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  • Clinical Pathology: Animal Health Diagnostic Center
    histones These antibodies can be detected with an ANA test In this technique a fluorescent labeled immunoglobulin is used to detect immunoglobulin in the patient s serum against nuclear components We currently use rat liver as a source of nuclear components Patient sample in sequential dilutions to obtain an ANA titer is incubated with rat liver If there are antibodies against nuclear components these will bind to the nuclei in the liver The bound antibodies can then be detected using a secondary fluorescent labeled antibody against the species specific immunoglobulin with fluorescent microscopy Different immunofluorescent patterns can be seen such as homogenous shown on the left speckled and nucleolar However in the dog these patterns are not specific for a particular antibody or disease The test requires the use of species specific fluorescent antibody which we only have for the dog and cat The ANA test is used specifically for the diagnosis of systemic lupus erythematosis SLE A positive ANA titer 1 80 with the associated clinical signs e g skin disease polyarthritis and laboratory findings e g proteinuria thrombocytopenia is diagnostic for SLE ANA tests are used to support a diagnosis of SLE but it must be realised that positive results can be seen in a variety of conditions other than SLE including infectious and non immune mediated inflammatory disease Some people use the ANA titer to support an immune mediated pathogenesis in a variety of other diseases For example dogs with immune mediated non regenerative anemias often have high ANA titers usually 1 160 despite not having SLE Interpretation guidelines for canine Antinuclear Antibody Test The ANA test is sensitive but not specific for SLE Titer Interpretation Negative A negative result argues strongly against a diagnosis of active SLE but does not exclude the possibility of other immune

    Original URL path: https://ahdc.vet.cornell.edu/sects/clinpath/test/immun/ana.cfm (2015-06-03)
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  • Clinical Pathology: Animal Health Diagnostic Center
    necessary to provide absolute values not just percentages of the protein components Albumin Albumin is the first peak on the electrophoretogram and is usually a tall thin peak The albumin concentration by ELP is usually lower than that from the Modular P Alpha a globulins These migrate next to albumin and are synthesized in the liver They include the acute phase reactant proteins a 2 macroglobulin and haptoglobulin In most species a globulins can be split into two main components a1 and a2 although further subdivisions are present in some species or individual animals Beta b globulins These migrate between g and a globulins They are usually produced in the liver and include fibrinogen plasma transferrin and complement components Like a globulins b globulins can be divided into two major components b1 and b2 in most species although further subdivisions are evident e g dogs usually have b1a and b1b Gamma g globulins This comprises the immunoglobulins IgG IgA and IgM and is the furthest peak from albumin In reality IgA and IgM often migrate in the late b b2 region or early g region The shape of the g peak provides diagnostic information A broad based peak indicates a polyclonal gammopathy see panel B below which is usually due to antigenic stimulation and is not disease specific A tall sharp peak in the g region or late b region is compatible with a monoclonal gammopathy Monoclonal peaks are usually due to neoplastic disorders e g multiple myeloma B cell lymphoma or B cell chronic lymphocytic leukemia In rare cases inflammatory or infectious diseases can present with a narrow gamma peak which can be difficult to distinguish from a true neoplastic monoclonal gammopathy This is more correctly termed a restricted oligoclonal gammopathy and has been reported in various diseases such as Ehrlichia Leishmania FIV FIP and other diseases Different electrophoretogram patterns in serum Panel A Normal agarose gel electrophoretogram in a dog The tallest peak to the left is albumin followed by a1 2 peaks a2 2 peaks b1 2 peaks of b1a and b1b b2 and g the last flat peak Panel B Serum from a cat with feline infectious peritonitis virus FIPV infection There is an increase in a 2 globulins arrowhead indicating an acute phase reactant response and a polyclonal gammopathy arrow These results are typical but not specific for FIPV infection they can be seen with other inflammatory conditions Panel C Serum from a dog with multiple myeloma There is a tall narrow peak in the g region indicating a monoclonal gammopathy arrow Albumin concentrations are also decreased compare to the normal dog in panel A Serum protein electrophoresis Serum is the preferred sample for electrophoresis Fibrinogen in heparinized samples produces a monoclonal peak in the b region which affects interpretation in plasma samples We have established our own reference intervals for dogs cats horses cattle and alpacas Therefore abnormal results in these species will be flagged In addition we always provide the electrophoretogram scan itself

    Original URL path: https://ahdc.vet.cornell.edu/sects/clinpath/test/immun/electro.cfm (2015-06-03)
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  • Cross Match: Clin Path
    on the first blood transfusion as long as you are sure this is the first transfusion Once a blood transfusion has been administered to a dog or horse a crossmatch should be performed prior to any subsequent transfusions to detect antibodies that may have been produced against a different red blood cell antigen In cats a crossmatch should be performed on the first blood transfusion because cats have naturally occurring antibody to red blood cell antigens In type B cats the anti A antibody is a strong agglutinin and hemolysin and can result in rapid hemolytic anemia and death if a B cat is transfused with A blood on the first transfusion Type B cats are uncommon amongst DSH but are found in higher frequency amongst the exotic breeds e g Somali Devon Rex For more information on blood groups and transfusion reactions please refer to the Transfusion Medicine portion of our Hemostasis Module For a crossmatch procedure we do 3 types of crossmatches Major crossmatch This is the most important one In this procedure we are looking for antibodies in the recipient against transfused red blood cell antigens from the donor Therefore we need serum from the recipient and red blood cells from the donor Minor crossmatch This detects antibodies in the donor serum to the recipient s red blood cells Therefore for this we need serum from the donor and red blood cells from the recipient Autocontrol We also perform an auto control with our crossmatches i e recipient serum with recipient red blood cells In these procedures washed red blood cells are incubated with serum at 37 C e g for the major crossmatch washed donor red blood cells are incubated with recipient serum We then look for agglutination microscopically In horses we add complement to enhance

    Original URL path: https://ahdc.vet.cornell.edu/sects/clinpath/test/immun/cross.cfm (2015-06-03)
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  • Clinical Pathology: Animal Health Diagnostic Center
    a positive Coombs test but do not have IMHA Therefore a positive Coombs test in this setting is unlikely to be clinically relevant or diagnostic Many people use a Coombs test for helping to confirm the diagnosis of SLE however hemolytic anemia is observed infrequently in SLE 13 in one study and only 4 of dogs with SLE will have a positive Coombstest indicating that this is a test of low yield in this setting At Cornell University we perform a direct Coombs test In this test we are looking for antibody adhered to the patient s red blood cells For this reason we need red cells from the patient preferably asEDTA anticoagulated blood The direct Coombs test is more sensitive than the indirect Coombs test which assesses for antibody in the patient s serum to red cells In some patients with IHA all of their antibody may be attached to their red cells therefore they may have a negative indirect Coombs test but a positive direct Coombs test In the Coombs test washed red blood cells from the patient are incubated with the Coombs reagent at 37 C The Coombs reagent is polyvalent and contains species specific anti IgG anti IgM and anti C antibodies If any of these are present on the patient s red blood cells crosslinking will occur which can be visualized microscopically as agglutination We do perform dilutions of the Coombs reagent in an effort to eliminate the prozone effect a false negative reaction due to extremely large amounts of antibody in undiluted samples Because the Coombs reagent must be species specific we only offer Coombs testing in dogs cats and horses Illustration of a positive direct Coombs reaction Anti red cell antibodies are attached to the patient s erythrocytes When the patient s blood is reacted with the Coombs reagent antiserum the antibodies in the Coombs reagent bind to the antibodies attached to the erythrocytes causing agglutination For samples submitted to the laboratory through the Animal Health Diagnostic Center we request the submission of freshly prepared air dried unstained blood smears as well as EDTA blood We always examine a peripheral blood smear with all our Coombs tests In this way we can provide additional information For example if the Coombs is negative but we see a lot of spherocytes in the blood smear an IHA is likely and we will add a comment to this effect We have made many unsuspected diagnoses from examining blood smears submitted with Coombs tests including acute leukemia and immune mediated thrombocytopenia In most of these cases the Coombs test result has been negative and blood smear examination provided diagnostic information for the case whereas the Coombs test did not Coombs tests should be performed as soon as possible after collection so the sample should be shipped overnight to reduce the numbers of false negatives or positives Our Coombs results are reported as negative or positive We do not add a comment to the result unless we see

    Original URL path: https://ahdc.vet.cornell.edu/sects/clinpath/test/immun/coombs.cfm (2015-06-03)
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  • Clinical Pathology: Animal Health Diagnostic Center
    Disease Bacteriology Mycology Clinical Pathology Comparative Coagulation Endocrinology Molecular Diagnostics Parasitology Quality Milk QMPS Serology Immunology Toxicology Virology Programs CEM Quarantine NYSCHAP Referrals Veterinary Support Services Resources AHDC Research About AHDC About AHDC People Giving Clinical Pathology Clinical Pathology Testing Test Info Protocols Research Development Educational Resources ClinPath Residency About the Clinical Pathology Section Personnel Contact Clinical Pathology Contact AHDC Test Search Perform a search of our test and fee catalog Select the criteria below All Species Amphibian Avian Bovine Camelidae Canine Caprine Cervidae Equine Feline Ferret Fish Mammal Other Ovine Porcine Primate Reptile All Lab Sections Anatomic Pathology Avian Diagnostics Bacteriology Brucellosis Clinical Pathology Comparative Coagulation Endocrinology Molecular Diagnostics Parasitology Quality Milk Production Referral Serology Toxicology Virology All Test Types Infectious Non Infectious Urine Osmolality Urine osmolality is measured by freezing point depression in our laboratory Osmolality is affected by the number of osmotically active particles in solution and is unaffected by their molecular weight and size For this reason osmolality is superior to specific gravity which is affected by particle weight and size Isosthenuric urine has an osmolality similar to plasma approximately 300 to 320 mOsm kg Urine osmolality is useful for evaluating urine concentrating ability for example

    Original URL path: https://ahdc.vet.cornell.edu/sects/clinpath/test/urine/osmol.cfm (2015-06-03)
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  • Clinical Pathology: Animal Health Diagnostic Center
    in urine is generally quite low 1 g dL it cannot be measured using the Biuret procedure that is used for measuring total protein in serum or plasma A more sensitive technique is required On the Mod P we measure protein in urine and CSF with benzethonium chloride which precipitates the protein and increases the turbidity of the sample The turbidity is proportional to the protein concentration This technique is very sensitive and can yield accurate results in samples with very low protein concentrations 20 mg dL Creatinine in urine is measured using our standard rate blanked creatinine procedure The protein creatinine ration UP UC is used to provide an estimate of the amount of protein lost in the urine The urine protein to creatinine ratio on random mid day urine samples correlates well to 24 hour urine collection for quantitating urinary protein loss The degree of proteinuria yields useful information on the source of protein loss namely losses of large amounts of protein with high urine protein to creatinine ratios is due to glomerular and not tubular disease Urine protein to creatinine ratios should only be performed on urine samples with evidence of excess protein with consideration of the USG and no evidence of cystitis For example there is no point in performing a urine protein to creatinine ratio in a patient with a USG of 1 035 and trace protein on the dipstick Inflammatory conditions in the urinary tract will increase protein and negate the usefulness of the ratio for determining the source of protein loss Interpretation of UP UC in dogs cats Dogs In healthy dogs the urine protein to creatinine ratio UP UC is usually 0 5 Values between 0 5 1 0 in non azotemic dogs are considered equivocal and continued monitoring for progression is

    Original URL path: https://ahdc.vet.cornell.edu/sects/clinpath/test/urine/protein.cfm (2015-06-03)
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  • Clinical Pathology: Animal Health Diagnostic Center
    Avian Bovine Camelidae Canine Caprine Cervidae Equine Feline Ferret Fish Mammal Other Ovine Porcine Primate Reptile All Lab Sections Anatomic Pathology Avian Diagnostics Bacteriology Brucellosis Clinical Pathology Comparative Coagulation Endocrinology Molecular Diagnostics Parasitology Quality Milk Production Referral Serology Toxicology Virology All Test Types Infectious Non Infectious Urine Uric Acid This is used to detect excessive urate excretion in breeds such as dalmations and to monitor response to therapy with allopurinol Dalmations excrete up to 400 to 600 mg uric acid per day in their urine compared to non Dalmation dogs which excrete less than 100 mg uric acid per day in urine The best method for measuring urinary urate excretion is from a 24 hour urine collection as recent studies have shown that a single urine uric acid to creatinine ratio does not correlate well to 24 hour urinary uric acid excretion In addition the amount of uric acid excreted in urine is dependent on diet higher on meat based diets However measurement of 24 hour excretion of uric acid in the urine is cumbersome and impractical and most people use urine uric acid to creatinine ratios for monitoring therapy Guidelines in the literature for uric acid creatinine ratios in

    Original URL path: https://ahdc.vet.cornell.edu/sects/clinpath/test/urine/uric.cfm (2015-06-03)
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  • ACTH Test Details
    required 1 ml of EDTA plasma only Collection container plastic Sample storage 20 o C in polypropylene tubes Shipping pack with dry ice Comments plasma must be separated immediately for

    Original URL path: https://ahdc.vet.cornell.edu/sects/endo/tstdetl/acth.html (2015-06-03)
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