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  • Clinical Pathology: Animal Health Diagnostic Center
    additional information on collecting and submitting samples See below for additional information Freshly made rapidly air dried unstained smears should be submitted with the fluid especially if the sample will not reach the lab within 24 hours A red top tube should be submitted if any chemistry tests e g urea nitrogen triglycerides glucose or culture is requested from the fluid For bloody body cavity fluids place some fluid in a red top tube to determine if the sample clots Reported Results Visual Assessments Volume color turbidity of submitted fluids in which cell counts are performed Total Protein Measured by refractometry for most fluid samples CSF protein is measured on our automated chemistry analyzer Sample Viscosity A subjective visual assessment of the viscosity of the sample normal decreased Cell Counts Includes both a nucleated cell and RBC counts In most instances this is done using an automated counter Cell counts of poorly cellular fluids e g CSF BAL are done manually by hemocytometer Smear Description A complete microscopic description of the sample Smear Interpretation We will provide you with a cytologic diagnosis where possible or a list of differential diagnoses and additional tests if indicated to consider based on the findings Notes on Individual Tests Cytology Smear Exam This test is appropriate for aspirates from any solid organs or masses and may also be requested when submitting the following fluids Fluid from a site other than body cavities joints or subarachnoid space such as fluid from a mass Fluid from body cavities or joints when volume is insufficient generally 0 3 ml for total protein and cell counts Urine See below for further details on urine cytology Urine Cytology Cytology examination of urine is generally requested to better characterize the morphologic features of the cellular components of the urine usually

    Original URL path: https://ahdc.vet.cornell.edu/Sects/ClinPath/test/cytol/index.cfm (2015-06-03)
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  • samples
    Clinical Pathology Comparative Coagulation Endocrinology Molecular Diagnostics Parasitology Quality Milk Production Referral Serology Toxicology Virology All Test Types Infectious Non Infectious Samples for Cytology All cytology submissions must come with a completed request form that is specific for cytology cytology submission form For additional information and tips on sample handling to optimize cytology results click on cytology sample collection and handling Important points when filling out the cytology request form Please use one cytology submission form per patient One form can be used for multiple samples or tests from an individual patient Please provide a complete history This is vital to our interpretation of results Signalment Species breed age and sex of patient Location of the mass including joint bone or other organ involvement For cerebrospinal taps specify if you have collected the fluid from the atlanto occipital AO or cervical or lumbosacral LS region as result interpretation is very dependent on site For tracheal washes please indicate if the sample was collected via transtracheal aspiration TTW or whether it was collected through an endoscope scope Description of the lesion s size consistency Imaging findings e g for a pleural effusion tell us if you have seen radiographic or ultrasonographic evidence of thoracic masses and what their location and size are Other pertinent results e g attach a copy of a recent 24 48 hour hemogram with bone marrow requests Other diagnostic tests requested field Use this field to order other Clinical Pathology or Diagnostic Laboratory tests e g ordering a CBC with a Bone Marrow Cytology or a culture with a tracheal wash cytology Below is a check list of samples required for our different cytology tests A red top tube should be submitted if any chemistry tests e g urea nitrogen triglycerides glucose or culture is requested from

    Original URL path: https://ahdc.vet.cornell.edu/Sects/ClinPath/test/cytol/samples.cfm (2015-06-03)
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  • Immunophenotyping Sample Submission
    for routine bone marrow examination Ideally submit blood for a hemogram with 2 freshly prepared blood smears or please provide results from a recent hemogram within last three days back to top Body cavity fluids for flow cytometry test flow lymphoma Usually used for identifying neoplastic lymphocytes lymphoma in effusions Dogs and cats limited panel 1 ml of fluid in EDTA The more the better if nucleated cell counts in the fluid are low we can only apply 1 2 antibodies Fresh is best Cells rapidly deteriorate in fluid samples particularly if low protein can add a few drops of species specific serum if protein is 3 0 g dL on the refractometer Important Must be accompanied by routine cytologic assessment of fluid so we ensure the cells of interest are in sufficient numbers and adequately preserved for analysis At the minimum provide 2 3 rapidly dried unstained smears of the fluid specify if concentrated or unconcentrated for morphologic evaluation using Wright s stain and a copy of the cytology report from the sample Ideally request a cytology smear or body cavity fluid analysis from the sample back to top Aspirates for flow cytometry e g lymph node liver spleen mediastinal mass test flow lymphoma Dogs and cats limited panel Usually used for identifying neoplastic lymphocytes lymphoma in solid aspirates of tissue Prepare the tube Add 1 ml physiologic saline 0 9 NaCl lactated Ringers solution to a red top tube Add 0 1 ml of serum from the patient or a different patient of the same species to the tube Using a 20 g needle and 5 ml syringe aspirate the affected organ redirecting the needle without withdrawing from the tissue several times if possible Expel the contents of the syringe and needle into the fluid gently aspirating the fluid into the syringe several times to retrieve all cells The ideal sample should be cloudy indicating a good cell yield but not too bloody Fresh is best Submit ASAP keep cool Important Must be accompanied by routine cytologic assessment of the sample At the minimum provide 2 3 direct unstained rapidly dried smears from the aspirated organ from the tube or a different aspirate for morphologic evaluation using Wright s stain and a copy of the cytology report from the sample Ideally request a cytology smear from the sample back to top Immunocytochemistry of prepared cytology smears test Immuno Stain 1 4 Most species Used for Confirming and phenotyping lymphoid neoplasms T or B cell lymphoma particularly when cells cannot be obtained for flow cytometry Differentiating between types of hematopoietic neoplasms e g lymphoma histiocytic sarcoma Identifying cell lineage of non hematopoietic neoplasms e g cytokeratin for carcinoma von Willebrand factor for hemangiosarcoma Tissue Any type including blood bone marrow solid organs Submit 3 or more rapidly air dried unstained smears of the tissue The more the better A minimum of 1 smear is required per antibody this limits the number of antibodies that can be applied to the

    Original URL path: https://ahdc.vet.cornell.edu/Sects/ClinPath/news/immunophenotyping_samples.cfm (2015-06-03)
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  • Clinical Pathology: Animal Health Diagnostic Center
    in our laboratory Other reference intervals provided with our reports have been provided by the manufacturer of the kits we use for these tests Agarose Gel Reference Intervals These reference intervals were established using our Helena REP agarose gel electrophoresis equipment Test Units Canine Feline Equine Bovine Alpaca Albumin g dL 2 2 3 3 2 4 3 8 2 3 3 5 2 6 3 9 2 9 4 0 Total a1 g dL 0 1 0 3 0 6 1 4 0 3 0 8 0 3 0 5 0 1 0 5 Total a2 g dL 1 0 1 6 0 8 1 6 0 7 1 3 0 8 1 3 0 3 0 7 Total a g dL 1 1 1 8 1 6 2 4 1 2 1 7 1 2 1 6 0 5 1 1 Total b1 g dL 0 3 1 0 0 3 0 6 0 2 1 1 0 6 1 0 0 4 1 0 Total b2 g dL 0 2 1 0 0 1 0 5 0 3 0 8 0 5 0 9 0 2 0 6 Total b g dL 0 8 1 8 0 4 1 0 0 7 1 6 1 2 1 8 0 9 1 6 g g dL 0 3 1 1 0 6 2 2 0 7 1 8 1 1 2 7 0 5 1 6 Total globulin g dL 2 6 4 2 3 4 5 1 2 8 4 7 3 8 5 7 A G 0 5 1 1 0 5 1 2 0 6 1 1 0 5 1 0 0 8 1 8 Immunoglobulin Reference Intervals These reference intervals were established in our laboratory using radial immunodiffusion kits obtained from Bethyl laboratories Because

    Original URL path: https://ahdc.vet.cornell.edu/sects/clinpath/reference/immun.cfm (2015-06-03)
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  • Clinical Pathology: Animal Health Diagnostic Center
    Endocrinology Molecular Diagnostics Parasitology Quality Milk QMPS Serology Immunology Toxicology Virology Programs CEM Quarantine NYSCHAP Referrals Veterinary Support Services Resources AHDC Research About AHDC About AHDC People Giving Clinical Pathology Clinical Pathology Testing Test Info Protocols Research Development Educational Resources ClinPath Residency About the Clinical Pathology Section Personnel Contact Clinical Pathology Contact AHDC Test Search Perform a search of our test and fee catalog Select the criteria below All Species Amphibian Avian Bovine Camelidae Canine Caprine Cervidae Equine Feline Ferret Fish Mammal Other Ovine Porcine Primate Reptile All Lab Sections Anatomic Pathology Avian Diagnostics Bacteriology Brucellosis Clinical Pathology Comparative Coagulation Endocrinology Molecular Diagnostics Parasitology Quality Milk Production Referral Serology Toxicology Virology All Test Types Infectious Non Infectious Saving of Serum and EDTA samples All samples submitted to the Clinical Pathology Laboratory are saved in the refrigerator for 7 days after submission This includes Serum Plasma and EDTA samples If an additional test is desired within 7 days you can call the Diagnostic Lab or the Clinical Pathology Lab directly We will make every effort to meet your needs At times there is not enough sample to add the test in this case we will let you know We can keep

    Original URL path: https://ahdc.vet.cornell.edu/sects/clinpath/sample/saving.cfm (2015-06-03)
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  • Immunophenotyping Tests
    and small amounts of light blue cytoplasm containing red cytoplasmic granules arrows Morphologic findings were compatible with a diagnosis of a leukemia of granular lymphocytes A neutrophil and a monocyte are also present in this field Wright s stain 1000x magnification The dog had a concurrent neutrophilia but was not anemic or thrombocytopenic Figure 2 Dotplot of fluorescence staining for CD3 T cell marker and CD8 cytotoxic T cell marker of the lymphocytes in question from Figure 1 Most of the lymphocytes are double positive upper right quadrant for CD3 and CD8 indicating a leukemia of cytotoxic T cells This is the most common phenotype of this type of leukemia which usually arises in the spleen and behaves in an indolent fashion in dogs A lymphocytosis of these T cells can be seen in dogs with Ehrlichia canis infection however usually not to this degree The dog was negative for Ehrlichia canis on serologic testing back to top Immunocytochemistry This involves immunostaining of smears prepared from tissue aspirates or body cavity fluids We use this technique for identifying the cell of origin in smears prepared from aspirates of tissues with suspected hematopoietic neoplasia e g lymphoma histocytic sarcoma Figures 3 and 4 It also can be used for confirming or identifying the cell of origin with non hematopoietic neoplasia see table below Since one antibody is applied to one smear the main limitations to this technique are the number and quality of the smears Examination of a Wright s stained smear is an essential component to interpreting these samples Please call the laboratory if you need help determining which test to perform on these samples Figure 3 Representative photomicrograph of cytospin smears prepared from an aspirate of a popliteal lymph node from a dog with marked peripheral lymphadenopathy the aspirate was placed in physiologic saline with some added serum Intermediate lymphocytes with deeply cleaved nuclei fine chromatin and no nucleoli dominate with low numbers of small lymphocytes arrow Wright s stain 1000x magnification Figure 4 Immunostaining for Pax 5 B cell marker and CD3 T cell marker was performed on the cytospin smears prepared from the aspirate The small lymphocytes were positive for Pax 5 whereas the intermediate lymphocytes the dominant population were positive for CD3 brown membraneous and cytoplasmic staining The results were diagnostic for a T cell lymphoma 1000x magnification back to top Results Results are generally available 48 hours from the day of analysis We are routinely performing flow cytometry on Tuesday and Thursday and immunocytochemistry on Friday We provide a complete cytology report description and interpretation and also a pdf of our analysis of the flow cytometric results Interpretation will be hampered by sample deterioration with storage fresh is best or if samples are poorly cellular Note that we never interpret results of flow cytometry or immunocytochemistry in isolation We always use the provided signalment clinical signs history imaging findings and clinical pathologic results to help with our interpretation It is imperative that we have Wright

    Original URL path: https://ahdc.vet.cornell.edu/Sects/ClinPath/news/immunophenotyping_tests.cfm (2015-06-03)
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  • STATS
    SOON AS POSSIBLE Please request a test to be run as STAT only when conditions are such that results will dictate immediate treatment plans or decision making STAT requests are pushed to the head of our test queues this means that results for these other tests are delayed and some may in fact be more urgent than the STAT Therefore please do not request any STAT for convenience purposes We make every attempt to get STATs done as soon as possible However time is needed to prepare the sample for testing most require spinning and or slide staining then running the sample through the appropriate analyzer and entering the results into the computer Sometimes high or abnormal values need to be repeated further delaying test results but improving result accuracy Also some results need to be reviewed by the Clinical Pathologist on duty before they are entered into the computer which will add to the completion time A fee is added to each STAT test requested per instrument or per site for cytologies Please check with the laboratory for current STAT fees Certain tests are not accepted as STAT samples These include bone marrow aspirates and immunologic tests except for crossmatches Cornell University Hospital Animal CUHA STAT samples All STATs should be brought immediately to the laboratory The request form should be clearly marked that the tests are requested STAT STAT chemistry tests should be submitted in heparin anticoagulant green top tube otherwise the results will be delayed while we wait for the sample to clot Cytology STATs must be arranged in advance to ensure there is a clinical pathologist available at the time needed Please call the laboratory as far ahead as possible Please do not call the laboratory for your STAT results The clinician in charge of the

    Original URL path: https://ahdc.vet.cornell.edu/Sects/ClinPath/test/STATS.cfm (2015-06-03)
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  • Test Turn-around Times
    Referrals Veterinary Support Services Resources AHDC Research About AHDC About AHDC People Giving Clinical Pathology Clinical Pathology Testing Test Info Protocols Research Development Educational Resources ClinPath Residency About the Clinical Pathology Section Personnel Contact Clinical Pathology Contact AHDC Test Search Perform a search of our test and fee catalog Select the criteria below All Species Amphibian Avian Bovine Camelidae Canine Caprine Cervidae Equine Feline Ferret Fish Mammal Other Ovine Porcine Primate Reptile All Lab Sections Anatomic Pathology Avian Diagnostics Bacteriology Brucellosis Clinical Pathology Comparative Coagulation Endocrinology Molecular Diagnostics Parasitology Quality Milk Production Referral Serology Toxicology Virology All Test Types Infectious Non Infectious Test Turnaround Times AHDC Clients We strive to provide you with the most accurate results in a timely fashion Turnaround times for routine tests such as CBCs routine chemistry tests and panels urinalyses some immunology tests and cytologies is generally 24 hours from sample receipt in the laboratory though we do our best to have results to you sooner if feasible However samples received after 3 30 pm on Friday insufficient time to process the sample for analysis or Saturday no clinical pathologist on routine duty will usually be reported out on Monday CUHA Staff and Students There

    Original URL path: https://ahdc.vet.cornell.edu/sects/ClinPath/sample/testturnaroundtimes.cfm (2015-06-03)
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