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  • Harvard Business School
    salesmen altogether and are now selling by catalogue Sidney Sherman noted in his 1900 study of advertising in the United States 15 Manufacturer of Fine Family Carriages New Bedford Mass George L Brownell ca 1843 Trade Catalog Collection Trade catalogs helped businesses to stay competitive by introducing them to the latest technological innovations that improved the efficiency and speed of work in agriculture manufacturing communications and transportation as well as advances in newly developing fields in science and medicine From agricultural catalogs for example farmers learned about patented improvements in reapers threshers and harvesters that could significantly increase grain output The growth of registered patents from several thousand a year in the mid 1800s to over 50 000 a year by the end of the century was indicative of the explosion of new products Trade catalogs featured goods of major industries as well as of a variety of supporting industries that produced items such as tools dies and electrical fixtures A railroad company could thus reference a range of trade catalogs for its needs from those representing major manufactures of locomotives and rails as well as those representing smaller manufacturers that produced passenger doors and ticket punches Dr N Gerberâ s Celebrated Milk Food Chocolate Milk in Powder and New Process Condensed Milk New York Charles F Bloom 1881 Trade Catalog Collection Puritan Cookers and Other High Grade Popular Price House furnishing Specialties New York C G Burgoyne 1893 Trade Catalog Collection The beginnings of a national market including the rapid rise of department stores and mail order catalog retailers had tremendous effect on the life of the home consumer as well Mass produced durable goods came to supplant items formerly made at home or bought as generic items at the general store Trade catalogs advertised a wide variety of home goods including sewing machines stoves cooking ware ready made clothing shoes packaged foods and seed catalogs B D Special Bicycles 1897 Boston Bigelow Dowse Company 1897 Trade Catalog Collection Young Mens Boys Childrens Clothing Sample Book no 88 Chicago Sears Roebuck and Co 1905 Trade Catalog Collection With access to time saving home consumer goods decreased hours in the workweek and the rise in per capita income more Americans now had the time and money to enjoy leisure activities once considered the privilege of the upper class The Progressive Era of social activism and political reform from the 1890s to the 1920s also encouraged the pursuit of leisure activities to combat the fatigue and monotony of factory work Trade catalogs advertised the wares of emerging industries devoted to sports hobbies and entertainment activities promoting products from toys and musical instruments to cameras and tennis rackets Journals for the printing trade including Profitable Advertising Printers Ink and the Inland Printer offered advice on designing trade catalogs that were both informative and inviting Fowlers Publicity Encyclopedia provided such guidelines as Do not crowd matter Good sized type wide margins and plenty of paragraphs strengthen the catalog and If the catalogue is

    Original URL path: http://www.library.hbs.edu/hc/artadv/trade-catalogs.html (2016-02-18)
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  • Harvard Business School
    chromolithography in the 1870s and 1880s opened the door to a flood of colorful creations By that time the trade card s popularity had made it one of the most widespread advertising formats promoting everything from baby milk to pianos to patent medicines Manufacturers were eager to supply the local merchant with whatever advertising materials he might agree to use in dealing with his customers historian Robert Jay explains The generous supply of chromolithographed trade cards and other advertising materials was in fact a powerful incentive for the general store owner to agree to stock the product in question 18 Innovators in chromolithography included the noted firms Mayer Merkel Ottmann New York Donaldson Brothers New York Bufford Sons Boston and New York and Louis Prang Boston Their colorful trade cards were displayed in offices general stores hotels railroad stations and restaurants and salesmen assisted storeowners in arranging advertisements for store counters and window displays using trade cards as well as larger formatted show cards 19 Marketing images also came to adorn home interiors Amid multiplying commercial images the boundaries between art and commerce remained difficult to draw cultural historian Jackson Lears argues In many homes advertisements became the chief means of brightening a dreary visual environment 20 Printers offered an array of stock designs flowers children animals for the front of the card A blank area provided space onto which companies could imprint or stamp their name and address We will send you Fancy Advertising Cards no two alike the Union Trade Card Company announced With or Without Advertisements on them for only Twenty five Three Cent Stamps Post Free to any Address 21 Different companies might use the same card design to feature their products while firms with larger advertising budgets could order custom designs Trade cards had to both entice customers and provide them with useful information in a compact format The verso of each card featured helpful details about the product and company from the benefits of liver pills to insurance company statistics as well as general data about location prices terms of business and sometimes a list of other products carried by the company Neatly packaged and visually arresting trade cards functioned as precious tokens keepsakes that illustrated the promise of individual products and the road to a better life Print curator Eleanor Garvey contends that The colorful expensively produced ad in and of itself was a treat both an invitation to step into a more complete and luxurious life by buying the product and at the same time a token of that life The more expensive an ad the more it was worth to the consumer 22 Souvenirs Novelties Trade Catalogs 17 See Peter C Marzio The Democratic Art Pictures for a Nineteenth Century America Boston David Godine 1979 p 99 18 Jay pp 39 40 19 Walter Friedman Birth of a Salesman The Transformation of Selling in America Cambridge Harvard University Press 2004 p 63 20 Jackson Lears Fables of Abundance A Cultural History

    Original URL path: http://www.library.hbs.edu/hc/artadv/trade-cards.html (2016-02-18)
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  • Harvard Business School
    of prominent visibility for an entire year August Flower and German Syrup Almanac 1896 Springfield Ohio Whitely Fassler Kelly Trade Catalog Collection August Flower and German Syrup Almanac 1896 Springfield Ohio Whitely Fassler Kelly Trade Catalog Collection By the mid 1800s almanacs filled with practical information from gardening tips to postal rates became an especially successful advertising venue for patent medicines 25 Advertisers generally paid for almanacs allowing publishers to distribute them and local retailers to print their names on them at no cost James C Ayer involved in the pharmaceutical industry reaped enormous publicity benefits from the distribution of yearly almanacs Ayer eventually established his own lithograph and printing department that issued millions of almanacs annually Advertisers took another creative leap with the production of novelty items the precursors to bubble gum cards Cracker Jack Toys and other souvenir collectibles of the twentieth century Offshoots of trade cards and souvenir publications novelties included mock items made in the size and shape of an advertised product Flaps pullout levers and projecting tabs known as mechanicals created animations often to humorous effects such as a man moving his mouth as he enjoys Snider s Catsup or a Nelson Morris Co pig inviting customers to Pull my tail and hear me squeal Advertisers also produced miniature replicas of their products Heinz for example dreamed up the idea of pickle shaped pins along with the slogan 57 varieties which were featured at the 1893 Chicago World s Columbian Exposition 26 Many businesses printed their company names onto foldout fans another popular advertising giveaway and advertisers tapped into the growing toy industry with booklets of cutout paper dolls and images overlaid with tracing paper Bookmarks appeared in beautifully chromolithographed designs and other novelties such as rulers stamped with company names offered the potential of

    Original URL path: http://www.library.hbs.edu/hc/artadv/souvenirs.html (2016-02-18)
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  • Harvard Business School
    items decorated their kitchens with them traded them with one another and sometimes accorded the pieces a special status by pasting them into scrapbooks Assembling scrapbooks whether for stamps coins or newspaper clippings had developed into a favorite nineteenth century pastime and spawned its own industry Collectors could refer to how to books on the art of scrapbook making use manufactured scrapbook supplies and chose from a variety of albums ranging from those with simple covers to those with tooled embossed leather and elaborate designs The collecting of advertising media especially appealed to women and children who created artful arrangements of cards and souvenir items on album pages often organizing them by brand name product design or subject theme Advertisers encouraged repeated purchases by capitalizing on the desire of customers to collect a complete series Coffee tea and tobacco companies for example produced groups of trade cards with specific themes such as flowers or events in American history One collector remembered as a school boy I canvassed back doors urging housewives to buy Arbuckle s Coffee so that I could collect the travel and history cards I had the first complete set of Arbuckle s Coffee cards and as a collector of these advertisements became the envy of the schoolyard 30 Scrapbooks filled with colorful trade cards business cards postcards and the like offered a unifying structure in which to display an abundance of recognized brand name goods while introducing a new culture of advertising into the home Framing the cards within scrapbooks became another way for the cards to move into the national culture and in which the national culture was replicated in each home Garvey explains 31 The Art of Posting Souvenirs Novelties 28 The Paper World 10 May 1885 in Garvey p 23 29 Laird p 62

    Original URL path: http://www.library.hbs.edu/hc/artadv/scrapbooks.html (2016-02-18)
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  • Harvard Business School
    Babbitt s Best Soap B T Babbitt Poster Major Knapp Lithographers New York ca 1870 Advertising Ephemera Collection olvwork720234 H F Improved Shirt For Sale Here H F Warren A Farr Co Poster Advertising Ephemera Collection olvwork720156 There are several general billposters of large capital in the United States who employ an army of men and own space and have facilities for covering any state or number of states They have brought billposting to a science Sidney Sherman noted in his 1900 study of advertising in the United States 34 The Associated Billposters of the United States and Canada began to regulate the industry including setting prices and length of time a poster would be displayed Advertisers sent out local representatives traveling salesmen or telegraph messengers with checklists to inspect the distribution placement and condition of posters At times the public landscape became so saturated with marketing images that some state legislations called for a limitation on their use While posters provided a large space to work within advertisers generally kept to a single slogan or line of argument As Fowlers Publicity Encyclopedia reasoned It is more profitable to have twenty five readable words on the poster than to let it contain one hundred words that people cannot see without an opera glass 35 Hawkins offered advice on style layout and the use of good paper and non fading inks Shun the cheap poster and buy the best the lithographer can turn out he argued The posting costs nearly ten times the cost of the poster and the expense of posting is just the same for a bad poster as a good one 36 Chocolate and Cocoa Josiah Webb Co Poster Chas H Crosby Co Lithographer Boston 1866 Advertising Ephemera Collection olvwork719958 The Peerless Pratt Wentworth Poster Chas H Crosby Co Lithographer Boston ca 1867 Advertising Ephemera Collection olvwork719994 Many well known lithographers of the day made their living from both artistic and commercial commissions They included Currier and Ives in New York and Louis Prang and Charles H Crosby in Boston Print curators Sally Pierce and Catharina Slautterback note that chromolithographs printed by Crosby were among the most spectacular and beautifully colored examples of the genre printed in Boston 37 To keep up with the market demand Crosby reportedly ran as many as fifty presses in four locations 38 His prints promoted books chocolates elixirs ovens and locomotive trains a particularly popular subject that crossed the line between art and advertising As the Railroad Advocate observed in 1856 The various locomotive builders are getting up very handsome colored lithographs of their machines They are the appropriate adornments for the offices of every variety of business connected with railroads 39 Lee Shepard Publishers and Booksellers Lee Shepard Poster Attributed to Chas H Crosby Co Lithographer Boston ca 1867 Advertising Ephemera Collection olvwork719988 The Hinkley Locomotive Works Hinkley Locomotive Works Poster Chas H Crosby Co Lithographer Boston Boston Athenæum Fine art and advertising went hand in hand As one lithographer explained

    Original URL path: http://www.library.hbs.edu/hc/artadv/art-of-posting.html (2016-02-18)
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  • Harvard Business School
    would never have been worth the millions of dollars at which their owners prize them copy writer G H E Hawkins explained but for the fact that they have been ding donged into the public day after day and month after month and year after year 44 Brand names and trademarks appeared in advertising media and on packaging labels and the product itself Through their distinctive emblems trademarks helped to establish a graphic association with goods Symbols such as a sword or an angel were designed to promote a sense of assurance regarding the quality of a product Trademarks became valuable legal properties and the number of registered trademarks rose from a handful in 1870 to over 50 000 by the 1920s 45 Some companies patented the shape of their product containers as Heinz did with its original glass ketchup bottle to ensure that no other product usurped its unique form Strasser asserts Successful brands were central to marketing schemes that built powerful companies and in fact many nineteenth century brand names such as Kodak Singer Campbell s and Wrigley s still survive today 46 Easy to read and remember slogans such as A Leader in Quality or Where s the Man We Can t Cure paired with brand names functioned as pervasive reminders of a product s reliability and value Advertising professionals carefully crafted their copy Nathaniel Fowler advised in his 1897 publicity manual There are some advertising lines old as they may be that will always live As the shortest distance between two geographical points is the straight line so the shortest words and the plainest words bridge the distance between the eye and the understanding in the least time 47 Combative discourse the mainstay of political cartoons throughout the nineteenth century also served as a compelling means of convincing customers of the superiority of one product over another and a number of printers who created political cartoons made advertising images as well 48 Especially fierce competition existed among makers of soap patented medicines and sewing machines Testimonials in trade cards brochures and souvenir publications included a P T Barnum like chorus of claim making comparisons before and after scenarios exaggerations and even warnings about patent infringement to customers contemplating the purchase of a competitor s product 49 Advertisers used common visual themes to capture audience attention Trade cards posters souvenir publications and novelty items featured appealing romantic imagery women children animals flowers and pastoral scenes Other themes included references to popular literary subjects the exotic and racial and ethnic stereotypes Illustrations that positioned products alongside views of factories where they were manufactured linked consumer goods to the glorification of modern industrial life The frequent depiction of majestic factories on trade cards is simply further proof of the obvious confidence and optimism with which nineteenth century Americans looked upon the industrial revolution taking place around them Jay contends 50 Patriotic subjects frequently seen on clipper ship trade cards featured images of the American eagle and Uncle Sam the

    Original URL path: http://www.library.hbs.edu/hc/artadv/brand-name-management.html (2016-02-18)
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  • Harvard Business School
    change in advertising occurred at the turn of the century when the reduction in postal rates for periodicals resulted in the emergence of national high circulation publications These became major marketing venues especially suited to the promotion of national brand names Magazines like Century McClure s Ladies Home Journal and the Saturday Evening Post could feature hundreds of advertisements and began to include three color printing half tone photographs and full page ads About Advertising and Printing Boston A M Thayer Co 1889 Baker Old Class Collection By this time Americans had become visually literate consumers of commercial messages Magazine ads took the place of trade cards within the production of advertising as well as within the imaginations of a generation of readers primed to appreciate them Garvey explains The advertising readers both responded to the kinds of accretionary miscellaneous forms they were familiar with in which commercial and non commercial messages mingle and prepared themselves for a world in which advertisements were ever more present 53 The newly emerging field of advertising represented a marketing revolution after the Civil War and played an integral role in promoting mass produced goods one of the foundations of the modern economy Drawing upon new printing technologies and increasingly sophisticated marketing strategies advertisers explored an imaginative interplay of word image and design that crossed the boundaries of art and commerce Their rapidly proliferating advertising products reached audiences far and wide permeating public spaces in bold designs and colors with instantly recognizable brand names and inhabiting domestic domains as intimate familiar tokens and symbols Advertising media in antebellum America paved the way for all that followed from magazine ads and giant billboards to television campaigns and internet marketing and forever changed the nation s consumer consciousness as the United States transformed from a rural

    Original URL path: http://www.library.hbs.edu/hc/artadv/marketing-revolution.html (2016-02-18)
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  • Reference Services - Historical Collections - Baker Library
    Request Form Exhibits HBS Faculty Papers Program Intranet Login Required HBS Administrative Records Program Intranet Login Required Historical Collections Reference Services The Baker Library Historical Collections reference staff offers general and specific information on the collections and services of the Historical Collections Department as well as assistance in effectively using the guides and finding aids to the collections Certain research services will incur a fee Please use the Reference Request Form for all initial inquiries If you are unable to visit Baker Library Historical Collections to work with material in person we recommend that you hire a research assistant to do so for you To hire a student researcher contact HSA Research at 617 495 3033 or hsrresearch mail hsa net Baker Library Historical Collections cannot attest to the quality of any particular researcher Research assistants will need to register as proxies and be able to provide information about your research topic and intended output article book dissertation etc Research Services for the R G Dun Co Collection Baker Library Historical Collections reference staff will conduct limited searches for business or individual names in the R G Dun Co index volumes for projects that generally qualify for in person access

    Original URL path: http://www.library.hbs.edu/hc/services/reference.shtml (2016-02-18)
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