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  • Optical Materials | Fisk University
    in Lead Tellurium Germanate Glasses J Luminescence 75 301 1997 Postal Mail Department of Physics Fisk University 1000 17th Ave N Nashville TN 37208 3051 Academics School of Humanities and Behavioral Social Sciences Department of Arts and Languages Art Major Course Descriptions Program Plan English Major Course Descriptions Program Plan Modern Foreign Language Major Study Abroad Music Major Requirements Outstanding Alumni Ensembles Extra Curricular Activities Course Descriptions Faculty Department of Behavioral Sciences and Education Psychology Course Descriptions M A Psychology Course Descriptions Sociology Anthropology Course Descriptions The Looking Glass Teacher Education Course Descriptions Certifications Special Education Department of History Political Science History Course Descriptions Political Science Course Descriptions School of Natural Sciences Mathematics Business Department of Business Administration Major Requirements Accounting Concentration Financial Economics Concentration International Business Relation Concentration Management Concentration Music Business Concentration Non Concentration Course Descriptions Enactus Delta Mu Delta Department of Life Physical Sciences Biology Course Descriptions Biochemistry and Molecular Biology Chemistry Course Descriptions Physics Course Descriptions Materials Science and Applications Group Optical Materials Equipment Research and Useful Links Tutorial on Materials Science Structure Sample Preparation Instruments Useful Physics Links Publications News and Awards Facilities Summer Research Program SRP Department of Mathematics Computer Science Mathematics Course Descriptions Computer Science Course Descriptions NSF HBCU UP Bioinformatics and Biomathematics Project Summer 2015 Research Supported by NSF HBCU UP Summer 2014 Research Supported by NSF HBCU UP Math Club Orientation Problem of the Month School of Graduate Studies Admission Requirements and Application Process Pre Matriculation Requirements Professional Development Resources Student Classification Requirements for Graduation with a Master s Degree M A Requirements Thesis Regulations Master s Degree Checklist Overall Timeline for Graduate Studies Programs Fisk Vanderbilt Masterâ s to PhD Bridge Program Program Admissions Transition to the PhD Biology Program Chemistry Program Physics Program Physics Bridge Program Honors Program Apply

    Original URL path: http://www.fisk.edu/academics/school-of-natural-sciences-mathematics-business/department-of-life-and-physical-sciences/physics/materials-science-and-applications-group/optical-materials (2015-11-11)
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  • Equipment | Fisk University
    to 1100 C Zone refiner Vacuum Station Detector Characterization Current Voltage Characterization Keithley Voltage Sourcemeter with ICS Software Corner Stone Monochromator 200 1600 nm Features I V Characteristics Current vs Time Photo Current vs Wavelength Pockels Effect System The system consists in IR Source Polarizers IR Camera Software Features IR Birefringence Pockels Effect Electric Field inside the crystals IR Mapping Maker Nikon Instruments Features Crystals defects mapping Automated z moving stage X Ray Flourescence Kit Maker Amptek Inc Consists in Mini X X Ray Tube SDD X Ray Detector Quantitive Analysis Software Features X Ray Flourescence Analysis Elements identification Elements concentration determination UV Vis NIR Spectrophotometer Maker Varian Features Optical Absorbance Analysis Lynx Box Gamma Ray System Maker Canberra Industries Features Operates in pulse height analysis PHA multichannel scaling MCS dual channel loss free counting LFC multispectral scaling MSS and time stamped list modes 10 100 Base Ethernet USB RS 232 and TCP IP communications Three HVPS ranges to support detectors with low medium or high bias requirements Multiple trace analog and digital oscilloscope to ensure easy setup and maintenance Web based local or remote control Full featured support through Genie 2000 Apex spectroscopy software Radiation Detection System It Consists of High Voltage Source 0 3kV Shaping Amplifier 0 5 10 microsec Multichannel Analyzer Osciloscope Charge Sensitive Preamplifier Amptek A250 Comunication Bin Software Genie 2000 Features Energy Spectrum for Alpha Gamma radiations Works with Semiconductors and Scintillators detectors Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy Maker Bruker Optics JOBIN YVON LabRam HR800 system 1 Backscattering geometry and confocal configuration with three wavelength lasers 325 nm He Cd 633 nm He Ne and 784 nm diode 2 High precision motorized x y stage with auto focus and low temperature and high pressure accessories DSC Q200 small sample size 1 mg wide temperature range 93 K to 998 K measures liquid and solid phases as well as volatile materials inherently flat baselines 10 W curvature increased resolution In melting height width of 30 mW K 1 and half width of 0 4 K increased sensitivity 0 2 W SDT simultaneous DSC TGA uses instantaneous weight data to assure heat flow normalization for more accurate and meaningful results It offers sub microgram TGA sensitivity 0 1mg It also offers stable baseline over its operating temperature range JSM 5310 LV Scanning Electron Microscopy SEM and BruQuantax Energy Dispersive x ray Spectroscopy EDS system with X Flash Detector Academics School of Humanities and Behavioral Social Sciences Department of Arts and Languages Art Major Course Descriptions Program Plan English Major Course Descriptions Program Plan Modern Foreign Language Major Study Abroad Music Major Requirements Outstanding Alumni Ensembles Extra Curricular Activities Course Descriptions Faculty Department of Behavioral Sciences and Education Psychology Course Descriptions M A Psychology Course Descriptions Sociology Anthropology Course Descriptions The Looking Glass Teacher Education Course Descriptions Certifications Special Education Department of History Political Science History Course Descriptions Political Science Course Descriptions School of Natural Sciences Mathematics Business Department of Business Administration Major Requirements Accounting Concentration Financial Economics Concentration

    Original URL path: http://www.fisk.edu/academics/school-of-natural-sciences-mathematics-business/department-of-life-and-physical-sciences/physics/materials-science-and-applications-group/equipment (2015-11-11)
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  • Research and Useful Links | Fisk University
    Institute of Physics AIP Style Manual fourth edition Wikipedia especially for other resources listed as references Freescience free acces to books and other resources online Open source scientific software Academics School of Humanities and Behavioral Social Sciences Department of Arts and Languages Art Major Course Descriptions Program Plan English Major Course Descriptions Program Plan Modern Foreign Language Major Study Abroad Music Major Requirements Outstanding Alumni Ensembles Extra Curricular Activities Course Descriptions Faculty Department of Behavioral Sciences and Education Psychology Course Descriptions M A Psychology Course Descriptions Sociology Anthropology Course Descriptions The Looking Glass Teacher Education Course Descriptions Certifications Special Education Department of History Political Science History Course Descriptions Political Science Course Descriptions School of Natural Sciences Mathematics Business Department of Business Administration Major Requirements Accounting Concentration Financial Economics Concentration International Business Relation Concentration Management Concentration Music Business Concentration Non Concentration Course Descriptions Enactus Delta Mu Delta Department of Life Physical Sciences Biology Course Descriptions Biochemistry and Molecular Biology Chemistry Course Descriptions Physics Course Descriptions Materials Science and Applications Group Optical Materials Equipment Research and Useful Links Tutorial on Materials Science Structure Sample Preparation Instruments Useful Physics Links Publications News and Awards Facilities Summer Research Program SRP Department of Mathematics Computer Science Mathematics Course Descriptions Computer Science Course Descriptions NSF HBCU UP Bioinformatics and Biomathematics Project Summer 2015 Research Supported by NSF HBCU UP Summer 2014 Research Supported by NSF HBCU UP Math Club Orientation Problem of the Month School of Graduate Studies Admission Requirements and Application Process Pre Matriculation Requirements Professional Development Resources Student Classification Requirements for Graduation with a Master s Degree M A Requirements Thesis Regulations Master s Degree Checklist Overall Timeline for Graduate Studies Programs Fisk Vanderbilt Masterâ s to PhD Bridge Program Program Admissions Transition to the PhD Biology Program Chemistry Program Physics Program Physics Bridge

    Original URL path: http://www.fisk.edu/academics/school-of-natural-sciences-mathematics-business/department-of-life-and-physical-sciences/physics/materials-science-and-applications-group/research-and-useful-links (2015-11-11)
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  • Tutorial on Materials Science | Fisk University
    that can be random as in amourphous or glassy materials or ordered as in poly or single crystals In addition the way by which the materials are proccessed is quite important in determining their ultimate performance since defects in structure can be formed that alter in either positive or negative way the properties of a material Tutorials Structure Sample Preparation Instruments Useful Physics Links Academics School of Humanities and Behavioral Social Sciences Department of Arts and Languages Art Major Course Descriptions Program Plan English Major Course Descriptions Program Plan Modern Foreign Language Major Study Abroad Music Major Requirements Outstanding Alumni Ensembles Extra Curricular Activities Course Descriptions Faculty Department of Behavioral Sciences and Education Psychology Course Descriptions M A Psychology Course Descriptions Sociology Anthropology Course Descriptions The Looking Glass Teacher Education Course Descriptions Certifications Special Education Department of History Political Science History Course Descriptions Political Science Course Descriptions School of Natural Sciences Mathematics Business Department of Business Administration Major Requirements Accounting Concentration Financial Economics Concentration International Business Relation Concentration Management Concentration Music Business Concentration Non Concentration Course Descriptions Enactus Delta Mu Delta Department of Life Physical Sciences Biology Course Descriptions Biochemistry and Molecular Biology Chemistry Course Descriptions Physics Course Descriptions Materials Science and Applications Group Optical Materials Equipment Research and Useful Links Tutorial on Materials Science Structure Sample Preparation Instruments Useful Physics Links Publications News and Awards Facilities Summer Research Program SRP Department of Mathematics Computer Science Mathematics Course Descriptions Computer Science Course Descriptions NSF HBCU UP Bioinformatics and Biomathematics Project Summer 2015 Research Supported by NSF HBCU UP Summer 2014 Research Supported by NSF HBCU UP Math Club Orientation Problem of the Month School of Graduate Studies Admission Requirements and Application Process Pre Matriculation Requirements Professional Development Resources Student Classification Requirements for Graduation with a Master s Degree M A

    Original URL path: http://www.fisk.edu/academics/school-of-natural-sciences-mathematics-business/department-of-life-and-physical-sciences/physics/materials-science-and-applications-group/tutorial-on-materials-science (2015-11-11)
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  • Structure | Fisk University
    in the form of inclusions formed during growth or precipitates formed during the cooldown of the crystal They range from 0 1 to 50 micron in size and have various shapes Their presence can lower the optical transparency of the crystal or impede the electrical carrier transport through the crystal In metals they can improve the mechanical properties of the metal Academics School of Humanities and Behavioral Social Sciences Department of Arts and Languages Art Major Course Descriptions Program Plan English Major Course Descriptions Program Plan Modern Foreign Language Major Study Abroad Music Major Requirements Outstanding Alumni Ensembles Extra Curricular Activities Course Descriptions Faculty Department of Behavioral Sciences and Education Psychology Course Descriptions M A Psychology Course Descriptions Sociology Anthropology Course Descriptions The Looking Glass Teacher Education Course Descriptions Certifications Special Education Department of History Political Science History Course Descriptions Political Science Course Descriptions School of Natural Sciences Mathematics Business Department of Business Administration Major Requirements Accounting Concentration Financial Economics Concentration International Business Relation Concentration Management Concentration Music Business Concentration Non Concentration Course Descriptions Enactus Delta Mu Delta Department of Life Physical Sciences Biology Course Descriptions Biochemistry and Molecular Biology Chemistry Course Descriptions Physics Course Descriptions Materials Science and Applications Group Optical Materials Equipment Research and Useful Links Tutorial on Materials Science Structure Sample Preparation Instruments Useful Physics Links Publications News and Awards Facilities Summer Research Program SRP Department of Mathematics Computer Science Mathematics Course Descriptions Computer Science Course Descriptions NSF HBCU UP Bioinformatics and Biomathematics Project Summer 2015 Research Supported by NSF HBCU UP Summer 2014 Research Supported by NSF HBCU UP Math Club Orientation Problem of the Month School of Graduate Studies Admission Requirements and Application Process Pre Matriculation Requirements Professional Development Resources Student Classification Requirements for Graduation with a Master s Degree M A Requirements Thesis Regulations

    Original URL path: http://www.fisk.edu/academics/school-of-natural-sciences-mathematics-business/department-of-life-and-physical-sciences/physics/materials-science-and-applications-group/tutorial-on-materials-science/structure (2015-11-11)
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  • Sample Preparation | Fisk University
    has made this field one of the fastest growing areas of research The preparation of semiconductors starts with the purification of the material down to impurity levels below 1 ppm parts per million and in some cases only ppt parts per trillion levels of impurity are allowed Typically starting materials which may purchased from commercial vendors with nominal purity of 99 9999 or synthesized from pure elements Zone refining and vacuum sublimation are two standard processes to achieve this goal Zone refining was first introduced in 1952by Pfann and has been successfully implemented to purify elements and compounds The main principle is difference in solubility of an impurity in the liquid and solid phases of a material The characteristic effect of zone refining is to accumulate impurities at the ends of an ingot thus leaving pure material in the central section Vacuum sublimation is a routine method to purify starting materials from impurities having higher under dynamic vacuum or lower closed tube vapor pressures Purification Principle of zone refining A moving heater melts a zone of the material that can accumulate impurities The impurities are swept to the right end of the ingot The heater is next moved fast to the left without melting the material and the process is repeated several times Cutting After the growth the crystal needs to cut in desired size according to the end use For electronic or optoelectronic purpose the crystals are cut into thin wafers of thickness 300 to 500 microns For optical applications the crystals are cut into blocks of size few millimeter to few centimeters sometimes in tens of centimeters Generally two types of sawing machines are used for this purpose One is the wire saw and the other is the disc saw In both types of saws the wire or the cutting edge of the disc are impregnated with diamond powder A good crystal cutter has features such variable speed and tension and are equipped with a goniometer The purpose of the goniometer is to cut the crystal at any desired angle Wire Saw Wheel Saw Polishing As cut crystal surfaces are very rough For any application whether it is electronic or optical the crystal surface should be optically flat When the surface roughness is about l 10 the surface is called optically flat l is in the wavelength of the light for the particular application To achieve an optically flat surface the crystal needs to be polished in a special mounting device There are few steps to polish the crystals Crystals are first lapped in coarse carborundum SiC powder followed by lapping in fine carborundum powder Next comes polishing in coarse alumina emulsion 3 micron and gradually polished in fine 0 05 micron alumina Al 2 O 3 emulsion This procedure results a mirror finish optically flat surface Etching All as polished surfaces contain mechanically induced defects scratches caused by the polishing particles These defects affect the electronic properties of the device to be fabricated on this crystal Prior

    Original URL path: http://www.fisk.edu/academics/school-of-natural-sciences-mathematics-business/department-of-life-and-physical-sciences/physics/materials-science-and-applications-group/tutorial-on-materials-science/sample-preparation (2015-11-11)
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  • Instruments | Fisk University
    backscattered electrons interact with the protuberances of the surface and generate secondary backscattered electrons to produce an electronic signal which in tern produces an image having a depth of field Instructions for the operation of the JEOL SEM Model JSM 5310LV Make sure that the detector is filled with liquid N2 When the HT high tension key is ready means that the vacuum LV control is fine push the VENT key and wait for a short time Open the sample chamber and insert your sample stub wearing gloves into the brass cup and gently tighten the set screw Close the door to the sample chamber and lock the clasp Push EVAC and wait for a few minutes When HT is ready and the VA is 100 push HT by which the image will display Depending on the sample set up the accelerating voltage on 10 kV Working Distance WD on 17 mm normally 20 mm Set up the Spot Size SS on 15 mm it should be less than 17 mm for image Magnifications ranging from X35 to in excess of X100 000 diameters are possible Focus the image using the focus coarse and fine knobs Adjust the brightness and contrast controls to your liking Push the key Now is the time to operate the Noran EDS Voyager by double clicking on the image display on the desktop Click on Tools then click on Spectrum Attributes and type values of Acc Voltage Magnification Working Distance Spot Size and Beam Current Then close the window To quantify your sample elements click on Analyze then on Quant Periodic Table Now click on Spectral Display to get the spectrum TO SAVE SPECTRUM go to File then save as Choose a name for your file click on OK and close the window Click on Tools then on Image Display by which you ll get the image SAVE IMAGE go to File then save as Choose a name for your image click on OK and close the window 4 Kurt J Lesker RF Sputtering system Procedures for operating the Fisk RF magnetron sputtering system I Basic system information Vendor Kurt J Lesker Inc Model Manitou systems Inc model PB 3 300 Watt max 13 65 MHz RF power system Input power 115 V AC 50 60 Hz 1 phase RF output power up to 300 Watt maximum Output Frequency 13 56 MHz Output impedance 50 ohm resistive Matching network circuit topology L configuration utilizing two variable capacitors and a fixed inductor Operating pressure 5 to 200 mTorr II Sputtering head and target One head Torus 2 C required water cooling at flow rate 0 5 gallon minute Target deposition material planar 2 diameter 1 9 with copper cup imbedded in the case of nonmetal target 1 4 thick 1 8 with copper cup Warning Dark space shield target hold down ring and target position must be very well balanced and symmetric in order to avoid sparking of the target At least the target hold down ring dark space shield and all the nearby poles holders need to be well cleaned to avoid contamination and sputtering failure Cleaning is especially required after a nonmetal sputtering to avoid accumulation of charges all the surrounding must be well grounded Gloves must be worn in handling all the items in the vacuum chamber III Loading the target and sample s Remove the dark space shield Lift off the target hold down ring Carefully place the target on top of the copper cooling well making sure that it is well centered Put back the target hold down ring again making sure that it is symmetric and balanced Put back the dark space shield making sure there is indeed a space between the shield and the target Generally for making contact on device or for making thin film the sample to target distance is 2 3 2 5 is usually the choice for ultra thin film 40 A0 5 is recommended Before sputtering it is a good practice to use the ohmmeter to test the resistance between the target and the dark space shield as well as between the target and the base of the vacuum system to make sure that there is no shorting dark space shield and the base must be grounded Check the water supply by turning in on making sure that there are water flow out of the returning pipes water is needed for both the Turbo pump and the cooling of the sputtering target IV Operation Pumping the system to base pressure near 10 6 Torr first mechanical pump then Turbo pump remember to turn on the water before starting the Turbo the accelerating LED first lights up one should wait until the normal operation LED to light up before leaving the system Note Channel 1 can only read up to 10 3 Torr even the system is already below that pressure One needs to use Ch 1 ion gauge to get lower pressure reading Normally the ion gauge should be turn off when unattended Turn on the RF power button Open the Ar line turning on the Ar input switch making sure the control nod is slightly open 1 2 circle counter clockwise from the closed position Ar flow pressure is around 10 20 psi The system pressure will go up but we need to bring it up further to 10 1 Torr range by nearly close the hi vac gauge clockwise This is to ignite the plasma It won t come up at pressure below 10 2 Torr At this time the plasma should come up Now comes the most critical part of the sputtering process impedance matching to maintain the appropriate forward power while minimize the reflected power 5 Watt 0 Watt desirable The forward power is material dependent for metal such as Au 50 Watt or less will be good If higher power is used for metal target the target may crack For semiconductor and insulator targets higher power is required but

    Original URL path: http://www.fisk.edu/academics/school-of-natural-sciences-mathematics-business/department-of-life-and-physical-sciences/physics/materials-science-and-applications-group/tutorial-on-materials-science/instruments (2015-11-11)
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  • Useful Physics Links | Fisk University
    Business Administration Major Requirements Accounting Concentration Financial Economics Concentration International Business Relation Concentration Management Concentration Music Business Concentration Non Concentration Course Descriptions Enactus Delta Mu Delta Department of Life Physical Sciences Biology Course Descriptions Biochemistry and Molecular Biology Chemistry Course Descriptions Physics Course Descriptions Materials Science and Applications Group Optical Materials Equipment Research and Useful Links Tutorial on Materials Science Structure Sample Preparation Instruments Useful Physics Links Publications News and Awards Facilities Summer Research Program SRP Department of Mathematics Computer Science Mathematics Course Descriptions Computer Science Course Descriptions NSF HBCU UP Bioinformatics and Biomathematics Project Summer 2015 Research Supported by NSF HBCU UP Summer 2014 Research Supported by NSF HBCU UP Math Club Orientation Problem of the Month School of Graduate Studies Admission Requirements and Application Process Pre Matriculation Requirements Professional Development Resources Student Classification Requirements for Graduation with a Master s Degree M A Requirements Thesis Regulations Master s Degree Checklist Overall Timeline for Graduate Studies Programs Fisk Vanderbilt Masterâ s to PhD Bridge Program Program Admissions Transition to the PhD Biology Program Chemistry Program Physics Program Physics Bridge Program Honors Program Apply to the Honors Program Characteristics of Honors Students Honors Program Graduation Requirements Exceptional Scholars Track Recent Graduates Pre Professional Program Pre Medicine and Pre Dental Curriculum Pre Pharmacy Pre Engineering Fisk Vanderbilt Dual Degree Fisk Case Dual Degree Fisk UT K Dual Degree Bridge to the Master of Science in Nursing MSN CORE Curriculum Course Descriptions Transfer Credits Learning Outcomes Majors and Minors International Education International Admissions General Immigration Information Academic Calendar Research Symposium 2015 Research Symposium Past Research Symposia Summer Programs The Fisk University Beth Madison Howse Mini College Program Forms Mini College Application Talented Tenth Leadership Development Summer Program THRUST GUSTO PCSI TRIO Programs LEAD Program Program Forms LEAD Eligibility LEAD Program Services LEAD

    Original URL path: http://www.fisk.edu/academics/school-of-natural-sciences-mathematics-business/department-of-life-and-physical-sciences/physics/materials-science-and-applications-group/tutorial-on-materials-science/useful-physics-links (2015-11-11)
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