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  • Research | FIU Wall of Wind
    determine the types of wind forces and pressures affecting them and their distribution through full scale testing of the actual roof top equipments using WOW Retrofit techniques are also being developed to mitigate wind induced damages to roof top equipments Wind Pressure Distribution on Gable and Hip Roofs studies the interaction of winds with roofs in order to determine the types of pressures affecting them and their distribution The main objective is to identify weaknesses in the building envelope in order to determine future recommendations This research involves full scale testing using WOW Mitigation of Roof Uplift through Vortex Suppression Techniques WOW collaborated with WeatherPredict Consulting Inc to validate at full scale the effectiveness of modified roof edge geometries AeroEdges designed by Dr Jason Lin in the reduction of high suctions negative pressures at roof corner and edge regions through WoW testing approach The application of modified edge shapes to flat roofs has shown significant reduction up to 74 in roof suction Development of Innovative Roof to Wall Connections Through full scale testing and Performance Based Engineering PBE performed in the Structures and Construction Laboratory SCL and WOW an innovative cost effective light strong ductile and non intrusive roof to wall connection as a preliminary alternative to conventional intrusive connections is being developed to strengthen new and existing residential buildings against hurricanes Role of Architectural Elements on Wind Pressure Distribution Through WOW testing the investigations about how the shape of a roof dormers and other architectural elements of a house interact with hurricane winds These architectural elements may soften or worsen the impact of wind loads on the roof Water Penetration of Discontinuous Roofing Materials research examines how the combination of wind driven rain and hurricane winds may cause failure in roofing materials leading to water penetration and eventual roof and interior damage WOW is capable of injecting water droplets into the flow with different distributions and droplet sizes Water Penetration of Secondary Water Barriers the combination of wind driven rain and hurricane winds may cause failure in underlayment s leading to water penetration and eventual interior damage Work is conducted using the WOW to study this phenomenon Performance of Roof Sheathing Fasteners previous research with the Vacuum Chamber to test full scale roof sheathing panels using a variety of fasteners led to a recommendation by the IHRC to modify the Florida Building Code with respect to roof sheathing standards in the High Velocity Hurricane Zone Instrumentation of Flat Roofs to Determine Wind Pressure Distribution designed instrumentation that can be installed on a flat roof without penetrating the roof membrane and causing water penetration This research will help create a pressure distribution map leading to the reinforcement of weak areas for flat roofs Computational Fluid Dynamics WOW testing is supported by computational fluid dynamic simulation for preliminary assessment of hurricane wind design parameters CFD is also being used to augment the WOW research Click here for links to articles on WOW research Share this Click to email this to a

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  • Research Projects | FIU Wall of Wind
    in wind drag thus reducing VMS cost without jeopardizing safety 2 Partial attachment of flow over 3 D VMS structures reduces wind drag as compared to flat 2 D flat signs and 3 Geometries of VMS that could be susceptible to wind induced instabilities were identified so that designers can avoid them Energy Efficient Building Envelope Testing Research on the hygrothermal performance of full scale portions of building envelope systems in low to high winds was enabled by the acquisition of weather simulation devices and sensors Heat losses in conventional wood frame buildings and more energy efficient structural insulated panel SIP buildings were compared Solar lamps radiation meters and thermal sensors enabled heat transfer measurements across the building envelope This led to the estimation of the wind induced forced convective heat transfer coefficients found to be higher for windward than for leeward surfaces Infrared cameras quantified thermal bridging energy loss at connection joints of SIP and stud framing of wood buildings Fig 3c Conduction heat gain at building surfaces increased in wind driven rain conditions The results showed the potential for multi disciplinary research in controlled conditions at WOW to investigate new envelope technologies aimed at achieving net zero energy buildings Broader Impact New knowledge on wind effects on building appurtenances and traffic infrastructure elements is being used to enhance codes and standards Underrepresented minority groups including women such as PhD students Ms D Meyer and Ms M Mooneghi served as researchers The 12 fan WOW facility enhanced by the MRI provided the infrastructure for research by multi disciplinary faculty and students from several U S universities Louisiana State University LSU Georgia Institute of Technology University of Central Florida and Florida Institute of Technology WOW also had international presence as it was utilized by Politecnico di Milano researchers for full scale testing of trees to determine wind loads on various types of trees and to improve plant holder design to securely hold them in balconies of two green buildings in Milan Italy Bosco Verticale vertical forest The FIU team also worked with the Office of U S Foreign Disaster Assistance to test the strength and improve the design of transitional shelters constructed in Caribbean islands for temporary safe housing The WOW testing ensured that the shelters using new and salvaged building materials can safely withstand hurricanes The MRI award helped transform the12 fan WOW to a multi user research education infrastructure Resulting Publications 4 papers 1 PhD 1 MS theses Evidence of research products and their availability i Wind load provisions on rooftop units are available in 2010 FBC ii VMS wind load table for intended use in AASHTO is available in Meyer Florida Sea Grant College Program FSGCP Award Sea Grant Award No R C D 19 PI Arindam Gan Chowdhury Co PIs Jean Paul Pinelli Emil Simiu Pallab Mozumder Project Title Development of Test Based Data on Hurricane Induced Building Interior Utility and Contents Damage for Improved Risk Prediction and Mapping Award Amount 300 000 200 000 from

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  • Journal Publications | FIU Wall of Wind
    used to help develop tile specific design guidelines Return to top Fu T C Gan Chowdhury A Bitsuamlak G Baheru T 2014 Partial Turbulence Simulation and Aerodynamic Pressures Validation for an Open Jet Testing Facility Accepted for publication Wind and Structures 10 12989 was 2014 19 1 015 Abstract This paper describes partial turbulence simulation and validation of the aerodynamic pressures on building models for an open jet small scale 12 Fan Wall of Wind WOW facility against their counterparts in a boundary layer wind tunnel The wind characteristics pertained to the Atmospheric Boundary Layer ABL mean wind speed profile and turbulent fluctuations simulated in the facility Both in the wind tunnel and the small scale 12 Fan WOW these wind characteristics were produced by using spires and roughness elements It is emphasized in the paper that proper spectral density parameterization is required to simulate turbulent fluctuations correctly Partial turbulence considering only high frequency part of the turbulent fluctuations spectrum was simulated in the small scale 12 Fan WOW For the validation of aerodynamic pressures a series of tests were conducted in both wind tunnel and the small scale 12 fan WOW facilities on low rise buildings including two gable roof and two hip roof buildings with two different slopes Testing was performed to investigate the mean and peak pressure coefficients at various locations on the roofs including near the corners edges ridge and hip lines The pressure coefficients comparisons showed that open jet testing facility flows with partial simulations of ABL spectrum are capable of inducing pressures on low rise buildings that reasonably agree with their boundary layer wind tunnel counterparts Return to top Hagos A Habte F Gan Chowdhury A Yeo D 2014 Comparisons between Two Wind Tunnel Pressure Databases and Partial Validation against Full Scale Measurements Accepted for publication Journal of Structural Engineering 10 1061 ASCE ST 1943 541X 0001001 Abstract Database assisted design DAD is an integrated methodology that calculates wind loadings and wind induced internal forces It can also calculate demand to capacity indexes for each structural member and by checking whether they differ significantly from unity determine the adequacy of the members structural design Its practical usefulness depends on the availability of comprehensive aerodynamic databases A public domain aerodynamic database produced in 2003 by the University of Western Ontario UWO is not sufficiently extensive to satisfy design needs generally encountered in practice For this reason the Tokyo Polytechnic University TPU recently developed comprehensive sets of aerodynamic databases that are publicly available and would fill large voids present in the UWO database This paper presents comparisons of aerodynamic pressures and forces based on TPU and UWO data for low rise buildings to help assess the extent to which the respective aerodynamic pressure measurements are comparable In addition the paper presents a brief review of comparisons between full scale and UWO wind tunnel measurements of pressures on the Texas Tech University experimental building The results presented in the paper though not exhaustive suggest that TPU and UWO pressure simulations are reasonably equivalent and may in practice be used for the design of main wind force resisting systems Return to top Tecle A Bitsuamlak G Gan Chowdhury A 2014 Opening and Compartmentalization Effects of Internal Pressure in Low Rise Buildings with Gable and Hip Roofs Accepted for publication ASCE Journal of Architectural Engineering 10 1061 ASCE AE 1943 5568 0000101 Abstract This study examines how design features such as building envelope openings and compartmentalization affect the wind pressure in typical low rise buildings with gable and hip roofs Wind induced internal and external pressures were investigated by using a full scale wind testing facility generically known as Wall of Wind WOW The test building model was built with an optimal size of 2 74m 9 ft long 2 13m 7 ft wide and 2 13 m 7 ft high The model consisted of multiple dominant openings doors with secondary openings and windows roof ventilation devices soffit vents gooseneck roof vent and roof turbine ventilators and horizontal and vertical ceiling and wall internal assembly compartments These features together with a high Reynolds number 106 flow test enabled a realistic assessment of internal pressures due to 1 dominant openings size and location and background leakage and 2 compartmentalization For the study case the hatch opening in the roof increased the coefficient of internal pressure from 0 05 to 0 69 for the dominant door opened case and from 0 08 to 0 98 for the dominant window opened case in contrast to the closed hatch case which indicated the importance of compartmentalization In addition the peak internal pressure of the gable roof was higher than the hip roof by more than 190 The worst net pressure coefficient at the eaves of the gable roof was found to be significantly higher than the hip roof Return to top Simiu E Letchford C Isyumov N Gan Chowdhury A Yeo D 2013 Assessment of ASCE 7 10 Standard Methods for Determining Wind Loads Journal of Structural Engineering 139 11 pp 2044 2047 10 1061 ASCE ST 1943 541X 0000771 Abstract The purpose of this paper is to discuss issues associated with ASCE 7 10 standard methods for determining wind loads on buildings and other structures that warrant comment correction or improvement The assessment is intended to serve as a resource in the development of a new version of the ASCE 7 standard and to stimulate a wider participation in that development by the structural engineering community Issues discussed in the paper include wind speeds in nonhurricane regions alternative analytical methods for determining wind loads and wind effects on main wind force resisting systems and components and or cladding aerodynamic pressure coefficients pressures on rooftop equipment component and cladding pressures on arched roofs and the wind tunnel procedure It is noted that the ASCE 49 standard essentially covers wind tunnel testing rather than the wind tunnel procedure of which wind tunnel testing is only a part Return to top Aly A M Fossati F Muggiasca S Argentini T Bitsuamlak G Franchi A Longarini N Crespi P Gan Chowdhury A 2013 Wind Loading on Trees Integrated with a Building Envelope Wind and Structures 17 1 pp 69 85 10 12989 was 2013 17 1 069 Abstract With the sustainability movement vegetated building envelopes are gaining more popularity This requires special wind effect investigations both from sustainability and resiliency perspectives The current paper focuses on wind load estimation on small and full scale trees used as part of green roofs and balconies Small scale wind load assessment was carried out using a wind tunnel testing in a global effect study to understand the interference effects from surrounding structures Full scale trees were investigated at a large open jet facility in a local effect study to account for the wind tree interaction The effect of Reynolds number combined with shape change on the overall loads measured at the base of the trees near the roots has been investigated by testing at different model scales and wind speeds In addition high speed tests were conducted to examine the security of the trees in soil and to assess the effectiveness of a proposed structural mitigation system Results of the current research show that at relatively high wind speeds the load coefficients tend to be reduced limiting the wind loads on trees No resonance or vortex shedding was visually observed Return to top Yeo D Gan Chowdhury A 2013 Simplified Wind Flow Model for the Estimation of Aerodynamic Effects on Small Structures ASCE Journal of Engineering Mechanics 139 3 pp 367 375 10 1061 ASCE EM 1943 7889 0000508 Abstract The reliable measurement of pressures on low rise buildings in the atmospheric boundary layer ABL flow remains a challenge as has been shown by the large discrepancies among results obtained in different wind tunnel facilities or even in the same wind tunnel Two major causes of the discrepancies are the difficulty of simulating large scale low frequency turbulent fluctuations uniformly across laboratories and the small scale of models in typical civil engineering wind tunnels To address these issues it was proposed that a simplified flow be used in laboratory simulations rather than a conventional ABL flow In the simplified flow the reference mean wind speed is larger than the mean wind speed of the ABL flow and the low frequency fluctuations present in the ABL flow are suppressed that is the peak energy of the missing lowfrequency fluctuations is supplied in the simplified flow by the increment in the mean wind speed which may be regarded as a flow fluctuation with zero frequency High frequency turbulent fluctuations which typically affect flow reattachment are approximately the same in the ABL and the simplified flow Because over small distances low frequency fluctuations are highly coherent spatially for small low rise buildings with dimensions of up to approximately 20 m e g single family residential homes the peak aerodynamic effects of the two flows may be hypothesized to be approximately the same Preliminary experimental results obtained in University of Western Ontario s ABL wind tunnel facility and Florida International University s small scale Wall of Wind facility are shown to support this hypothesis The use of the proposed simplified flow is currently being tested by the authors for application to computational wind engineering CWE applications Such use eliminates the need to simulate the lower frequency fluctuations of the boundary layer flow and thus makes it possible to achieve practical CWE calculations and it is advantageous in experiments from the points of view of measurement accuracy model scaling repeatability of the simulations and computational efficiency Return to top Bitsuamlak G Warsido W Ledesma E Gan Chowdhury A 2013 Aerodynamic Mitigation of Roof and Wall Corner Suctions Using Simple Architectural Elements ASCE Journal of Engineering Mechanics 139 3 pp 396 408 10 1061 ASCE EM 1943 7889 0000505 Abstract This paper presents the use of simple architectural elements such as aerodynamic mitigation devices for reducing high wind induced suctions occurring at roof and wall corners of low rise buildings where wind induced building envelope failures usually initiate The architectural elements considered in the current study include trellises pergolas roof extensions of gable ends gable end ribs ridgeline extensions ridge rib and sideways extensions of walls wall ribs A small scale model of residential villa was tested in a boundary layer wind tunnel for two different roof geometries gable and hip Moreover selected cases were investigated at the Wall of Wind a large scale testing facility to investigate scale effects The effectiveness of these architectural elements in reducing high suction negative pressure was assessed by comparing the wind induced pressure measurements obtained before and after introducing the elements Based on the results obtained for the worst wind angle of attacks the peak suction was reduced after introducing the architectural elements by 65 at gable end corners 60 close to roof ridges 45 at soffits 35 at wall corners and 25 at eaves These simple architectural elements which can be retrofitted to the stock of existing homes or incorporated into the design of new buildings can be used as aerodynamic mitigation devices for reducing peak suction at critical locations of the building envelope Return to top Tecle A Bitsuamlak G Suksawang N Gan Chowdhury A Fuez S 2013 Ridge and Field Tile Aerodynamics for a Low Rise Building A Full Scale Study Wind and Structures 16 4 pp 301 322 Abstract Recent major post hurricane damage assessments in the United States have reported that the most common damages result from the loss of building roof coverings and subsequent wind driven rain intrusion In an effort to look further into this problem this paper presents a full scale Wall of Wind WoW investigation of external and underneath wind pressures on roof tiles installed on a low rise building model with various gable roofs The optimal dimensions for the low rise building that was tested with the WOW are 2 74 m 9 ft long 2 13 m 7 ft wide and 2 13 m 7 ft high The building is tested with interchangeable gable roofs at three different slopes 2 12 5 12 and 7 12 The field tiles of these gable roofs are considered with three different tile profiles namely high HP medium MP and low profiles LP in accordance with Florida practice For the ridge two different types namely rounded and three sided tiles were considered The effect of weather block on the underneath pressure that develops between the tiles and the roof deck was also examined These tests revealed the following high pressure coefficients for the ridge tile compared to the field tiles including those located at the corners considerably higher pressure on the gable end ridge tiles compared to ridge tiles at the middle of the ridge line and marginally higher pressure on barrel type tiles compared to the three sided ridge tiles The weather blocking of clay tiles while useful in preventing water intrusion it doesn t have significant effect on the wind loads of the field tiles The case with weather blocking produces positive mean underneath pressure on the field tiles on the windward side thus reducing the net pressures on the windward surface of the roof On the leeward side reductions in net pressure to a non significant level were observed due to the opposite direction of the internal and external pressures The effect of the weather blocking on the external pressure on the ridge tile was negligible Return to top Chen S Nelson R Chen F Gan Chowdhury A 2013 Impact of Stochastic Traffic on Modified Cross Section Profiles of a Slender Long span Bridge Wind Tunnel Experimental Investigation ASCE Journal of Engineering Mechanics 139 3 pp 347 358 10 1061 ASCE EM 1943 7889 0000444 Abstract For a slender long span bridge the global aeroelastic and aerodynamic phenomena such as flutter stability and buffeting response induced by wind turbulence significantly affect the safety and lifetime performance of the bridge To investigate these phenomena a wind tunnel experimental technique with bridge section models is typically required to identify some critical aerodynamic coefficients such as flutter derivatives which are dependent on the specific profile shape of a bridge cross section and the functions of reduced frequencies Obviously this practice is based on the assumption that the shape of the cross section of a long span bridge does not vary over time Such an assumption may not remain valid when the stochastic traffic on the bridge is considered because of the simple fact that the presence of vehicles changes the profile of the bridge cross section The current study aims to provide some insights through experimental assessment of traffic impacts on flutter derivatives of the modified bridge cross section because of the presence of traffic Abridge section model with scaled vehicle models distributed on the bridge deck is tested in the wind tunnel following the simulated stochastic traffic flow Several scenarios are tested to provide insights on the variations of the flutter derivatives over different sections along the bridge and at different time instants for the same location In addition some extreme situations such as under evacuation or serious congestion are also studied Return to top Gan Chowdhury A Canino I Mirmiran A Suksawang N Baheru T 2013 Wind Loading Effects on Roof to Wall Connections of Timber Residential Buildings ASCE Journal of Engineering Mechanics 139 3 pp 386 395 10 1061 ASCE EM 1943 7889 0000512 Abstract Extensive damage to residential wood frame buildings caused by failures of roof to wall connections during extreme wind events underscores the need to improve their performance Most of these connections use mechanical connectors e g metal clips and straps sometimes referred to as hurricane clips and hurricane straps The allowable capacity of these connectors is based on results of unidirectional component tests that do not simulate multiaxial aerodynamic loading effects induced by high wind events The objective of this research was to facilitate a better understanding of these loading effects on roof to wall connections of a typical low rise gable roof residential structure subjected to combined impacts of wind and a potential breach of the building envelope Large scale experiments on a heavily instrumented building model generated multiaxial aerodynamic loading data on roof to wall connections for various wind angles of attack and internal pressure conditions The results showed the severity of increased loading on connections in certain configurations of wall openings that could occur from the breach of the building envelope in windstorms It was also shown that lateral components of the wind load acting simultaneously with the uplift may be significant depending on wind angles of attack and internal pressure conditions Aerodynamic test data were used to performcomponentlevel triaxial load testing on hurricane clips to determine their load capacities and compare results to those obtained using the traditional approach of uniaxial load testing Component level test results showed that current uniaxial testing methods tend to overestimate the actual load capacities of metal connectors Neglecting triaxial loading effects in testing of connectors and in the design of connections could potentially cause the type of failures frequently documented in hurricane damage reconnaissance reports Return to top Aly A M Bitsuamlak G Gan Chowdhury A 2012 Full Scale Aerodynamic Testing of a Loose Concrete Roof Paver System Engineering Structures 44 pp 260 270 10 1016 j engstruct 2012 05 008 Abstract The paper presents an experimental study to assess wind induced pressure on full scale loose concrete roof pavers by using Wall of Wind a large scale hurricane testing facility at Florida International University Experimental tests were conducted on full scale concrete pavers mounted on a test building to evaluate wind induced external and underneath pressures acting on the pavers The study shows that roof pavers could be subjected to significant uplifting wind forces due to negative pressures In corner and edge areas of the roof pressure differences produced net uplift on the pavers at design wind speed that was greater than the individual weight of the pavers The study provides new insights by testing the actual roofing material at high wind speeds in a controlled environment and also showed that locking the pavers together can mitigate the issues at corners and edges by increasing the weight of the pavers that acts together to counterbalance the net uplift pressure Return to top Fu T C Aly A M Gan Chowdhury A Bitsuamlak G Yeo D Simiu E 2012 A Proposed Technique for Determining Aerodynamic Pressures on Residential Homes Wind and Structures 15 1 pp 27 41 Abstract Wind loads on low rise buildings in general and residential homes in particular can differ significantly depending upon the laboratory in which they were measured The differences are due in large part to inadequate simulations of the low frequency content of atmospheric velocity fluctuations in the laboratory and to the small scale of the models used for the measurements The imperfect spatial coherence of the low frequency velocity fluctuations results in reductions of the overall wind effects with respect to the case of perfectly coherent flows For large buildings those reductions are significant However for buildings with sufficiently small dimensions e g residential homes the reductions are relatively small A technique is proposed for simulating the effect of low frequency flow fluctuations on such buildings more effectively from the point of view of testing accuracy and repeatability than is currently the case Experimental results are presented that validate the proposed technique The technique eliminates a major cause of discrepancies among measurements conducted in different laboratories In addition the technique allows the use of considerably larger model scales than are possible in conventional testing This makes it possible to model architectural details and improves Reynolds number similarity The technique is applicable to wind tunnels and large scale open jet facilities and can help to standardize flow simulations for testing residential homes as well as significantly improving testing accuracy and repeatability The work reported in this paper is a first step in developing the proposed technique Additional tests are planned to further refine the technique and test the range of its applicability Return to top Ahmed S S Canino I Gan Chowdhury A Mirmiran A Suksawang N 2011 Study of the Capability of Multiple Mechanical Fasteners in Roof to Wall Connections of Timber Residential Buildings ASCE Practice Periodical on Structural Design and Construction 16 1 pp 2 9 10 1061 ASCE SC 1943 5576 0000064 Abstract One of the most critical connections in wood frame construction is that of the roof rafter and the top plate of the wall This type of connection typically uses mechanical fasteners such as metal straps or clips fastened with nails Manufacturers base the allowable capacity of connections with one fastener on results of tests performed on such connections However it is assumed in current design practice that the capacity of a connection with two mechanical fasteners is twice the capacity of a connection with a single fastener Implicit in this practice is the assumption that the connection s capacity is proportional to the number of fasteners per connection joint This approach based as it is on testing a single fastener per joint disregards the fact that the failure modes of a connection joint may depend on the number of fasteners per joint This paper presents results of tests that establish this fact The results based on testing with three types of wood spruce pine fir southern yellow pine and douglas fir are used to modify the current design approach and propose a realistic relationship between the capacity of the connection joint and the number of fasteners in the joint The results show that current design practices may overestimate the capacity of these joints and can therefore be the cause of roof to wall connection failures in extreme wind events The research reported herein is limited to the case of unidirectional loading Future research is planned on the case of multidirectional loading Return to top Aly A M Gan Chowdhury A Bitsuamlak G 2011 Wind Profile Management and Blockage Assessment for a New 12 Fan Wall of Wind Facility at FIU Wind and Structures 14 4 pp 285 300 Abstract Researchers at the International Hurricane Research Center IHRC Florida International University FIU are working in stages on the construction of a large state of the art Wall of Wind WoW facility to support research in the area of Wind Engineering In this paper the challenges of simulating hurricane winds for the WoW are presented and investigated based on a scale model study Three wind profiles were simulated using airfoils and or adjustable planks mechanism with and without grids Evaluations of flow characteristics were performed in order to enhance the WoW s flow simulation capabilities Characteristics of the simulated wind fields are compared to the results obtained from a study using computational fluid dynamics CFD and also validated via pressure measurements on small scale models of the Silsoe cube building Optimal scale of the test model and its optimal distance from the WoW contraction exit are determined which are two important aspects for testing using an open jet facility such as the WoW The main objective of this study is to further the understanding of the WoW capabilities and the characteristics of its test section by means of intensive tests and validations at small scale in order to apply this knowledge to the design of the full scale WoW and for future wind engineering testing Return to top Canbek C Mirmiran A Gan Chowdhury A Suksawang N 2011 Development of Fiber Reinforced Polymer Roof To Wall Connection ASCE Journal of Composites for Construction 15 4 pp 644 652 10 1061 ASCE CC 1943 5614 0000194 Abstract A significant proportion of damage to buildings in hurricanes occurs owing to weak roof to wall connections The objective of this study was to develop an innovative efficient and nonintrusive roof to wall connection for wood frame structures by using high performance fiber reinforced polymer FRP composites Several connection configurations were developed and tested at the component level under uplift loading The most feasible configuration was selected and further tested at the component level under lateral loadings The selected FRP tie system was then tested at a full scale model designed to represent conventional wood frame buildings The objective was to assess the connection s in situ performance under simulated uplift forces The results of the full scale tests were in close agreement with those obtained from the component level tests Control tests were also performed to evaluate the load capacity of a typical commercial metallic hurricane clip to facilitate comparison of its results with that of the newly developed FRP tie The FRP tie system described in this study offers an easy toapply nonintrusive and viable alternative to existing metal hurricane clips for both new construction and existing structures Return to top Canino I Gan Chowdhury A Mirmiran A Suksawang N 2011 Triaxial Load Testing of Metal and FRP Roof To Wall Connectors ASCE Journal of Architectural Engineering 17 3 pp 112 120 10 1061 ASCE AE 1943 5568 0000039 Abstract The allowable capacity of conventional roof to wall metal connectors is based on results of unidirectional component tests that do not simulate triaxial aerodynamic loading effects induced by high wind events The results of wind and wind driven rain tests conducted at a full scale facility were used to create a database on aerodynamic and aerohydrodynamic load effects on roof to wall connectors Based on these results three axial mean force components triaxial mean loads were combined into a series of resultant mean force vectors A new test protocol was then developed for roof to wall connectors under simulated triaxial loading as opposed to simple uniaxial loading The findings confirm that current testing methods tend to overestimate the actual load capacities of metal connectors The performance of a nonintrusive roof to wall connector system using fiber reinforced polymer FRP ties was also tested and compared with that of a traditional metal connector under simulated aerodynamic loads The test results demonstrated the validity of FRP ties as an alternative to hurricane clips for use in timber roof to wall connection systems Return to top Gan Chowdhury A Bitsuamlak G Fu T C Kawade P 2011 Study on Roof Vents Subjected to Simulated Hurricane Effects ASCE Natural Hazards Review Journal 12 4 pp 158 165 10 1061 ASCE NH 1527 6996 0000039 Abstract Most residential buildings use a natural ventilation process by which overheated air inside buildings is vented out and fresh air is pulled in to replace it Proper ventilation helps maintain a comfortable temperature inside buildings maintain indoor air quality increase energy efficiency and prevent moisture damage Vents are necessary to prevent heat and moisture buildup and contribute to the longevity of building components However the vents are subjected to wind loading and can be the path for water infiltration during hurricane events Limited research has been performed on water intrusion through various types of vents in residential buildings to relate such water intrusion to the vent mechanism and the differential pressures that the vents are subjected to during hurricanes The objectives of this research were to perform full scale holistic testing of vents subjected to simulated hurricane level wind and wind driven rain to evaluate such relations and vent performance under hurricane conditions Two building models incorporating a variety of vents were tested using the wall of wind facility It was found that the extent to which water intrusion increased with higher positive differential pressure across the vent for various angles of attack can be affected significantly by the vent mechanism Return to top Simiu E Bitsuamlak G Gan Chowdhury A Li R Tecle A Yeo DH 2011 Testing of Residential Homes under Wind Loads ASCE Natural Hazards Review Journal 12 4 pp 166 170 10 1061 ASCE NH 1527 6996 0000034 Abstract Aerodynamic testing of low rise structures is fraught with difficulties that can be the cause of large measurement errors resulting in the underestimation of aerodynamic pressures by a factor of as much as two The errors are primarily attributable to the inadequate knowledge and simulation of wind flows affecting low rise buildings especially residential homes in suburban environments A type of aerodynamic testing of sufficiently small low rise structures is explored that does not entail the simulation of the turbulence intensity and integral turbulence scales That type of testing would offer several advantages eliminating a major cause of discrepancies among measurements conducted in different laboratories allowing the use of larger model scales and allowing testing in both typical commercial wind tunnels and in open jet facilities of the Wall of Wind WoW type Preliminary tests based on data obtained at the University of Western Ontario wind tunnel and the Florida International University large scale six fan WoW facility suggest that the proposed type of testing yields systematically conservative results for the specialized type of measurements considered herein In most cases but not all the degree of conservatism is modest The results appear to be of sufficient interest to warrant additional research Return to top Erwin J W Gan Chowdhury A Bitsuamlak G 2011 Wind Loads on Rooftop Equipment Mounted on a Flat Roof Indian Society for Wind Engineering s ISWE Journal of Wind and Engineering 8 1 pp 23 42 Abstract Measurements of wind induced loads on rooftop air conditioning a c units were carried out at a full scale testing facility The a c units were installed on the roof of a test building and instrumented with force and pressure transducers to capture the aerodynamic loading effects The load coefficients were compared to those specified in the American Society of Civil Engineers ASCE Standard Minimum Design Loads for Buildings and Other Structures The use of screens as a technique with the potential for mitigating wind loading on rooftop equipment was also investigated Placing a porous metal screen around the rooftop equipment was found to reduce wind loading effects on the equipment by 33 70 depending upon the porosity of the screen Return to top Balderrama J A Masters F J Gurley K R Prevatt D O Aponte Bermúdez L D Reinhold T A Pinelli J P Subramanian C S Schiff S D Gan Chowdhury A 2011 The Florida Coastal Monitoring Program FCMP A Review Journal of Wind Engineering and Industrial Aerodynamics 99 9 pp 979 995 doi 10 1016 j jweia 2011 07 002 Abstract The Florida Coastal Monitoring Program FCMP is a multi university field research program that was founded in 1998 to study the near surface wind and rain characteristics of Atlantic hurricanes and their effects on coastal infrastructure The FCMP has three research thrusts 1 characterization of surface wind and wind driven rain conditions 2 quantification of wind induced component and cladding pressures and 3 assessment of damage to evaluate the performance of single family homes and the building codes and standards that guided their construction This paper presents an overview of the program including the motivation for the field research a review of the program s scientific objectives the history of the program from 1999 2010 and descriptions of the instrument systems and supporting infrastructure A case study of Hurricane Frances 2004 is presented and the current and potential uses of the collected wind field data are discussed Return to top Gan Chowdhury A Bitsuamlak G Simiu E 2010 Aerodynamic Hydro aerodynamic and Destructive Testing ICE Structures and Buildings Journal 163 SB2 pp 137 147 10 1680 stbu 2010 163 2 137 Abstract Hurricane induced losses in the USA increased from US 1 3 billion per year pre 1990 to US 36 billion per year post 2000 In 2005 the losses exceeded US 100 billion Hurricanes caused over 1400 fatalities in 2004 2005 Research focusing on the complex interaction between hurricanes and the built environment is therefore necessary to develop a cohesive and systemic approach to building hurricaneresilient communities Full and large scale experimental research at Florida International University is focusing on the development of a hurricane wind and winddriven rain testing facility generically named the wall of wind capable of subjecting single storey building models to hurricane effects Three different types of tests are envisioned aerodynamic pressure tests for low rise buildings rooftop equipment and mitigation hydroaerodynamic wind driven rain intrusion through roof secondary water barriers soffits and window door wall interfaces and destructive roof tile and shingle tests roof fascia tests This paper describes the new facility provides details on hurricane wind and rain simulation discusses the three different types of testing capabilities and states the goals of the research aimed at developing hurricane resilient communities Return to top Bitsuamlak G Dagnew A Gan Chowdhury A 2010 Computational Assessment of Blockage and Wind Simulator Proximity Effects for a New Full Scale Testing Facility Wind and Structures 13 1 pp 21 36 Abstract A new full scale testing apparatus generically named the Wall of Wind WoW has been built by the researchers at the International Hurricane Research Center IHRC at Florida International University FIU WoW is capable of testing single story building models subjected up to category 3 hurricane wind speeds Depending on the relative model and WoW wind field sizes testing may entail blockage issues In addition the proximity of the test building to the wind simulator may also affect the aerodynamic data This study focuses on the Computational Fluid Dynamics CFD assessment of the effects on the quality of the aerodynamic data of i blockage due to model buildings of various sizes and ii wind simulator proximity for various distances between the wind simulator and the test building The test buildings were assumed to have simple parallelepiped shapes The computer simulations were performed under both finite WoW wind field conditions and in an extended Atmospheric Boundary Layer ABL wind flow Mean pressure coefficients for the roof and the windward and leeward walls served as measures of the blockage and wind simulator proximity effects The study uses the commercial software FLUENT with Reynolds Averaged Navier Stokes equations and a Renormalization Group RNG k ε turbulence model The results indicated that for larger size test specimens i e for cases where the height of test specimen is larger than one third of the wind field height blockage correction may become necessary The test specimen should also be placed at a distance greater than twice the height of the test specimen from the fans to reduce proximity effect Return to top Gan Chowdhury A Simiu E Leatherman S P 2009 Destructive Testing under Simulated Hurricane Effects to Promote Hazard Mitigation ASCE Natural Hazards Review Journal 10 1 pp 1 10 10 1061 ASCE 1527 6988 2009 10 1 1 Abstract The human and financial toll of hurricanes on U S east and gulf coast communities has been immense The International Hurricane Research Center at Florida International University focuses on a first of its kind full scale destructive testing method that can lead to understanding of hurricane structure interaction and development of effective mitigation measures Analogous to the effective study of the failure modes during crash testing significantly enhancing automobile safety and performance analysis through shake table testing to improve seismic resistance of buildings hurricane engineering research will improve building resiliency through full scale destructive testing and raise the public s awareness of the need to improve building safety and of the means to achieve this goal This paper describes the full scale destructive testing concept details applications through pilot tests illustrates the scientific approach underlying the current testing method and discusses future plans to develop innovative techniques to mitigate hurricane destruction This research is a necessary condition for available and affordable insurance which is paramount to sustain the economy of the U S coastal states Return to top Yu B Gan Chowdhury A 2009 Gust Factors and Turbulence Intensities for the Tropical Cyclone Environment Journal of Applied Meteorology and Climatology 48 3 pp 534 552 10 1175 2008JAMC1906 1 Abstract Gust factors are used to convert peak

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  • Testing Examples | FIU Wall of Wind
    pavers made of plastic to install pressure taps Setting up test specimen Roof deck prepared for testing Roof pavers lifted at approximately 50 mph along edge rows due to increased suction from corner vortices Roof pavers lifted No pedestal condition Mock roof paver with tubing for pressure taps Instrumented roof pavers with parapet height 1 Instrumented roof pavers with parapet height 2 Share this Click to email this to a friend Opens in new window Share on Facebook Opens in new window Click to share on LinkedIn Opens in new window Click to share on Twitter Opens in new window Click to share on Tumblr Opens in new window Click to share on Pinterest Opens in new window Click to share on Reddit Opens in new window Click to share on Google Opens in new window About WOW The 12 fan Wall of Wind WOW at FIU is the largest and most powerful university research facility of its kind and is capable of simulating a Category 5 hurricane the highest rating on the Saffir Simspon Hurricane Wind Scale About IHRC The International Hurricane Research Center is a Type I research center within the State of Florida University System The IHRC

    Original URL path: https://wow.fiu.edu/testing-examples/?shared=email&msg=fail (2016-01-26)
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  • WOW Grand Opening | FIU Wall of Wind
    the image to enlarge Share this Click to email this to a friend Opens in new window Share on Facebook Opens in new window Click to share on LinkedIn Opens in new window Click to share on Twitter Opens in new window Click to share on Tumblr Opens in new window Click to share on Pinterest Opens in new window Click to share on Reddit Opens in new window Click to share on Google Opens in new window About WOW The 12 fan Wall of Wind WOW at FIU is the largest and most powerful university research facility of its kind and is capable of simulating a Category 5 hurricane the highest rating on the Saffir Simspon Hurricane Wind Scale About IHRC The International Hurricane Research Center is a Type I research center within the State of Florida University System The IHRC is an interdisciplinary research center focused on the mitigation of hurricane damage to people the economy and the built and natural environments Testing Inquiries Please contact us with your questions about testing opportunities at the Wall of Wind Wall of Wind Research and Testing Facility Florida International University FIU Engineering Center Operations and Control Center 10555 West Flagler

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  • Uncategorized | FIU Wall of Wind
    Florida IHRC has created this interactive display to teach the science Read More By roy On Mar 04 2013 Uncategorized No Comments Students visit FIU Engineering Expo Some 1 700 South Florida students attended the 2013 annual FIU Engineering Expo sponsored by Miami based AAR Landing Gear Services Students gathered at FIU s Engineering Center of the College of Engineering and Computing for demonstrations and hands on displays of STEM Science Technology Engineering and Math concepts and principles One of the exhibits included guided tours of Read More By roy On Mar 01 2013 Uncategorized No Comments WOW FIU unveils 12 fan Wall of Wind The 12 fan Wall of Wind WOW at FIU is the largest and most powerful university research facility of its kind and is capable of simulating a Category 5 hurricane the highest rating on the Saffir Simspon Hurricane Wind Scale Post Tagged with FIU Engineering and Computing FIU Wall of Wind International Hurricane Research Center Read More By amado On Aug 21 2012 Uncategorized 1 Comment WOW Grand Opening Event Andrew 20th Anniversary Date Friday August 24 Time 10am to noon Location FIU College of Engineering Computing 10555 West Flagler Street Miami Florida 33174 Read More By amado On Jul 15 2012 Uncategorized 1 Comment 12 fan WOW Construction Construction of the Wall of Wind full scale hurricane simulator at Florida International University Read More By amado On Jul 15 2012 Uncategorized 2 Comments Testing Inquiries Please contact us with your questions about testing opportunities at the Wall of Wind Wall of Wind Research and Testing Facility Florida International University FIU Engineering Center Operations and Control Center 10555 West Flagler Street Miami Florida 33174 Email wow fiu edu Phone 305 348 1146 Fax 305 348 1761 Test Inquiry Form Complete the form with your information

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  • Students visit FIU Engineering Expo | FIU Wall of Wind
    to see the WOW in action during on going testing of research projects Currently a study of wind driven rain distribution on a model building is being done Watch the video to learn more about the Engineering Expo and the WOW Share this Click to email this to a friend Opens in new window Share on Facebook Opens in new window Click to share on LinkedIn Opens in new window Click to share on Twitter Opens in new window Click to share on Tumblr Opens in new window Click to share on Pinterest Opens in new window Click to share on Reddit Opens in new window Click to share on Google Opens in new window Related roy on Mar 01 2013 No Comments Leave a Reply Click here to cancel reply Name required Mail will not be published required Website Notify me of follow up comments by email Notify me of new posts by email Testing Inquiries Please contact us with your questions about testing opportunities at the Wall of Wind Wall of Wind Research and Testing Facility Florida International University FIU Engineering Center Operations and Control Center 10555 West Flagler Street Miami Florida 33174 Email wow fiu edu Phone 305 348 1146 Fax 305 348 1761 Test Inquiry Form Complete the form with your information and test information Name required Email required Website Testing Services Inquiry Stay Informed Enter your email address to receive notifications of events and activities Email Address About WOW The 12 fan Wall of Wind WOW at FIU is the largest and most powerful university research facility of its kind and is capable of simulating a Category 5 hurricane the highest rating on the Saffir Simspon Hurricane Wind Scale About IHRC The International Hurricane Research Center is a Type I research center within the State

    Original URL path: https://wow.fiu.edu/2013/03/students-visit-fiu-engineering-expo/ (2016-01-26)
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  • WOW – FIU unveils 12-fan Wall of Wind | FIU Wall of Wind
    to share on Google Opens in new window Related Post Tagged with FIU Engineering and Computing FIU Wall of Wind International Hurricane Research Center amado on Aug 21 2012 1 Comment One response to WOW FIU unveils 12 fan Wall of Wind 17 to 21 September 2012 Tech Universe Digest KnowIT says September 22 2012 at 7 20 pm HUFF AND PUFF It s one thing to put a model of an aircraft in a wind tunnel but how do researchers test buildings and other structures against hurricane forces The answer lies with Florida International University s Wall of Wind 12 huge fans simulate the wind and rain of a Category 5 hurricane The electric fan motor units are controlled by two variable frequency drives and can generate sustained wind speed up to 157 mph or 70 metres per second And they will blow the house down Florida International University Leave a Reply Click here to cancel reply Name required Mail will not be published required Website Notify me of follow up comments by email Notify me of new posts by email Testing Inquiries Please contact us with your questions about testing opportunities at the Wall of Wind Wall of Wind Research and Testing Facility Florida International University FIU Engineering Center Operations and Control Center 10555 West Flagler Street Miami Florida 33174 Email wow fiu edu Phone 305 348 1146 Fax 305 348 1761 Test Inquiry Form Complete the form with your information and test information Name required Email required Website Testing Services Inquiry Stay Informed Enter your email address to receive notifications of events and activities Email Address About WOW The 12 fan Wall of Wind WOW at FIU is the largest and most powerful university research facility of its kind and is capable of simulating a Category 5

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