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  • Harvard Business School
    Management Radcliffe Working Paper Cambridge Radcliffe Institute 1975 This survey and working paper look at the career development of graduates of the Harvard Radcliffe Program in Business Administration taking into account obstacles to employment salary and levels of responsibility HBS Plans to Open Its Doors to Women Wall Street Journal May 13 1959 Hennig Margaret The Managerial Woman Garden City NY Anchor Press Doubleday 1977 One of the first women to receive her MBA from HBS Margaret Hennig co founded the Simmons Graduate School of Management with Anne Jardim with whom she also co wrote The Managerial Woman A study of successful women executives the book became a New York Times bestseller Hobart Christine Administrative Opportunities Journal of College Placement Vol 21 February 1960 This study written by a Director of the Harvard Radcliffe Program in Business Administration surveyed graduates of the program and examined various factors pertaining to their career advancement Harvard Radcliffe Program in Business Administration Is Graduate Training in Business Worthwhile Job Study of Graduates of the Harvard Radcliffe Program in Business Administration Cambridge Mass ca 1956 Full text available Posing the troublesome question facing young women of the time will graduate study in business be worth the time money and effort this study examines the experiences of the 664 graduates of the Harvard Radcliffe Program in Business Administration at the time of publication and concludes the answer to the original question is yes Linden Dana Weschsler The Class of 65 Forbes Magazine July 4 1994 Full text available Harvard users only This article profiles the first eight women admitted to the full MBA program and their experiences during the 30 years since their graduation Moss Allyn Dear Campus Leader What now Mademoiselle 1958 Reprint Quick Winifred Redden Graduate Training in Personnel Administration Personnel Journal vol 16 no 9 March 1938 Full text available Harvard users only While still a student in the first class to attend the Radcliffe College Training Course in Personnel Administration Quick wrote this article describing the backgrounds of her four classmates listing her professors and explaining the curriculum and field work in detail Radcliffe College Committee on the Management Training Program Report of the Radcliffe College Committee on the Management Training Program Cambridge Mass The College 1952 Full text available This 1952 report evaluates the entire Management Training Program experiment after enrollment dropped the deficit increased and a review of the whole curriculum the philosophy and the administration of the course was necessary Radcliffe College Harvard Radcliffe Program in Business Administration Catalogues 1956 1963 Cambridge Radcliffe College Radcliffe College Management Training Program Catalogues 1946 1955 Cambridge Radcliffe College Radcliffe College Training Course in Personnel Administration Catalogues 1937 1945 Cambridge Radcliffe College Full text available 1940 1941 only This catalogue describes the course as a practical education that coordinates theory and practice including an analytical study of human behavior coursework and fieldwork In addition to a partial list of course offerings the catalogue includes admission requirements tuition fellowships registration calendars and living arrangements

    Original URL path: http://www.library.hbs.edu/hc/wbe/research-links_bibliography.html (2016-02-18)
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  • Harvard Business School
    and in the business world This exhibition and website benefitted from the contributions of the staff at the Schlesinger Library at the Radcliffe Institute Harvard University We could not have told this very important story without our colleagues We thank Marilyn Dunn Executive Director of the Schlesinger Library and Librarian of the Radcliffe Institute Ellen Shea Head of Research Services Diana Carey Reference Librarian Visual Resources and Sarah Hutcheon Research Librarian We would like to give our sincere thanks to the early graduates of the MBA program who recalled their experiences as part of the HBS Centennial Celebration in 2008 Judy L Allen MBA 1963 Joan Colligan MBA 1964 Barbara Hackman Franklin MBA 1964 and Sara B Wilkinson MBA 1960 Several early graduates participated in an oral history project for the Harvard Radcliffe Program in Business Administration We are appreciative that Betty J Diener HRPBA 1963 MBA 1964 DBA 1974 Elizabeth Betsy Latimer Jaffe HRPBA 1962 Judith Prior Lawrie HRPBA 1958 and Lloyd Adams Mitchell HRPBA 1957 also shared their memories All these women s personal stories and memories make this dynamic period in business education come alive Our exhibitions are the result of a close team effort whose individual contributions are crucial to the success of the project I am grateful to every member of the exhibition team particularly Priscilla Anderson Katherine Fox Melissa Murphy Justyna Szulc and Rachel Wise Special thanks to Melissa Banta the guest curator whose skill and dedication is reflected in the quality of the exhibition website and this publication Laura Linard Director Special Collections February 2013 Contact Baker Library Historical Collections Baker Library Bloomberg Center Harvard Business School Soldiers Field Boston MA 02163 Phone 617 495 6411 Email histcollref hbs edu Map Directions Related Links Alumni Doctoral Executive Education Faculty Research Initiatives Projects MBA

    Original URL path: http://www.library.hbs.edu/hc/wbe/site-credits-foreword.html (2016-02-18)
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  • Doing Business with China: Early American Trading Houses
    with China Early American Trading Houses Western trade with China dates back to the 1500s when Dutch and Portuguese traders began to import Chinese goods including silk spices porcelain painting and fine furniture But it was the consumption of tea in Europe that created a booming commercial market between China and the West Beginning in the seventeenth century millions of pounds of Chinese tea were exported annually The Portuguese the first European traders to enter China leased and controlled Macao by the 1700s the center of Western trade shifted to Canton now Guangzhou The Chinese government closely monitored activity in the trading ports The United States made its foray into the China trade after independence from Great Britain and the signing of the Treaty of Paris in 1783 The following year the first American ship Empress of China arrived in China carrying silver and 30 tons of ginseng and sailed home loaded with tea and silk Europeans worked through centuries old joint stock trading enterprises such as the Dutch East India Company and the British East India Company Americans newly arrived in the China trade operated as private traders or merchant syndicates that oversaw purchasing and shipping of goods from China to Western importers American merchants were bona fide free traders who were not restricted by a privileged incorporated monopoly historian Yen p ing Hao explains They were free to carry their cargoes wherever they pleased 3 The American firm Russell Co was established in Canton in 1824 by Samuel Russell who began as an apprentice clerk for a maritime merchant in Middleton Connecticut In 1830 Augustine Heard became a partner in the firm Four years later poor health forced Heard to return to Boston where he remained actively involved in the business Frictions within the company prompted Heard to

    Original URL path: http://www.library.hbs.edu/hc/heard/doing-business-with-china.html (2016-02-18)
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  • Augustine Heard & Co.: Building a Family Business
    Janeiro Liverpool and Canton battling weather disease and pirates and soon earned a reputation as a skilled navigator and merchant Augustine gave up his seafaring ways and joined Russell Co when he was 45 and in 1840 he started his own concern with his partners Joseph Coolidge and George Basil Dixwell In 1841 Augustine invited John Heard his eldest nephew to accompany him to China Childless and never married Augustine remained devoted to his nephews the four sons of his brother George Heard John s brothers Augustine Heard II Albert Farley Heard and George Washington Heard who eventually changed his name to George Farley Heard would also serve respective terms in China American boys of college age came to China to seek their fortunes and they expected opportunities there to equal if not surpass those available to the enterprising in a rapidly expanding America historian Stephen Lockwood explains 5 John wrote that Augustine advised him I could make money enough to get away as quickly as possible and that he had no doubt that I could do better here 6 For all of the trading companies which became well established the principle of continuity was invariably kinship Jacques Downs a scholar on American trade in China writes A firm had generally become identified with a stem family or families and its dynastic alliances 7 While Augustine Heard Co had many partners over the years these close familial relations were critical to the running of the company John and his brothers benefitted from the wisdom of their uncle and each other s counsel John for example noted his uncle Augustine s immediate attentiveness to him upon his arrival in China Uncle Augustine is very kind to me When he is not busy he always seems very glad to converse with me

    Original URL path: http://www.library.hbs.edu/hc/heard/augustine-heard.html (2016-02-18)
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  • The Canton Trade and The Hong Merchants System
    Holding the license to trade issued by the Chinese government the hong merchants enjoyed considerable power All foreign trade was required to be channeled through them They purchased most of the imports arranged for exports back to America and made sure Westerners followed customs and duty regulations Samuel Shaw an American consul in Canton described the hong merchants as intelligent exact accountants punctual to their engagements who value themselves much upon maintaining a fair character The concurrent testimony of all the Europeans justifies this remark 11 The hong merchant Houqua came from a family of privilege He eventually amassed his own fortune as well and his wealth hovered at 26 million making him not only one of the richest hong merchants but also among the richest men in the world Other Chinese worked their way up through the system from hired laborers to clerks to hong merchants making personal fortunes through sales with Western traders The hong merchants cultivated close relationships with Western traders like Augustine Heard and provided them with valuable guidance Houqua s great success was at least due in part to his friendship with the Boston clan but the Bostonians owed Houqua at least as much Not only did he aid every family representative who came to China he continued to favor some long after they returned home Jacques Downs notes 12 These familiar connections benefitted individual merchants as well as the relations between the two countries I am very glad to see America and China on such good and friendly terms Houqua wrote to Boston trader John Murray Forbes in 1842 13 Houquaʹs Garden 1830 1836 E83532 16 Museum purchase 1931 A Heard Collection Peabody Essex Museum Salem Massachusetts rel lyteshow 4 class lytebox Kum Qua Image courtesy of the Ipswich Public Library Ipswich MA rel

    Original URL path: http://www.library.hbs.edu/hc/heard/canton-trade.html (2016-02-18)
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  • Commodities, Currencies, and Balancing of the Trade Deficit
    imports did not anywhere equal the West s desire for Chinese tea silk and fine porcelain The British found they could address the growing trade deficit through opium from Bengal India where they owned plantations Opium became more plentiful and uses of the drug changed from originally medical purposes to recreational use The drug represented 57 percent of all imports into China and also became a major source of currency 16 Millions of dollars worth of opium were imported into the country distributed into the interior and sold at retail shops and smoking houses Apart from criticizing the negative economic impact of the opium trade on its economy Chinese government officials also tried to use the moral argument in their negotiations with the British Geoffrey Jones Elisabeth Köll and Alexis Gendron write in Opium and Entrepreneurship in the Nineteenth Century 17 After losing the First Opium War the Chinese were unable to stop the trade Americans first acquired opium from Turkey and then from India where it was considered superior in quality Augustine Heard Co used opium as payment to Chinese brokers for tea and silk which would be purchased by American buyers The firm traded in the drug early in the company s history and also served as the agent for opium and tea trade for Jardine Matheson Co during the First Opium War In comparison to large British houses the Heard firm s earnings from the opium trade were relatively small 18 When Augustine Heard questioned the extent to which the company was involved in the opium trade John Heard explained The opium business is the best business we have not only from the direct but for the collateral profit it induces It also affords an excellent vent for exchange from America rendering us independent of the demand

    Original URL path: http://www.library.hbs.edu/hc/heard/commodities-currencies.html (2016-02-18)
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  • After the Opium War: Treaty Ports and Compradors
    War Of course this settled the questions as to where we were to live in future Hong Kong had the call 23 Augustine Heard Co moved its main office to Hong Kong in 1857 and continued to expand its operations with branches in Foochow and Shanghai agencies in Amoy and Ningbo and later offices in Japan at Yokohama Nagasaki and Hyogo The period also signaled the end of the hong monopolies The Chinese comprador who served as a trading house employee and manager and sometimes as an independent merchant became the essential go between for American traders Although neither party possessed complete control the relationship proved mutually advantageous Acting as a middleman between two worlds the comprador played a strategically important role in modern China s economic growth social change and general acculturation historian Yen P ing Hao writes 24 Over time compradors also became investors in the foreign firms with which they did business and later founded their own enterprises 25 Augustine Heard retired from his role as active head of the company in 1844 He would never return to China In June 1844 the firm announced its new partners John Heard George Basil Dixwell and Joseph Roberts Augustine Heard II arrived in 1847 and became a partner in 1850 Albert Heard came to China after graduating from Yale and became a partner in 1856 the same time that Augustine II went home and John returned to China to take his place By 1857 John Heard reported that the company was turning profits of 180 000 to 200 000 a year The partners found that they could increasingly count on credit as a way of doing business enabling them to acquire goods for American clients with far more capital than the company had By 1860 the Heard Co purchases

    Original URL path: http://www.library.hbs.edu/hc/heard/treaty-ports-compradors.html (2016-02-18)
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  • Speeding Up the Trade: Clippers and Steamships
    and possible invasion from pirates the Chinese or other foreign ships The introduction of the American clipper ships the word clipper signified speed with their narrow hulls and large sails enabled sea travel at speeds of up to 30 kilometers an hour far faster than the average merchant ships Now Western traders could deliver the freshest tea possible make more trips annually and outpace the Chinese junks when smuggling opium In the mid 1840s Augustine Heard Co commissioned the Gardner shipyard in Baltimore to build the vessels the Frolic and the Dart 30 The firm wanted a vessel fast and light enough to outpace competitors but big enough to carry a significant amount of freight 31 Baltimore built vessels often outfitted with cannons were especially known for their speed 32 With its massive sails the Frolic could make headway even in calm days when other ships remained still The introduction of steamships brought further advantages to Western traders With their shallow draft steamships could sail closer to land and venture into the rivers After the Second Opium War between Great Britain and China 1856 1860 additional Chinese coastal ports as well as inland rivers especially the Yangtze River opened up for trade In 1859 or 1860 I carried out a plan I had often thought of This was to order a river steamer from America John Heard wrote I was convinced that from the opening of China which could not fail to result from the Second Opium War steamers must be much wanted So I sent Captain Johnson to America to build and bring out a steamer of 700 tons 33 The steamship the Fire Dart alone turned a profit of 175 000 its first year 34 Ship outward bound ca 1855 c Mystic Seaport Photography Collection Mystic CT 1949

    Original URL path: http://www.library.hbs.edu/hc/heard/clippers-steamships.html (2016-02-18)
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