsored initially by the VDD Group North America and later funded by The Morris Animal Foundation The cooperation and participation of more than twenty owners and breeders were crucial for the project s success In this study DNA was isolated from clear and Hemophilia B affected males and the Factor IX gene sequence was compared Aberrant DNA sequence referred to as an insertion mutation was found in the hemophilic males Factor IX gene The gene insertion appears to impair Factor IX protein production A screening test to detect this mutation was developed based on amplification of a specific portion of the Factor IX gene Using this screening test the Factor IX mutation was found exclusively in affected males and obligate carrier females and was confirmed to segregate or track with Hemophilia B through a 5 generation pedigree A complete description of this study is published in Mammalian Genome 2003 14 788 795 Screening to Prevent Propagation of Hemophilia B Males Coagulation Factor IX assays are

    Original URL path: https://ahdc.vet.cornell.edu/sects/coag/test/hemopwh.cfm (2015-06-03)
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  • Blood Typing
    Test Search Perform a search of our test and fee catalog Select the criteria below All Species Amphibian Avian Bovine Camelidae Canine Caprine Cervidae Equine Feline Ferret Fish Mammal Other Ovine Porcine Primate Reptile All Lab Sections Anatomic Pathology Avian Diagnostics Bacteriology Brucellosis Clinical Pathology Comparative Coagulation Endocrinology Molecular Diagnostics Parasitology Quality Milk Production Referral Serology Toxicology Virology All Test Types Infectious Non Infectious Clinical Topics Canine Feline Blood Typing Canine or feline blood typing requires submission of 1 to 3 ml of EDTA whole blood purple top tube Ship in a styrofoam box with cold pack for overnight delivery Do not freeze the sample tube Key Points All canine and feline blood donors should be blood typed Most serious transfusion reactions in cats are caused by alloantibodies in type B cats directed against type A red cell antigens Transfuse type B cats with type B blood transfuse type A cats with type A blood Type A kittens born to type B queens are at risk for neonatal hemolysis Canine typing is most important for the DEA dog erythrocyte antigen 1 blood group the DEA 1 group consists of two alternate alleles 1 1 and 1 2 Naturally occuring antibodies

    Original URL path: https://ahdc.vet.cornell.edu/sects/coag/clinical/typing.cfm (2015-06-03)
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  • Animal Health Diagnostic Center
    Services Resources AHDC Research About AHDC About AHDC People Giving Comparative Coagulation View Results Tests Fees Sampling Instructions Shipping Information Submission Form Testing FAQ s Contact Coagulation Lab Contact AHDC Test Search Perform a search of our test and fee catalog Select the criteria below All Species Amphibian Avian Bovine Camelidae Canine Caprine Cervidae Equine Feline Ferret Fish Mammal Other Ovine Porcine Primate Reptile All Lab Sections Anatomic Pathology Avian

    Original URL path: https://ahdc.vet.cornell.edu/sects/coag/clinical/vonwill/ (2015-06-03)
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  • Bleeding Time Test
    margin Blood flow from the incision s is blotted using filter paper held directly below but not touching the wounds The time from triggering the device until blood no longer appears on the paper is recorded as the bleeding time The muzzle gauze is removed and pressure applied to the wounds until active bleeding ceases If needed topical tissue adhesive cyanoacrylate can be applied to prevent rebleeding Normal Range Two to four minutes Interpretation Lip bleeding time is expected to be prolonged in patients with severe acquired or inherited platelet dysfunction or severe von Willebrand disease There is a variable response in dogs with DIC or mild forms of vWD Dogs with even severe coagulation factor deficiencies usually have normal lip bleeding time The upper lip is everted and held in place with muzzle gauze that encircles the upper and lower jaw The gauze must be tied snugly The buccal bleeding time is not inherently painful but dogs must remain quiet and in position for up to 10 to 12 minutes Sedation may be required for adequate restraint The Simplate device is triggered parallel to the lip margin Blood flowing from the wounds is then gently blotted below the incisions Do not wipe or disturb the wounds The time from incision to cessation of blood flow is recorded as the buccal mucosal bleeding time Cuticle Bleeding Time Toenail Bleeding Time Supplies timer or stopwatch guillotine type toenail clippers silver nitrate cautery sticks anesthetic or tranquilizer dogs must be anesthetized or heavily sedated to prevent movement and discomfort during this procedure do not use narcotic drugs acceptable drugs include xylazine propofol barbiturates or inhalant gas Technique The dog is positioned in lateral recumbency Remove any hair that covers the nails The guillotine clipper is used to sever the apex of the

    Original URL path: https://ahdc.vet.cornell.edu/sects/coag/clinical/bleeding.cfm (2015-06-03)
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  • Sample Submission
    parts blood as follows 0 3 mL citrate plus 2 7 mL blood 3 0 mL total sample 0 4 mL citrate plus 3 6 mL blood 4 0 mL total sample 0 5 mL citrate plus 4 5 mL blood 5 0 mL total sample CITRATE TO WHOLE BLOOD RATIO IS CRITICAL Vacutainer Method Use a vacutainer needle or vacutainer butterfly set to draw blood directly into a 3 or 5 ml sodium citrate vacutainer tube A COMPLETE DRAW MUST BE OBTAINED LARGE ANIMALS COW HORSE SHEEP GOAT Use a vacutainer needle and draw blood directly into a 5 10 mL blue top 3 8 Na citrate vacutainer tube A COMPLETE DRAW MUST BE OBTAINED LABORATORY ANIMALS RODENTS SMALL MAMMALS Do not use the eye orbital vein or tail vein collection technique Anesthesia deep surgical plane is necessary for blood collection Suitable anesthetic agents include pentobarbital or ketamine xylazine Incise the body wall and peritoneum on the ventral midline in order to expose the abdominal aorta for needle puncture Place citrate anticoagulant 3 8 Na citrate into a plastic syringe and then draw blood using a 22 or 23 gauge needle The ratio of citrate to blood must be exactly 1 9 as in the following examples 0 1 mL citrate plus 0 9 mL blood 1 0 mL total sample 0 2 mL citrate plus 1 8 mL blood 2 0 mL total sample 0 3 mL citrate plus 2 7 mL blood 3 0 mL total sample CITRATE TO WHOLE BLOOD RATIO IS CRITICAL Plasma separation and storage Centrifuge whole blood in a plastic or siliconized glass tube for 1 min in a microfuge or for 10 min in a tabletop centrifuge Transfer PLASMA ONLY into a plastic tube using a plastic pipet Store samples frozen 70oC

    Original URL path: https://ahdc.vet.cornell.edu/sects/coag/submission/ (2015-06-03)
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  • Diagnostic Approach
    Ferret Fish Mammal Other Ovine Porcine Primate Reptile All Lab Sections Anatomic Pathology Avian Diagnostics Bacteriology Brucellosis Clinical Pathology Comparative Coagulation Endocrinology Molecular Diagnostics Parasitology Quality Milk Production Referral Serology Toxicology Virology All Test Types Infectious Non Infectious Diagnostic Approach Preliminary Evaluation The goal of initial examination is to differentiate bleeding caused by injured or diseased blood vessels from that caused by a systemic hemostatic disorder A combination of clinical signs history and screening tests platelet count bleeding time coagulation panel will help make this distinction Blood Vessel Disorders Blood vessel disorders are primarily diagnosed by inspection either visually or using ancillary diagnostics i e endoscopy radiography ultrasonography or biopsy Clinical signs of bleeding from damaged vessels depend on the size of the injured vessel Large vessel disorders are characterized by hemorrhage from a single anatomic site often with blood loss anemia Small vessel disorders vasculopathies rarely cause anemia Vasculopathies typically cause multisystemic signs including cutaneous ecchymoses uveitis glomerulonephritis and pulmonary or peripheral edema Systemic Bleeding Disorders Systemic bleeding disorders are classified as defects of either primary hemostasis platelet plug formation or secondary hemostasis fibrin clot formation Primary hemostatic disorders are caused by failure of platelet plug formation due to

    Original URL path: https://ahdc.vet.cornell.edu/sects/coag/clinical/Diagnos.cfm (2015-06-03)
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  • Clinical Pathology: Animal Health Diagnostic Center
    Other Ovine Porcine Primate Reptile All Lab Sections Anatomic Pathology Avian Diagnostics Bacteriology Brucellosis Clinical Pathology Comparative Coagulation Endocrinology Molecular Diagnostics Parasitology Quality Milk Production Referral Serology Toxicology Virology All Test Types Infectious Non Infectious Blood Gases Ionized Calcium Testing Blood gases provide more accurate information about acid base and oxygen status than the chemistry panel Blood for blood gas samples should be collected directly into heparinized syringes kept anaerobic capped and assayed as soon as possible Changes in pH occur rapidly in blood stored after sample collection therefore samples should be submitted promptly to the laboratory For this reason blood gases should always be performed in the clinic or hospital and cannot be sent out to a referral diagnostic laboratory We perform blood gases using a dedicated blood gas analyzer the Radiometer ABL 800 This machine also measures electrolytes including ionized calcium using ion selective electrodes on undiluted samples direct potentiometry When an ionized calcium is measured with a blood gas blood gas lytes plus panel the ionized calcium is corrected for the pH This is because ionized calcium values are altered by pH increase in states of acidosis Furthermore an anion gap is calculated from the results We have reference intervals for dogs cats horses and cattle for venous blood only In general arterial blood gases are preferred for blood gas measurement especially if you are concerned about the oxygen status of the animal Venous blood gas results differ from arterial blood gas results because the sample is affected by tissue metabolism Therefore the blood is more acidic and the oxygen content lower in the venous circulation Click on the highlighted panel below to obtain more information about the test components For more information about blood gases and interpretation of acid base abnormalities refer to Bicarbonate under our

    Original URL path: https://ahdc.vet.cornell.edu/sects/clinpath/test/blood/ (2015-06-03)
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  • Animal Health Diagnostic Center
    with blood High or low values indicate blood hyperoxia or hypoxia respectively pO2 in venous blood is lower than arterial blood due to oxygen extraction by peripheral tissues pCO2 This is measured using a pCO2 electrode It is the partial pressure of pCO2 in a gas phase in equilibrium with the blood The pCO2 gives an indication of the respiratory component of the blood gas results A high and low value indicates hypercapnea hypoventilation and hypocapnea hyperventilation respectively A high pCO2 is compatible with a respiratory acidosis and a low pCO2 with a respiratory alkalosis Bicarbonate This is the concentration of bicarbonate in the plasma of the blood sample It is actually a calculated value from the Henderson Hasselbach equation as follows Bicarbonate 0 23 x pCO2 x antilog pH pKp where pKp 6 125 log 1 antilog pH 8 7 The bicarbonate on the blood gas report is usually lower than the bicarbonate from our chemistry panel measured with the Hitachi This is because the blood gas sample is kept strictly anaerobic and is a calculated value whereas with the Hitachi bicarbonate is measured directly The bicarbonate total CO2 and base excess are indicators of the metabolic component of the blood gas results A low and negative base excess and high and positive base excess bicarbonate indicate metabolic acidosis and alkalosis respectively Total CO2 This is another indicator of bicarbonate but is usually slightly higher as it also measures dissolved CO2 It is a calculated value from the pCO2 and bicarbonate as follows total CO2 0 23 x pCO2 bicarbonate Base excess The base excess is the concentration of titratable base when the blood is titrated with a strong acid or base to a plasma pH of 7 40 The value provided is actually the standard base excess which

    Original URL path: https://ahdc.vet.cornell.edu/sects/clinpath/test/blood/pH.cfm (2015-06-03)
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