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  • Clinical Pathology: Animal Health Diagnostic Center
    Production Referral Serology Toxicology Virology All Test Types Infectious Non Infectious Clinical Chemistry Testing We offer a variety of chemistry group tests e g small and large animal panels for both mammalian and non mammalian species Some of our chemistry tests are not incorporated as panels and have to be requested individually We prefer serum red top tube for chemistry testing all our reference intervals are based on serum with the exception of stat samples and samples submitted after 3 00 pm The latter samples should be submitted in heparin green top tube Please refer to Sample Submission for more information on the required samples for chemistry tests There are some differences in reference intervals for some analytes in serum versus heparinized plasma Please refer to our Reference Intervals for more information We use an automated wet chemistry analyzer the Roche Mod P for our chemistry tests As well as performing chemistry tests themselves the Hitachi provides useful information about interferences in the sample This is shown on our chemistry reports as special chemistry tests the lipemic hemolytic and icteric indices Some of our tests are also performed using other instrumentation For example patients on bromide therapy have artefactually high chloride because bromide and chloride are both measured in the assay with the Hitachi but our bench instrument the chloridometer is less affected by this artefact For this reason it is always good practice to inform the laboratory of any medication the patient may be on so that we can modify our methods if necessary This is especially important in samples drawn after administration of hemoglobin based oxygen carriers e g oxyglobin which are colored compounds that affect the results of many chemistry tests All of our chemistry tests that are components within panels can be ordered individually rather than

    Original URL path: https://ahdc.vet.cornell.edu/sects/clinpath/test/chem/index.cfm (2015-06-03)
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  • Clinical Pathology: Animal Health Diagnostic Center
    Tests To view our reports for certain tests below and to obtain more information about the individual components of each test click on the test name below For those tests that do not have links most of the information can be gleaned from the other panels which include the same tests Refer to the chemistry section of our teaching resource eClinPath Panel Includes Specimen Required Comments Bilirubin Panel Total Direct Indirect 2 ml clotted or heparinized blood Total bilirubin may be over estimated in under filled heparin tubes Electrolyte Panel Na K Cl see above Lytes can be run quicker if heparinized blood is submitted Iron Panel Iron Fe TIBC saturation see above Large Animal Panel Na K Cl Bicarb Anion gap Urea Creat Ca P Mg Total Protein TP Alb Glob A G ratio Gluc SDH GLDH AST GGT Tot Bili Dir Bili Ind Bili CK Fe TIBC sat 3 5 ml clotted or heparinized blood Large Animal Liver Panel TP Alb Glob A G ratio Triglycerides CK SDH AST GLDH GGT Tot Bili Dir Bili Ind Bili 3 5 ml clotted or heparinized blood Large Animal Renal Panel Na K Cl Bicarb Anion gap Urea Creat Alb Ca P 3 5 ml clotted or heparinized blood Lytes Plus Panel Na K Cl iCa 1 to 3 ml heparinized blood preferably in syringe NO MICROTAINERS MUST STAY ANAEROBIC SUBMIT ASAP Performed on blood gas machine Metabolic Profile Panel BHB NEFA Urea Albumin AST non anticoagulant red top tube For transition dairy cows Mineral Lytes Panel Na K Cl Bicarb Anion Gap Ca P Mg 3 to 5 ml clotted or heparinized blood Non mammalian Panel Na K Cl Uric Acid Ca P TP Gluc CK AST GLDH Bile Acids Minimum 1 ml blood collected in heparinized microtainer NO RED

    Original URL path: https://ahdc.vet.cornell.edu/sects/clinpath/test/chem/group.cfm (2015-06-03)
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  • Clinical Pathology: Animal Health Diagnostic Center
    of both fasting and post prandial bile acids is useful Feeding stimulates gall bladder contraction which releases bile acids into the intestine and portal circulation after intestinal absorption This increases the load of bile acids that must be extracted from blood by the liver and increases the sensitivity of the procedure to hepatobiliary or vascular defects Note that horses lack gall bladders and only fasting or random bile acid concentrations are measured in these species Furthermore the range of bile acid concentration in healthy ruminants is quite large decreasing its diagnostic utility Bile Acid Interpretation For more infomation to bile acids refer to the specialized chemistry test section Cholinesterase Measurement of cholinesterase activity in serum or plasma is a quick screening test indicated for animals with a history of possible exposure to organophosphate or carbamate compounds and or that show clinical signs compatible with exposure Remember that erythrocytes are rich in cholinesterase therefore hemolysis invalidates the results LDH Lactate dehydrogenase catalyzes the conversion of lactate to pyruvate It is not tissue specific being found in a variety of tissues including liver heart and skeletal muscle There are at least 5 different isoenzymes which are found in varying proportions in different tissues Because LDH is so non specific and isoenzyme measurement is not routinely available its measurement does not confer any additional information about skeletal muscle or hepatic disease in domestic animals than that provided by enzyme assays routinely used for this purpose i e CK for muscle and SDH and ALT for liver Lipase Lipase hydrolyzes triglycerides and is used primarily as an indicator of pancreatitis in dogs Lipase concentrations are variably increased in cats with pancreatitis so it is less useful in this species Non essential fatty acid NEFAs B hydroxybutyrate BHB and metabolic profile testing in cattle NEFAs are performed to evaluate the energy balance of prepartum dairy cows in particular BHB testing is performed to determine the incidence of sub clinical ketosis in dairy cows post calving These tests should never be interpreted on an individual cow basis and are only meaningful when interpreted on a herd basis For this reason we recommend a minimum of 12 samples be submitted from each herd for this testing these samples can be submitted whenever suitable cows can be tested and do not have to be submitted simultaneously they should however be interpreted together We also offer a metabolic profile test in dairy cows post calving This test includes BHB NEFAs Urea albumin and AST We will provide guidelines on interpretation with the test results Osmolality Serum and urine osmolality is affected by the number of osmotically active particles in solution and is unaffected by their molecular weight and size For this reason osmolality is superior to specific gravity which is affected by particle weight and size We measure osmolality with a freezing point depression osmometer 1 osmol defined as 1 mol of a nondissolving substance in 1 kg H2O will decrease the freezing point by 1 86 C Normal

    Original URL path: https://ahdc.vet.cornell.edu/sects/clinpath/test/chem/individ.cfm (2015-06-03)
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  • Clinical Pathology: Animal Health Diagnostic Center
    and plasma appearance A reticulocyte count is automatically added to a CBC in anemic dogs and cats only We also provide an absolute reticulocyte count which gives a more accurate assessment of the bone marrow response to anemia than the reticulocyte percentage in these species Non mammalian CBC These tests are run manually using bench methods EDTA is the preferred sample for non mammalian hemograms Also note that we do not have reference intervals for non mammalian species Non mammalian species represent a challenge to the clinician and clinical pathologist Only small amounts of blood can be collected from most patients necessitating the use of microtainer tubes Similar to mammals EDTA is the preferred anticoagulant for non mammalian hematology However there are certain species of birds e g cranes and reptiles e g turtles whose blood hemolyzes on contact with EDTA This hemolysis invalidates the PCV and affects assessment of red blood cell morphology during blood smear examination For these species collection of blood into citrate or heparin may be needed Please note that heparin will cause leukocyte and thrombocyte clumping which can invalidate WBC counts and differential cell counts Automated hemograms Our Advia hematology analyzer also provides an automated hemogram or an automated WBC panel This is available for certain species only including dogs cats horses cattle sheep goats pigs mice rats and certain species of monkeys The only acceptable sample for a mammalian hemogram is EDTA lavender top tube The automated hemogram and WBC panel is recommended for research samples and for pre surgical screening in relatively healthy animals These panels are not recommended for use in sick animals because they do not include morphologic features such as assessment of red and white cells which can provide valuable information on underlying disease states Blood smear evaluation Included as part of the routine CBC and non mammalian CBC Can be requested separately if automated leukogram is abnormal or no EDTA sample is available slides only Individual Tests Many of our hematology tests can be ordered individually rather than as group tests This is useful for research samples In this case samples other than EDTA may be acceptable however before samples are submitted to the laboratory for hematology testing in any other anticoagulant than EDTA please contact the laboratory Other individual tests performed in the laboratory are fibrinogen by heat precipitation and fecal occult blood See below for more information Reticulocyte count Reticulocytes are automatically included as part of the routine not automated hemogram in anemic dogs and cats A reticulocyte count will have to be specifically requested and will be added at extra charge We also provide absolute reticulocyte counts when a reticulocyte count is requested or added automatically to a hemogram Please note however that an absolute reticulocyte count cannot be provided if a red cell count is not available for that sample the absolute reticulocyte count is calculated from the product of the reticulocyte percentage and the red cell count Fibrinogen by Heat Precipitation This test is

    Original URL path: https://ahdc.vet.cornell.edu/sects/clinpath/test/hema/ (2015-06-03)
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  • Clinical Pathology: Animal Health Diagnostic Center
    Test Search Perform a search of our test and fee catalog Select the criteria below All Species Amphibian Avian Bovine Camelidae Canine Caprine Cervidae Equine Feline Ferret Fish Mammal Other Ovine Porcine Primate Reptile All Lab Sections Anatomic Pathology Avian Diagnostics Bacteriology Brucellosis Clinical Pathology Comparative Coagulation Endocrinology Molecular Diagnostics Parasitology Quality Milk Production Referral Serology Toxicology Virology All Test Types Infectious Non Infectious Immunology Testing We offer a wide range of immunologic tests These include the following Tests for evaluation of hyperproteinemias and immune deficiencies This includes serum body fluid and urine electrophoresis and individual quantification of immunoglobulins Tests for immune mediated disease This includes antinuclear antibody ANA testing rheumatoid factor RF testing Coombs testing and crossmatch for transfusion and diagnostic purposes i e mare foal or mare stallion incompatibility For most of our immunologic tests serum is the required specimen This does not include Coombs testing and crossmatches where EDTA blood is also required Click on the highlighted tests below to learn more about the individual tests that are offered Test Specimen Requirements Comments ANA Anti nuclear antibody 1 to 2 ml clotted blood or serum Dog and cat ONLY Body fluid protein electrophoresis 2 to 3 ml fluid in red top tube 10 ml CSF minimum Specify fluid type Notify the lab if the fluid is CSF CSF must be concentrated first Cross Match 3 ml EDTA blood and 10 ml clotted blood or 5 ml serum Call laboratory prior to collection Submit blood from recipient donors Direct Coombs 2 to 3 ml EDTA blood Dog cat horse Immunoglobulins QUANTITATIVE IgA IgG and IgM 2 ml clotted blood serum or plasma EDTA heparin Dog IgA IgG IgM Cat IgA IgG Horse Cow IgG and IgG Colostrum Mare Foal compatibility 3 ml EDTA and 5 ml clotted blood

    Original URL path: https://ahdc.vet.cornell.edu/sects/clinpath/test/immun/ (2015-06-03)
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  • Clinical Pathology: Animal Health Diagnostic Center
    a group of disorders that are characterized by the clonal proliferation of B lymphocytes These cells secrete large amounts of a single immunoglobulin which can result in clinical signs of excessive bleeding renal failure and hyperviscosity In dogs monoclonal gammopathies occur typically with lymphoid neoplasia especially multiple myeloma chronic lymphocytic leukemia and lymphoma In addition monoclonal gammopathies can be idiopathic or occur secondary to canine Ehrlichiosis Leishmania infection or chronic pyoderma In most of these reactive plasma cell proliferations the monoclonal immunoglobulin is IgG whereas IgG IgM or IgA can comprise the monoclonal protein in the neoplastic conditions Therefore quantification of the immunoglobulin class in a documented monoclonal gammopathy by serum protein electrophoresis may be helpful for the differential diagnosis of these conditions In neoplastic conditions such as lymphoma and multiple myeloma excessive amounts of a single immunoglobulin are produced The type of immunoglobulin involved can be determined by quantifying the different immunoglobulins using radial immunodiffusion see below Therefore RID should only be performed after a monoclonal gammopathy has been confirmed on serum protein electrophoresis Bone marrow cytology in a dog with multiple myeloma There are large numbers of plasma cells in the aspirate some of which are binucleate Hematopoietic cells both myeloid M and erythroid E are found in normal numbers and maturation sequence In the past immunoelectrophoresis was used to detect the immunoglobulin class however this test is qualitative insensitive and cumbersome It has been replaced by immunoglobulin quantification by single radial immunodiffusion RID which we use here at Cornell University In this technique agarose gel is impregnated with antibody against the species specific immunoglobulin The patient s serum is placed in a well and diffuses through the gel When a zone of antibody antigen equivalence is reached a precipitin ring forms This takes up to 48 hours

    Original URL path: https://ahdc.vet.cornell.edu/sects/clinpath/test/immun/igs.cfm (2015-06-03)
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  • Clinical Pathology: Animal Health Diagnostic Center
    Primate Reptile All Lab Sections Anatomic Pathology Avian Diagnostics Bacteriology Brucellosis Clinical Pathology Comparative Coagulation Endocrinology Molecular Diagnostics Parasitology Quality Milk Production Referral Serology Toxicology Virology All Test Types Infectious Non Infectious Urinalysis Testing Urinalysis is an essential test for evaluating kidney function Whenever blood is collected for a chemistry profile a urine sample should be obtained whenever possible especially on the initial sampling Changes in renal parameters cannot be interpreted without knowledge of the urine results For example a high BUN and creatinine azotemia in a dehydrated patient with a concentrated urine urine specific gravity 1 030 in a dog is compatible with a pre renal azotemia whereas azotemia in a dehydrated dog with a USG of 1 010 indicates a renal azotemia Urine should be collected into sterile glass red top containers for all our tests Plastic tubes should be avoided because we have found that they often contain microscopic crystalline material that can interfere with the urine sediment exam We offer routine urinalysis protein creatinine ratios and certain individual urine chemistry tests Fractional excretion of electrolytes can be calculated by measuring the concentration of electrolytes and creatinine in serum and urine Urinary excretion of electrolytes and certain enzymes e g GGT can indicate renal disease e g Fanconi s syndrome and aminoglycoside toxicity urinary GGT To view our reports for certain tests below and to obtain more information about the individual components of each test click on the highlighted test name below For more information on urinalysis please refer to Routine Urinalysis and Urine Sediment Test Components Specimen Requirements Comments Routine urinalysis Color turbidity dipstick pH TP glucose ketones bilirubin blood specific gravity sediment exam 10 ml fresh urine Indicate method of collection Ictotest done if dipstick bilirubin positive Acetest done if dipstick ketones positive No additional

    Original URL path: https://ahdc.vet.cornell.edu/sects/clinpath/test/urine/ (2015-06-03)
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  • Clinical Pathology: Animal Health Diagnostic Center
    will be reflected in reports as of October 16 2014 Analyte Units Canine Feline Equine Bovine Alpaca Caprine Sodium mEq L 145 153 151 158 136 145 138 147 149 157 143 156 Potassium mEq L 4 1 5 6 4 0 5 9 2 6 4 5 3 8 5 2 4 2 5 9 4 2 6 0 Chloride mEq L 105 116 113 123 96 105 92 102 106 116 102 116 Bicarbonate mEq L 15 25 15 24 25 32 24 32 22 34 17 27 Anion Gap mEq L 17 27 18 25 11 17 18 24 14 21 17 29 Glucose mg dL 63 118 64 144 71 113 53 76 102 149 37 141 BUN mg dL 10 32 16 36 11 28 7 18 10 30 9 35 Creatinine mg dL 0 6 1 4 0 6 2 0 0 6 1 6 0 5 0 9 1 0 2 4 0 4 0 9 Uric Acid mg dL 0 1 0 3 0 0 5 0 1 0 4 0 7 2 1 NA NA Total Bilirubin mg dL 0 0 2 0 0 2 0 5 2 5 0 1 0 2 0 0 1 0 1 0 2 Direct Bilirubin mg dL 0 0 1 0 0 1 0 1 0 3 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 1 Indirect Bilirubin mg dL 0 0 2 0 0 2 0 3 2 3 0 0 1 0 0 1 0 1 0 2 Alk Phos U L 17 111 13 83 68 260 29 111 18 113 38 862 gamma GT U L 0 6 0 2 8 29 9 50 8 35 24 66 ALT P5P U L 20 98 35 176 NA NA NA NA AST P5P U L 14 51 15 44 199 374 61 162 119 286 60 147 SDH U L 0 8 0 10 0 11 12 50 0 7 26 76 GLDH U L 2 11 0 4 1 8 11 83 3 19 NA CK U L 48 261 73 388 142 548 76 376 29 120 113 446 LDH U L 30 236 57 451 160 453 699 1381 99 433 221 403 Total Protein g dL 5 3 7 0 6 3 8 3 5 7 7 7 6 9 8 6 5 7 7 2 6 2 8 0 Albumin g dL 3 1 4 2 2 8 4 2 3 0 3 7 3 1 4 1 2 9 4 3 3 0 4 0 Globulin g dL 1 9 3 6 2 7 4 9 2 4 4 4 3 1 5 4 2 1 3 1 3 0 4 6 A G 0 9 2 1 0 6 1 6 0 8 1 4 0 6 1 3 1 0 1 9 0 7 1 2 Calcium mg dL 9 3 11 4 9 1 10 9 10 9 12 8 8 9

    Original URL path: https://ahdc.vet.cornell.edu/sects/clinpath/reference/chem.cfm (2015-06-03)
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