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  • Introduction to Computer Graphics, Chapter 1 -- Introduction
    to start However there is a core of fundamental ideas that are part of the foundation of most applications of computer graphics This book attempts to cover those foundational ideas or at least as many of them as will fit into a one semester college level course While it is not possible to cover the entire field in a first course or even a large part of it this should

    Original URL path: http://math.hws.edu/graphicsbook/c1/index.html (2016-02-07)
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  • Introduction to Computer Graphics, Chapter 2 -- Two-Dimensional Graphics
    with four sections that examine 2D graphics in a general way without tying it to a particular programming language or graphics API The coding examples in these sections are written in pseudocode that should make sense to anyone with enough programming background to be reading this book In the next three sections we will take quick looks at 2D graphics in three particular languages Java with Graphics2D JavaScript with HTML

    Original URL path: http://math.hws.edu/graphicsbook/c2/index.html (2016-02-07)
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  • Introduction to Computer Graphics, Chapter 3 -- OpenGL 1.1: Geometry
    introduced in 1992 and has gone through many versions and many changes since then OpenGL is a low level graphics API similar to the 2D APIs we have covered It is even more primitive in some ways but of course it is complicated by the fact that it supports 3D For the next two chapters the discussion is limited to OpenGL 1 1 OpenGL 1 1 is a large API and we will only cover a part of it The goal is to introduce 3D graphics concepts not to fully cover the API A significant part of what we cover here has been removed from the most modern versions of OpenGL However modern OpenGL in its pure form has a very steep initial learning curve and it is really not a good starting place for someone who is encountering 3D graphics for the first time Some additional support is needed if not OpenGL 1 1 then some similar framework Since OpenGL 1 1 is still supported at least by all desktop implementations of OpenGL it s a reasonable place to start This chapter concentrates on the geometric aspects of 3D graphics such as defining and transforming objects and projecting 3D

    Original URL path: http://math.hws.edu/graphicsbook/c3/index.html (2016-02-07)
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  • Introduction to Computer Graphics, Chapter 4 -- OpenGL 1.1: Light and Material
    as video games movies and advertising One important aspect of physical realism is lighting the play of light and shadow the way that light reflects from different materials the way it can bend or be diffracted into a spectrum as it passes through translucent objects The techniques that are used to produce the most realistic graphics can take all these factors and more into account However another goal of computer graphics is speed OpenGL in particular was designed for real time graphics where the time that is available for rendering an image is a fraction of a second For an animated movie it s OK if it takes hours to render each frame But a video game is expected to render sixty frames every second Even with the incredible speed of modern computer graphics hardware compromises are necessary to get that speed And twenty years ago when OpenGL was still new the compromises were a lot bigger In this chapter we look at light and material in OpenGL 1 1 You will learn how to configure light sources and how to assign material properties to objects Material properties determine how the objects interact with light And you will learn how

    Original URL path: http://math.hws.edu/graphicsbook/c4/index.html (2016-02-07)
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  • Introduction to Computer Graphics, Chapter 5 -- Three.js: A 3D Scene Graph API
    be using WebGL a modern version of OpenGL that is used to create 3D graphics content for web pages WebGL is a low level language even more so than OpenGL 1 1 since a WebGL program has to handle a lot of the low level implementation details that were handled internally in the original version of OpenGL This makes WebGL much more flexible but more difficult to use We will soon turn to working directly with WebGL However before we do that we will look at a higher level API for 3D web graphics that is built on top of WegGL three js There are several reasons for starting at this high level It will allow you to see how some of the things that you have learned are used in a modern graphics package It will allow me to introduce some new features such as shadows and environment mapping It will let you work with a graphics library that you might use in real web applications And it will be a break from the low level detail we have been dealing with before we move on to an even lower level You can probably follow much of the discussion

    Original URL path: http://math.hws.edu/graphicsbook/c5/index.html (2016-02-07)
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  • Introduction to Computer Graphics, Chapter 6 -- Introduction to WebGL
    on OpenGL ES 2 0 a version designed for use on embedded systems such as smart phones and tablets OpenGL ES 1 0 was very similar to OpenGL 1 1 which we studied in Chapter 3 and Chapter 4 However the 2 0 version of OpenGL ES introduced major changes It is actually a smaller simpler API that puts more responsibility on the programmer For example functions for working with transformations such as glRotatef and glPushMatrix were eliminated from the API making the programmer responsible for keeping track of transformations WebGL does not use glBegin glEnd to generate geometry and it doesn t use function such as glColor or glNormal to specify attributes of vertices Nevertheless it will turn out that much of what you learned in previous chapters will carry over to WebGL There are two sides to any WebGL program Part of the program is written in JavaScript the programming language for the web The second part is written in GLSL a language for writing shader programs that run on the GPU I will try to always be clear about which language I am talking about For this introductory chapter about WebGL we will stick to basic 2D

    Original URL path: http://math.hws.edu/graphicsbook/c6/index.html (2016-02-07)
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  • Introduction to Computer Graphics, Chapter 7 -- 3D Graphics with WebGL
    more complex transformations For that we will rely mainly on an open source JavaScript library for vector and matrix math We will also need to implement lighting and material which we will do directly in GLSL We begin the chapter by duplicating most of the capabilities of OpenGL 1 1 that were covered in Chapter 3 and Chapter 4 But we will soon move beyond that by adding features such

    Original URL path: http://math.hws.edu/graphicsbook/c7/index.html (2016-02-07)
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  • Introduction to Computer Graphics, Chapter 8 -- Beyond Realtime Graphics
    in real time using techniques covered in this book and the immense processing power of modern GPUs plus some tricks and advanced algorithms However real time graphics still can t match the realism of the very highest quality computer graphics such as what can be found in movies In fact the CGI computer generated imagery in today s movies is sometimes indistinguishable from reality Getting graphics of that quality can require hours of computing time to render a single frame According to the Wikipedia article about the 2013 animated movie Frozen some complex scenes in that movie used 30 hours of computing to render each frame This chapter is a very brief look at some techniques that can be used for very high quality graphics The discussion will be in general terms I won t be giving sample code or detailed discussions of the mathematics behind the techniques but I hope to provide at least a basic conceptual understanding The first thing that you should understand though is that most of what you have leaned so far still applies Scenes are still composed using geometric primitives transformations materials textures and light sources although perhaps using more advanced material properties and

    Original URL path: http://math.hws.edu/graphicsbook/c8/index.html (2016-02-07)
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