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  • Special Sample Collection Instructions for Ammonia
    Perform a search of our test and fee catalog Select the criteria below All Species Amphibian Avian Bovine Camelidae Canine Caprine Cervidae Equine Feline Ferret Fish Mammal Other Ovine Porcine Primate Reptile All Lab Sections Anatomic Pathology Avian Diagnostics Bacteriology Brucellosis Clinical Pathology Comparative Coagulation Endocrinology Molecular Diagnostics Parasitology Quality Milk Production Referral Serology Toxicology Virology All Test Types Infectious Non Infectious Special Sample Collection Instructions for Ammonia Measurement of ammonia is problematic as it rapidly increases with storage in whole blood and also increases with storage in separated plasma As a result the following handling collection and handling instructions should be followed Mailed in samples or samples that will not reach the lab within an hour of sampling Blood should be collected into EDTA or heparin tubes separated immediately and the plasma should be frozen The frozen plasma sample should be shipped to the lab on dry ice needs to stay frozen Mark the outside of the shipping box in large letters with the following PERISHABLE KEEP FROZEN If the sample arrives at the lab thawed a comment will be added indicating that the ammonia value may be falsely increased from storage Local clients within a 1 hour drive

    Original URL path: https://ahdc.vet.cornell.edu/Sects/ClinPath/sample/test/ammonia.cfm (2015-06-03)
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  • Animal Health Diagnostic Center
    Pathology Contact AHDC Test Search Perform a search of our test and fee catalog Select the criteria below All Species Amphibian Avian Bovine Camelidae Canine Caprine Cervidae Equine Feline Ferret Fish Mammal Other Ovine Porcine Primate Reptile All Lab Sections Anatomic Pathology Avian Diagnostics Bacteriology Brucellosis Clinical Pathology Comparative Coagulation Endocrinology Molecular Diagnostics Parasitology Quality Milk Production Referral Serology Toxicology Virology All Test Types Infectious Non Infectious Samples for Blood Gases Blood gas samples should only be be collected into heparin green top tube either directly into vacutainers or heparin coated syringes Blood gases are unstable and should be rushed over to the laboratory as soon as possible The samples must also be kept anaerobic so do not expose the sample to air or agitate the sample after exposure to air Ionized calcium values are dependent on blood pH therefore they should be treated similarly to blood gases Ionized calcium should be collected in red top tubes These guidelines should be followed for submission of blood gases Ensure the sample is kept anaerobic NO MICROTAINERS This is because we cannot keep the sample anaerobic in the laboratory and there is often insufficient volume in a microtainer to perform the blood

    Original URL path: https://ahdc.vet.cornell.edu/sects/clinpath/sample/test/blood.cfm (2015-06-03)
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  • Animal Health Diagnostic Center
    have to wait for the blood to clot Citrate blue top and EDTA lavender top cannot be used for chemistry panels because they chelate minerals e g calcium and interfere with the tests Furthermore citrate dilutes the sample We recommend that from an individual patient samples for chemistry should always be collected into the same tube heparin or red top for the duration of the patient s stay in hospital This will ensure that changes in analytes are patient or disease and not anticoagulant related For example if the first chemistry panel is submitted in heparin all subsequent chemistry tests should be submitted in heparin to allow more valid comparison between sequential results These guidelines should be followed for submission of chemistry tests A full clot tube should be submitted whenever possible Heparin tubes should always be more than half full Underfilling of heparin will artefactually increase total bilirubin values By providing us with as much blood as possible we can perform additional tests as required e g sample dilution etc If we do not have enough blood we cannot perform all the required tests If you know that you did not collect enough blood we need at least 1 ml of serum you will need to prioritise which tests you want run otherwise the important tests or tests you want may be QNS quantity insufficient For heparinized samples especially microtainers ensure that the blood is mixed promptly with the heparin to avoid sample clotting This should be done by rolling it between your palms or gentle inversion several times Do not shake the tube Microtainers should be avoided However if only a small amount of blood can be collected e g from a young dog or cat or very sick animals in which multiple sequential samples are going to

    Original URL path: https://ahdc.vet.cornell.edu/sects/clinpath/sample/test/chem.cfm (2015-06-03)
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  • collection
    the cells do not spread well This markedly hinders evaluation and interpretation Thickly spread splat smear Excessive pressure during smear preparation causes rupturing of cells and yields non diagnostic smears This can be a common problem with lymph node aspirates since some lymphocytes are quite fragile and rupture readily Excessive pressure applied during smear preparation all cells are ruptured Rapidly air dry the slides Blowing on the back of the slide with a hair dryer is best This is very important because it optimizes cell spreading on the slide allowing identification of individual cells and detection of small inclusions e g bacteria within the cells Tips on submission of fluid samples For aspirates from body cavity fluids or lesions containing fluid we recommend the following Submit fluid samples in EDTA purple top tube Submit some of the fluid in a red top tube under the following circumstances If a need for culture is anticipated Use the Other diagnostic tests requested field to the right of the Clinical Summary field on the cytology submission form to request a culture If any chemistry tests are to be performed on the fluid e g urea nitrogen creatinine triglycerides bilirubin Use the Other diagnostic tests requested field to the right of the Clinical Summary field on the cytology submission form to request these additional tests If the fluid is very bloody The presence or absence of clots in the red top tube can help us distinguish whether the blood is from true hemorrhage or from collection related blood contamination Store the fluid samples in the refrigerator and submit on ice packs not in direct contact with the ice to prevent cell lysis To optimize results also submit 2 or more smears of freshly collected fluid These smears should be made from unconcentrated fluid called direct smears or concentrated centrifuged fluid called sediment smears If making sediment smears please do not use the entire sample just centrifuge a portion of the sample Please also indicate on the request form and on the smears if making more than one type of smear what type of smear has been prepared direct or sediment Note that we can estimate the cellularity of the fluid from direct but not from concentrated smears Use the wedge or blood smear technique for making smears of fluids of non mucoid samples peritoneal pericardial pleural fluid Use the squash technique illustrated above for mucoid or viscous fluids tracheal wash joint fluid bile Rapidly air dry the smears This is critical for optimal results Indicate on the request form that smears have been submitted with the fluid to ensure we are aware of their presence and make sure that we examine them which is done at no extra charge Tips on submission of urine for cytology Request a cytology smear exam on the cytology submission form and specify the method of collection i e voided cystocentesis or via catheter We recommend that a concurrent urinalysis is also requested on the sample for the best

    Original URL path: https://ahdc.vet.cornell.edu/Sects/ClinPath/test/cytol/collection.cfm (2015-06-03)
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  • Animal Health Diagnostic Center
    illustration for making a good blood smear below Tips for making a good blood smear Clean slides It is imperative to use clean high quality glass slides with clean edges Touching the edges of the spreader slide will affect the quality of the smear The size of the drop If the drop is too large the smear will be too long and thick A small drop may not be fully representative of the blood Speed of spreading action The speed at which the spreader slide is moved is very important If you move it too fast the smear is too short and all the cells are at the feathered edge If you go too slow the smear is too long lacks a feathered edge Angle of the spreader slide The angle determines the length of the smear An angle of approximately 30 40 is optimal If you use a larger angle 45 the smear is very short If you use a lower angle the smear will be too long Maintain this angle through the duration of the spreading action Even contact Even contact between the two slides is essential throughout the smear preparation process do not add much downward pressure onto the spreader top slide Illustration on how to make a peripheral blood smear wedge smear A Use clean slides with a frosted end Place a drop of blood on this slide as follows we recommend the use of a microhematocrit or capillary tube rather than the pipette shown the image Fill a capillary tube at least 3 4 full with well mixed blood then hold your finger over one end to prevent it flowing out Holding the tube horizontally over the slide release the pressure of your finger from the end and tilt the tube slightly toward the vertical to allow a controlled amount of blood to flow out of the tube and onto the slide Place a drop of blood approximately 4 mm in diameter on the slide approximately 0 5 cm from the frosted area B Pick up a second clean slide and hold it by placing your first two or three fingers on one edge of the slide and your thumb on the opposite edge the slide in your hand is the spreader slide Do not touch the spreading edge short non frosted end with your hands Place the spreading end of the spreader slide at a 30 40 degree angle on the slide in front of the blood droplet The entire short edge of the spreader slide should be in complete even contact with the lower slide Using your other hand pin the lower slide to the countertop to prevent it moving In one smooth motion draw the spreader slide back through the entire drop of blood C C and D Once the blood spreads along the edge of the spreader slide this occurs quickly push the blood forward along the length of the lower slide It is very important to relax your wrist and

    Original URL path: https://ahdc.vet.cornell.edu/Sects/ClinPath/sample/test/hema.cfm (2015-06-03)
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  • Animal Health Diagnostic Center
    Reptile All Lab Sections Anatomic Pathology Avian Diagnostics Bacteriology Brucellosis Clinical Pathology Comparative Coagulation Endocrinology Molecular Diagnostics Parasitology Quality Milk Production Referral Serology Toxicology Virology All Test Types Infectious Non Infectious Samples for Immunology The sample requirements are test dependent as outlined below Note that with the exception of crossmatches none of the immunology tests are performed STAT These guidelines should be followed for submission of urine tests Antinuclear antibody Rheumatoid factor Immunoglobulins Electrophoresis LE preparation Serum is the preferred sample Body fluids e g peritoneal fluid and urine should be submitted in red top tubes for electrophoresis CSF can be submitted as EDTA or in red top tubes for ELP We need a minimum of 10 ml in a red top tube for an LE prep Please contact the Clinical pathologist on duty if you wish to run CSF electrophoresis Please note that electrophoresis is only performed once weekly on Wednesdays or Thursdays Therefore to expedite processing ensure the sample is in the laboratory by Tuesday afternoon Our immunoglobulin reference intervals are only valid for adult animals Therefore if testing dogs under 1 year of age growing animals usually have lower immunoglobulins several age matched control animals should be submitted concurrently Coombs EDTA blood lavender top tube is the required sample Samples should be run promptly to prevent false negatives For this reason we run Coombs tests on the same day we receive the sample and the request for this test whenever possible Crossmatch The most important component of the crossmatch is the major crossmatch For this we need EDTA citrate or citrate phosphate dextrose CPD e g packed red cells from the donor or foal or stallion for a mare foal or mare stallion incompatibility test and serum from the recipient or mare The minor crossmatch is less

    Original URL path: https://ahdc.vet.cornell.edu/sects/clinpath/sample/test/immun.cfm (2015-06-03)
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  • Animal Health Diagnostic Center
    Perform a search of our test and fee catalog Select the criteria below All Species Amphibian Avian Bovine Camelidae Canine Caprine Cervidae Equine Feline Ferret Fish Mammal Other Ovine Porcine Primate Reptile All Lab Sections Anatomic Pathology Avian Diagnostics Bacteriology Brucellosis Clinical Pathology Comparative Coagulation Endocrinology Molecular Diagnostics Parasitology Quality Milk Production Referral Serology Toxicology Virology All Test Types Infectious Non Infectious Samples for Urinalysis Urine samples should be collected into red top containers or urine cups for all urine tests including cytology No plastic tubes please These guidelines should be followed for submission of urine tests Collect at least 10 ml of urine We try and standardize the volume of urine used for urinalysis This is impossible to do if samples ranging from 0 5 ml way too little to do anything useful with to 100 ml are collected In addition we need a minimum of 10 ml of urine for electrophoresis The urine protein concentration is very low and we need a minimum amount of protein to perform the electrophoresis Most urine samples require concentration to obtain this minimum amount and for optimal concentration we need a large sample volume The tubes should be labeled with the patient

    Original URL path: https://ahdc.vet.cornell.edu/sects/clinpath/sample/test/urine.cfm (2015-06-03)
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  • Detailed Sampling Instructions & Video
    dilute nolvasan solution or antiseptic wipe Options either 3 8 or 3 2 sodium citrate can be used larger volume 6 ml syringe could be used to collect 4 to 6 ml sample volume hair overlying venipuncture site can be clipped Procedure Gently restrain the patient and apply manual pressure proximal to cephalic or saphenous venipuncture site to allow the vein to fill with blood Aspirate an exact volume of citrate into the collection syringe to give a final ratio of 1 part citrate to 9 parts blood Use one of the following sampling protocols 2 0 ml total sample volume 0 2 ml citrate 1 8 ml blood 3 0 ml total sample volume 0 3 ml citrate 2 7 ml blood 4 0 ml total sample volume 0 4 ml citrate 3 6 ml blood Perform venipuncture and collect blood into the syringe containing pre measured citrate to obtain the exact total sample volume Withdraw the needle and apply direct pressure to the venipuncture site Remove the needle from the collection syringe and gently express the blood sample into a plastic tube Notes on Collection Methods Use of peripheral veins rather than the jugular vein is preferred for patients having severe hemostatic defects because of the risk of hematoma formation at venipuncture sites Cervical hematoma formation could compromise the patient s airway Blood samples can be drawn from an indwelling catheter using the syringe method if the catheter is first flushed with 5 to 10 ml sterile saline 0 9 saline NO HEPARIN A 3 to 5 ml aliquot of blood should be withdrawn from the catheter and then the sample syringe containing pre measured citrate is attached to the catheter and blood is withdrawn to obtain the exact total sample volume Atraumatic venipuncture technique is critical to

    Original URL path: https://ahdc.vet.cornell.edu/Sects/Coag/samplinginstructions.cfm (2015-06-03)
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