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  • Dairy Cattle Pneumonia
    veterinarian for examination On physical exam the 3 year old cow in reasonable body condition was noted to have a fever of 105 F and lungs that sounded abnormal on auscultation The cow was found dead the next morning and the veterinarian returned to perform a necropsy On gross examination the veterinarian noted a severe pneumonia with fibrin attached to the pleural surface No abscesses were detected in the lungs and no other remarkable lesions were observed A section of both fresh and formalin fixed lung were submitted to the Animal Health Diagnostic Laboratory with a test request for bacteriology virology and histopathology Upon arrival this case was reviewed by one of the Veterinary Support Services Veterinarians and the following specific tests requested on the lung tissue aerobic and mycoplasma culture direct fluorescent antibody dFA for BVDV IBR BRSV and bovine coronavirus beta coronavirus PCR virus isolation and histopathology Within the next few days the direct FAs and PCR all came back negative and the aerobic and mycoplasma cultures showed no growth At this point the question was whether a definitive answer would be determined in this case Then the histopathology results came back showing a fibrinonecrotic and suppurative pneumonia and pleuritis with a multifocal random embolic pattern suggesting a disseminated infection from a primary source of infection somewhere else in the body Also noted were fungal hyphae present within the pulmonary parenchyma and walls of the blood vessels The virus isolation was also reported out as negative In this case the diagnosis based on the histopathology results showing a secondary pneumonia provided a direction for the veterinarian to explore that was very different than might have been anticipated based on the thinking that this would be related to a primary bacterial or viral respiratory pathogen The inclusion of other

    Original URL path: https://ahdc.vet.cornell.edu/news/lablinks/archive/2013fall/casestudy.cfm (2015-06-03)
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  • About the Duck Research Laboratory
    and turkey industries placed the duck industry at a decided disadvantage in obtaining financial support for research To help overcome this obstacle the duck growers made a commitment to pay a large portion of the cost of research themselves through the payment of dues and fees An agreement between Cornell University and what was soon to become the Long Island Duck Research Cooperative was reached to establish and operate a duck laboratory at Eastport New York The laboratory initially operated in a rented building in Eastport Construction of the present research facility on a 75 acre tract of land in Eastport began in 1955 As duck production grew in other parts of North America participation in the laboratory by duck producers located outside of New York increased and many of these producers helped support the laboratory financially In addition duck producers in Canada and other countries as well became supporters of the duck laboratory In order to reflect its diverse makeup the name of the research cooperative was changed to the International Duck Research Cooperative IDRC in 1992 Diagnostic Laboratory Service The Duck Laboratory is equipped to run all tests necessary to accurately diagnose diseases of ducks Experienced duck disease specialists are on staff who can advise growers on the best methods of treatment and control Testing includes isolation identification and serotyping of causative agents due to the fact that successful prevention and treatment is often contingent upon up to date information on the serotypes responsible for a given disease problem on a particular farm Monitoring the level of disease protection antibody present in breeders and their progeny is another service provided by the lab that pertains to the control of diseases such as duck viral hepatitis In addition to ducks all other major species of poultry pet birds and wild and captive fowl of all kinds are accepted for examination Consultation Consultation services are available to members of the IDRC A team of experienced duck specialists are available to review difficult problems that arise in the course of producing ducks and to offer their recommendations In cases where new problems arise the laboratory will within the limits of funding conduct research to seek a solution When necessary to properly diagnose a problem on site visits to a farm by a team of specialists are performed Veterinary Biologics for Ducks Duck biological products are available to both members of the IDRC and non members alike Members receive these products at a reduced price since they contribute through their membership dues The following products are produced at the Laboratory and tested according to USDA regulations Riemerella Anatipestifer Vaccine Avirulent Live Culture This biologic which can be administered by spraying one day old ducklings provides protection against R anatipestifer infection caused by serotypes 1 2 and 5 throughout the period when ducklings are most susceptible This vaccine provides protection against serotypes most common in North America This product which is in freeze dried form is mixed with sterile diluent immediately before use

    Original URL path: https://ahdc.vet.cornell.edu/Sects/duck/about.cfm (2015-06-03)
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  • International Duck Research Cooperative
    Contact AHDC Test Search Perform a search of our test and fee catalog Select the criteria below All Species Amphibian Avian Bovine Camelidae Canine Caprine Cervidae Equine Feline Ferret Fish Mammal Other Ovine Porcine Primate Reptile All Lab Sections Anatomic Pathology Avian Diagnostics Bacteriology Brucellosis Clinical Pathology Comparative Coagulation Endocrinology Molecular Diagnostics Parasitology Quality Milk Production Referral Serology Toxicology Virology All Test Types Infectious Non Infectious International Duck Research Cooperative Inc History and Purpose Recognizing the need for assistance in solving problems related to producing healthy ducks American duck growers on Long Island in the late 1940 s petitioned Cornell University for assistance in conducting scientifically based research on diseases nutrition and management of ducks and other related areas and providing services not available elsewhere The Deans of the Colleges of Veterinary Medicine and Agriculture at Cornell responded favorably by establishing a working relationship with what was later to become the Long Island Duck Research Cooperative As a result the Duck Research Laboratory was established on Eastern Long Island at Eastport New York in 1949 The research and service programs are administered by Cornell through a local laboratory director working under the advisement of the research cooperative board of directors The research is conducted by Cornell scientists located at the Long Island facility Service programs such as biologics production and distribution diagnostic services and consultation are also carried out by the local laboratory staff Members of the research cooperative help support the laboratory financially by paying membership dues and fees on the biologics they use Although originally formed by Long Island duck producers membership in the research cooperative expanded over the years to include duck producers and other types of duck keepers and feed manufacturers as well located in other states and other countries In order to reflect its diverse

    Original URL path: https://ahdc.vet.cornell.edu/Sects/duck/idrc.cfm (2015-06-03)
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  • Domestic Ducks
    records of this or a similar breed have been found in Egypt There are both colored and white feathered varieties of Muscovies The Sudani is a breed of Muscovy found in Egypt Unlike common ducks the head and face of Muscovies is covered with caruncles a fleshy growth that resembles wattles Another prominent feature of Muscovy ducks is the large difference in body size between the drake and the duck the male weighing 30 50 more than the female Muscovies tolerate hot weather much better than common ducks Muscovy eggs require about 35 days to hatch While Muscovies can be crossed with common ducks their offspring are sterile Sterile Hybrid Ducks When Muscovies and common ducks are allowed to mate naturally the fertility rate is usually very low It is a common practice today to use artificial insemination to increase the fertility Whatever the method of mating the offspring are sterile and cannot be used for breeding These sterile hybrids are called mule Muscovy male x common female or hinny common male x Muscovy female ducks In some cases special names are assigned to hybrids by commercial breeders For example one hybrid produced by crossing Muscovy males with Pekin females is called Moulard Such names may identify the commercial breeder and the particular strain of Muscovy and common duck used to produce the hybrid In Taiwan the hybrid produced by crossing a White Muscovy male with a Kaiya Pekin x Tsaiya female is called simply the Mule Duck Mule Ducks are popular among the people of Taiwan because of their taste and high proportion of lean meat Choosing the right Breed of Duck Choose a breed of duck that best suits your needs This may be a native breed that is well adapted to the weather conditions of the area where you live or it may be a breed that performs better than local breeds available from duck keepers in other areas or from a commercial breeder Meat Type Breeds If you are mainly interested in meat and able to obtain the necessary feed or feed ingredients required choose a meat type breed like thePekin Pekin ducks grow rapidly reaching approximately 90 of their adult weight at 7 weeks ofage when properly fed It is not uncommon for commercially grown Pekin ducks to weight 7 lb 3 2 kg at 7weeksof age Their growth rate under less favorable conditions will dependupon the quality of thediet they are fed But even under less optimum conditions Pekins can do quite well The meat from Pekin ducks is very tender and succulent and known worldwide for its delicious taste Some meat type breeds such as the Aylesbury and Rouen and unimproved lines of Pekins as well have become less popular in recent times due in part to the development of improved Commercial lines of Pekin or other white feathered Pekin like ducks The Muscovy duck is also a popular meat duck in some areas of the world This breed is presently very popular

    Original URL path: https://ahdc.vet.cornell.edu/Sects/duck/domestic.cfm (2015-06-03)
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  • Basic Duck Care
    Housing and Management Hatching Duck Eggs Food Value of Duck Publications on Ducks Links to Related Sites Who We Are Contact AHDC Test Search Perform a search of our test and fee catalog Select the criteria below All Species Amphibian Avian Bovine Camelidae Canine Caprine Cervidae Equine Feline Ferret Fish Mammal Other Ovine Porcine Primate Reptile All Lab Sections Anatomic Pathology Avian Diagnostics Bacteriology Brucellosis Clinical Pathology Comparative Coagulation Endocrinology Molecular Diagnostics Parasitology Quality Milk Production Referral Serology Toxicology Virology All Test Types Infectious Non Infectious Basic Duck Care Tirath S Sandhu DVM Ph D and William F Dean Ph D Ducks are raised under a wide variety of conditions ranging from a backyard coop for a few ducks to modern housing for large flocks on a commercial duck farm Duck farming systems around the world vary from the very extensive herding system of the Orient to the highly intensive modern commercial duck producing systems of the West which are becoming much more common in the East as well Regardless of the category of duck keeping there are certain basic requirements that must be met if ducks are to remain healthy Several of the pages on this site see the links to the left are intended to educate duck caretakers with regard to meeting these basic requirements Ducks adapt well to a wide range of systems of care provided they receive essential basic care Except for the early brooding stage when ducklings require a higher temperature and special attention by the caretaker see brooding the basic requirements of ducks are as follows Protection from extremes in weather conditions and predators A clean dry sheltered area Although ducks can spend most of their time outdoors on ponds or in wet areas they require a clean dry sheltered area where they can

    Original URL path: https://ahdc.vet.cornell.edu/Sects/duck/basiccare.cfm (2015-06-03)
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  • Duck Health Care
    hepatitis is a highly fatal contagious disease of young ducklings 1 28 days of age Ducklings are most susceptible at the younger ages and gradually become more resistant as they grow older The disease is rarely seen in ducklings over 4 weeks of age The onset of the disease is very rapid it spreads quickly through the flock and may cause up to 90 mortality Sick ducklings develop spasmodic contractions of their legs and die within an hour in a typical arched backward position The liver is enlarged and shows hemorrhagic spots To prevent this disease keep age groups isolated and vaccinate breeder ducks with an attenuated live virus duck hepatitis vaccine to produce maternally immune ducklings Duck Plague Duck Virus Enteritis Duck virus enteritis is an acute contagious highly fatal disease of waterfowl caused by a herpes virus This disease is most likely to affect mature ducks but is also seen in young ducks Affected birds show sluggishness ruffled feathers greenish yellow diarrhea that is sometime blood stained Dead birds often have blood stained feathers around the vent and blood dripping from the nostrils Hemorrhages may be found in tissues throughout the body Eruptive lesions of the mucous lining of the esophagus and intestine are characteristic signs of the disease Necrotic plaques may be observed in the cloaca Regular immunization of breeder ducks with an attenuated live duck virus enteritis vaccine provides adequate protection Riemerella anatipestifer Infection This bacterial disease of ducks is also known as Pasteurella anatipestifer infection infectious serositis and New Duck disease Anatipestifer infection causes high mortality weight loss and condemnation In the acute form listlessness eye discharge and diarrhea are commonly seen Ducks show incoordination shaking of the head and twisted neck Birds are commonly found on their backs paddling their legs Typical lesions found in dead birds are infected air sacs membranes covering the heart and liver and meningitis Preventive management and vaccination are effective means of control Penicillin enrofloxacin and sulfadimethoxine ormetoprim 0 04 0 08 in feed are effective in reducing mortality Avian Cholera Avian cholera also called fowl cholera caused by the bacterium Pasteurella multocida is an important disease of domestic ducks and is an especially troublesome disease of ducks in some parts of Asia This disease is associated with poor sanitation and standing water in duck pens Symptoms include loss of appetite mucous discharge from the mouth diarrhea and in breeder ducks labored breathing Lesions found in dead birds include hemorrhages on heart muscle mesentery and abdominal fat The liver is enlarged copper colored and friable easily crumbled Pinpoint whitish spots may be seen on the liver Good sanitation practices go a long way toward preventing this disease Sulfadimethoxine ormetoprim 0 02 0 04 and Chlortetracycline 0 044 given in feed are effective treatments Colibacillosis This common infection of poultry caused by Escherichia coli causes reduced hatchability infection of the yolk sac omphalitis a septicemia bacterial invasion of bloodstream in ducks 2 8 weeks of age and salpingitis and peritonitis

    Original URL path: https://ahdc.vet.cornell.edu/Sects/duck/health.cfm (2015-06-03)
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  • Duck Nutrition
    access to areas where they can forage they may be able to survive grow and lay eggs by consuming available food such as green plants insects snails frogs and table scraps Under such conditions ducks will likely grow very slowly and produce a small number of eggs Herded ducks are an exception but they require access to large areas where food is available and the care of a herdsman If keepers of small home flocks want better growth and more eggs they will have to provide supplemental feed At a minimum they will have to feed some grain As the size of a home flock increases it becomes more likely that the flock will not be able to get enough food by foraging and supplemental feeding will become necessary If more than a few ducks are to be kept or if increased performance is desired there are a number of choices of feeding practices 1 If available and affordable purchase nutritionally complete commercially prepared duck feeds If duck rations are not available and chicken feeds are they will serve as a satisfactory substitute 2 If poultry feed concentrates which when fed with grain constitute a nutritionally complete diet are available at a reasonable price this may be a good option The grain can sometimes be purchased from local farmers at a favorable price 3 For those with sufficient knowledge of nutrition and feed formulation complete duck rations may be mixed on the farm This approach is dependent upon the availability of feed ingredients and vitamin and mineral premixes at affordable prices Small batches can be mixed by turning the feed on a clean floor with a shovel Nutrient requirements of ducks Ducks require the same nutrients as chickens but in slightly different amounts and particularly in terms of the ratio of each nutrient to the energy concentration of the diet Protein Ducks like other poultry do not actually require protein but the individual amino acids contained in dietary proteins The proteins in the diet are broken down during digestion to amino acids which are absorbed and used by the duck to make its own body proteins such as those in muscle and feathers Certain of these amino acids must be supplied in the diet because the duck cannot make them from other sources These are called essential amino acids When formulating feeds for ducks primary attention is paid to meeting the ducks essential amino acid requirements Protein levels that meet the ducks amino acid requirements may vary slightly depending upon the amino acid content of the ingredients used in each formulation Feed quality One of the most common causes of poor feed quality is failure to dry grains and other feedstuffs properly before storage If grains that are too high in moisture are stored without turning or aeration the grain will heat up and mold and some of its nutritive value will be destroyed As explained elsewhere some molds may produce toxins that are particularly harmful to ducks Make sure

    Original URL path: https://ahdc.vet.cornell.edu/Sects/duck/nutrition.cfm (2015-06-03)
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  • Duck Housing and Management
    can move away from the heat if it gets too warm See Table 1 for recommended temperatures which are gradually lowered as the duckling grows In addition ducklingsshould be allowed access to more of the floor area of the pen as they grow older When outside temperatures are above 70 F 21 1 C ducklings can be allowed outdoors part of the day after about 14 days of age Optimum temperatures for ducks At the time of hatching ducklings require a high temperature of about 86 F 30 C They are not yet able to regulate their body temperature and must have supplemental heat such as that provided by a brooder As they grow older they become better able to produce and conserve heat and regulate their body temperature After a duckling is fully covered with feathers and down they are able to maintain proper body temperature even when the outside temperature is low The recommended temperatures for ducks at different ages are given in Table 1 Table 1 Optimum Temperatures for Ducks Age of Days F C 1 86 30 7 81 27 14 73 23 21 66 19 28 59 15 35 55 13 42 55 13 49 55 13 Developing breeders 55 13 Laying breeders 55 13 Floor space Overcrowding ducks can be extremely detrimental to their health growth or egg production Providing adequate floorspace at each stage of development is basic to successful duck raising While undercrowding is not usually a problem it is better to stock ducks at near the recommended density see Table 2 below in cold weather so that body heat will help warm the room in which the ducks are confined Table 2 Floor Space Allowances for Ducks Age of days Space Duck sq cm Space Duck sq ft 1 289 0 31 2 576 0 62 3 1024 1 10 4 1369 1 47 5 1764 1 90 6 2116 2 28 7 2304 2 48 Developing breeders 2500 2 69 Laying breeders 2809 3 02 Flooring for ducks Duck keepers should avoid flooring that will injure the skin covering the feet and hock joints of ducks The smooth skin of ducks is not as tough not as cornified as that of land fowl and is more susceptible to injury when ducks are confined on surfaces that are too rough or abrasive Slats wire floors or cage bottoms may cause injury to the feet and legs of ducks unless these surfaces are smooth non abrasive and free of sharp edges Stones mixed with the soil covering the duck yards can also cause injury The detrimental effect of flooring on ducks increases with the age and size of the duck and the longer ducks are confined to the flooring The likelihood of injury is greatly reduced if wire occupies no more one fourth to one third of the floor area Properly constructed wire floors are usually a better choice than slats which can cause leg deformities as well as injury to skin

    Original URL path: https://ahdc.vet.cornell.edu/Sects/duck/housing.cfm (2015-06-03)
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