archive-edu.com » EDU » I » IUS.EDU

Total: 154

Choose link from "Titles, links and description words view":

Or switch to "Titles and links view".
  • 6a: Speeds of Different Types of Waves | SOUND
    of the speed of sound in air is given by v 344m s 0 6 T 20 where T is the temperature in Celsius Notice that at room temperature 20 C sound travels at 344 m s The speed of sound can also be affected by the movement of the medium in which it travels For example wind can carry sound waves further if the sound is traveling in the same direction or it can slow the sound down if the sound is traveling in a direction opposite to the wind direction Electromagnetic waves travel at c 3 0 10 8 m s in a vacuum but slow down just a little when they pass through a medium for example light passing from air to glass This occurs because the material has a different value for the permittivity and or permeability due to the interaction of the wave with the atoms of the material The amount the speed changes is given by the index of refraction n c v where c is the speed of light in a vacuum and v is the speed in the medium The frequency of the wave does not change when it slows down so since v λ f the wavelength of electromagnetic waves in a medium must be slightly smaller In this chapter we have assumed that the speed of a wave does not depend on its frequency or wavelength This is generally true for example all the sounds of the instruments in an orchestra reach your ear at the same time no matter what frequencies they are playing However it is the case that under some circumstances speed can depend on the frequency of the wave a phenomenon known as dispersion For electrical signals in a cable this means the signal gradually deteriorates in quality because high frequency components travel at a different speed compared to lower frequency components Different colors of light travel at slightly different speeds through glass which is how a prism separates out the different frequencies of white light Video audio examples What is the speed of sound in a vacuum Why is there no sound when the air is removed from the jar The speed of sound in several gasses The Zube Tube is a toy that has a spring attached to two plastic cups on either end Vibrations in the spring travel at different speeds so a sound starting at one end for example a click when you shake the tube and the spring hits the cup ends up changing pitch at the other end as the various frequencies arrive See if you can figure out from the video which frequencies travel faster high frequencies or low These two videos demonstrate the Allasonic effect The speed of sound is different in a liquid with air bubbles because the density is different As the bubbles burst the speed of sound changes causing the frequency of sound waves in the liquid column to change thus changing the pitch Example

    Original URL path: https://soundphysics.ius.edu/?page_id=753 (2016-02-01)
    Open archived version from archive


  • Simulation 6A: Wave Speed | SOUND
    Different Types of Waves Simulation 6A Wave Speed 6 Summary 7 Wave Behavior 7a Reflection Simulation 7A Reflection 7b Refraction Simulation 7B Refraction Simulation 7C Lenses Simulation 7D Dispersion 1 Simulation 7E Dispersion of a Square Wave 7c Adding Waves Simulation 7F Adding Wave Pulses Simulation 7G Adding Sine Waves 7d Interference Simulaton 7H Path Difference Simulation 7I Interference 7e Diffraction Simulation 7J Diffraction 7f Doppler Shift Simulation 7K Doppler Shift 7 Summary 8 Pitch 8a Pitch 8b Loudness 8c Just Noticeable Difference 8d Timbre The First Time 8 Summary 9 Fourier 9a Wave Shape 9b Fourier Series Simulation 9A Fourier Synthesis 9c Fourier Analysis 9d Timbre Again 9 Summary 10 Perception 10a Structure of the Ear Detailed Structure of the Ear 10b The Place Theory of Hearing 10c The Temporal Theory of Hearing 10d Hearing Loss 10E Auditory Illusions Other Interesting Auditory Phenomena 10 Summary 11 Strings 11a String Resonance Simulation 11A String and Tube Standing Waves 11b Surface Resonances 11c Volume or Helmholtz Resonance 11d Stringed Instruments 11 Summary 12 Tubes 12a Tube Resonance 12b Impedance Simulation 12B Reflection from Boundaries Simulation 12c Mechanical Impedance 12c Woodwind Instruments 12d Brass Instruments 12e Pipe Organs and Other Reed Instruments

    Original URL path: https://soundphysics.ius.edu/?page_id=758 (2016-02-01)
    Open archived version from archive

  • 6. Summary | SOUND
    Summary 4 Resonance 4a Resonance Examples Simulation 4A Resonance Resonance and Tidal Bores in the Bay of Fundy 4b A Few Other Examples of Resonance Simulation 4B Resonance in a Chain 4 Summary 5 Wave Types 5a Transverse Waves Simulation 5A Transverse Waves 5b Longitudinal Waves Simulation 5B Longitudinal Waves 5c Torsional Waves 5d Examples of Waves Simulation 5C Water Waves The Electromagnetic Spectrum 5 Summary 6 Wave Speed 6a Speeds of Different Types of Waves Simulation 6A Wave Speed 6 Summary 7 Wave Behavior 7a Reflection Simulation 7A Reflection 7b Refraction Simulation 7B Refraction Simulation 7C Lenses Simulation 7D Dispersion 1 Simulation 7E Dispersion of a Square Wave 7c Adding Waves Simulation 7F Adding Wave Pulses Simulation 7G Adding Sine Waves 7d Interference Simulaton 7H Path Difference Simulation 7I Interference 7e Diffraction Simulation 7J Diffraction 7f Doppler Shift Simulation 7K Doppler Shift 7 Summary 8 Pitch 8a Pitch 8b Loudness 8c Just Noticeable Difference 8d Timbre The First Time 8 Summary 9 Fourier 9a Wave Shape 9b Fourier Series Simulation 9A Fourier Synthesis 9c Fourier Analysis 9d Timbre Again 9 Summary 10 Perception 10a Structure of the Ear Detailed Structure of the Ear 10b The Place Theory of Hearing 10c The Temporal Theory of Hearing 10d Hearing Loss 10E Auditory Illusions Other Interesting Auditory Phenomena 10 Summary 11 Strings 11a String Resonance Simulation 11A String and Tube Standing Waves 11b Surface Resonances 11c Volume or Helmholtz Resonance 11d Stringed Instruments 11 Summary 12 Tubes 12a Tube Resonance 12b Impedance Simulation 12B Reflection from Boundaries Simulation 12c Mechanical Impedance 12c Woodwind Instruments 12d Brass Instruments 12e Pipe Organs and Other Reed Instruments 12 Summary 13 Percussion 13a Instruments with Non harmonic Overtones 13b Harmonic Percussion Instruments 13c Other Musical Instruments 13 Summary 14 Voice 14a The Vocal Tract 14b Vocal

    Original URL path: https://soundphysics.ius.edu/?page_id=760 (2016-02-01)
    Open archived version from archive

  • 7. Wave Behavior | SOUND
    Amplitude Restoring Force Phase 3 Summary 4 Resonance 4a Resonance Examples Simulation 4A Resonance Resonance and Tidal Bores in the Bay of Fundy 4b A Few Other Examples of Resonance Simulation 4B Resonance in a Chain 4 Summary 5 Wave Types 5a Transverse Waves Simulation 5A Transverse Waves 5b Longitudinal Waves Simulation 5B Longitudinal Waves 5c Torsional Waves 5d Examples of Waves Simulation 5C Water Waves The Electromagnetic Spectrum 5 Summary 6 Wave Speed 6a Speeds of Different Types of Waves Simulation 6A Wave Speed 6 Summary 7 Wave Behavior 7a Reflection Simulation 7A Reflection 7b Refraction Simulation 7B Refraction Simulation 7C Lenses Simulation 7D Dispersion 1 Simulation 7E Dispersion of a Square Wave 7c Adding Waves Simulation 7F Adding Wave Pulses Simulation 7G Adding Sine Waves 7d Interference Simulaton 7H Path Difference Simulation 7I Interference 7e Diffraction Simulation 7J Diffraction 7f Doppler Shift Simulation 7K Doppler Shift 7 Summary 8 Pitch 8a Pitch 8b Loudness 8c Just Noticeable Difference 8d Timbre The First Time 8 Summary 9 Fourier 9a Wave Shape 9b Fourier Series Simulation 9A Fourier Synthesis 9c Fourier Analysis 9d Timbre Again 9 Summary 10 Perception 10a Structure of the Ear Detailed Structure of the Ear 10b The Place Theory of Hearing 10c The Temporal Theory of Hearing 10d Hearing Loss 10E Auditory Illusions Other Interesting Auditory Phenomena 10 Summary 11 Strings 11a String Resonance Simulation 11A String and Tube Standing Waves 11b Surface Resonances 11c Volume or Helmholtz Resonance 11d Stringed Instruments 11 Summary 12 Tubes 12a Tube Resonance 12b Impedance Simulation 12B Reflection from Boundaries Simulation 12c Mechanical Impedance 12c Woodwind Instruments 12d Brass Instruments 12e Pipe Organs and Other Reed Instruments 12 Summary 13 Percussion 13a Instruments with Non harmonic Overtones 13b Harmonic Percussion Instruments 13c Other Musical Instruments 13 Summary 14 Voice 14a

    Original URL path: https://soundphysics.ius.edu/?page_id=38 (2016-02-01)
    Open archived version from archive

  • 7a: Reflection | SOUND
    of the wave obeys the law of reflection the wave as a whole is broken up by the reflection To avoid strong echoes and other unwanted acoustic effects surfaces in concert halls are designed to absorb sound and also to reflect sound diffusely as we will see later Video audio examples Reflection Ripple tank reflection This Ripple Tank Simulation by Paul Falstad lets you look at wave reflection from a parabolic mirror and inside a circular or elliptic enclosure Directions Choose Setup Parabolic Mirror 1 Mirror 2 Circle or Ellipse Describe what you see in each case For the ellipse what happens to sound that starts at the focus of an elliptical chamber This is the explanation behind the strange acoustics in some large building such as the nation s capital Animation of what images look like in a convex mirror Simulation exercise 7A turn in answers on a separate sheet of paper Reflection 1 Introduction 2 Basics 2a Motion and Force 2b Newton s Three Laws Forces Simulation 2c Density and Pressure 2d Energy and Power 2e Two Energy Laws Simulation 2D Energy Conservation in a Spring 2 Summary 3 Vibration 3a Simple Harmonic Motion Simulation 3A Simple Harmonic Motion 3b Period Frequency Amplitude Restoring Force Phase 3 Summary 4 Resonance 4a Resonance Examples Simulation 4A Resonance Resonance and Tidal Bores in the Bay of Fundy 4b A Few Other Examples of Resonance Simulation 4B Resonance in a Chain 4 Summary 5 Wave Types 5a Transverse Waves Simulation 5A Transverse Waves 5b Longitudinal Waves Simulation 5B Longitudinal Waves 5c Torsional Waves 5d Examples of Waves Simulation 5C Water Waves The Electromagnetic Spectrum 5 Summary 6 Wave Speed 6a Speeds of Different Types of Waves Simulation 6A Wave Speed 6 Summary 7 Wave Behavior 7a Reflection Simulation 7A Reflection 7b

    Original URL path: https://soundphysics.ius.edu/?page_id=772 (2016-02-01)
    Open archived version from archive

  • Simulation 7A: Reflection | SOUND
    Different Types of Waves Simulation 6A Wave Speed 6 Summary 7 Wave Behavior 7a Reflection Simulation 7A Reflection 7b Refraction Simulation 7B Refraction Simulation 7C Lenses Simulation 7D Dispersion 1 Simulation 7E Dispersion of a Square Wave 7c Adding Waves Simulation 7F Adding Wave Pulses Simulation 7G Adding Sine Waves 7d Interference Simulaton 7H Path Difference Simulation 7I Interference 7e Diffraction Simulation 7J Diffraction 7f Doppler Shift Simulation 7K Doppler Shift 7 Summary 8 Pitch 8a Pitch 8b Loudness 8c Just Noticeable Difference 8d Timbre The First Time 8 Summary 9 Fourier 9a Wave Shape 9b Fourier Series Simulation 9A Fourier Synthesis 9c Fourier Analysis 9d Timbre Again 9 Summary 10 Perception 10a Structure of the Ear Detailed Structure of the Ear 10b The Place Theory of Hearing 10c The Temporal Theory of Hearing 10d Hearing Loss 10E Auditory Illusions Other Interesting Auditory Phenomena 10 Summary 11 Strings 11a String Resonance Simulation 11A String and Tube Standing Waves 11b Surface Resonances 11c Volume or Helmholtz Resonance 11d Stringed Instruments 11 Summary 12 Tubes 12a Tube Resonance 12b Impedance Simulation 12B Reflection from Boundaries Simulation 12c Mechanical Impedance 12c Woodwind Instruments 12d Brass Instruments 12e Pipe Organs and Other Reed Instruments

    Original URL path: https://soundphysics.ius.edu/?page_id=861 (2016-02-01)
    Open archived version from archive

  • 7b: Refraction | SOUND
    trapped underneath cooler air Jill sees but does not hear the lightning this is sometimes called heat lightning as shown in the second figure below Video audio examples The broken straw illusion due to refraction of light Sound refraction example by Paul Hewitt Example of refraction Optical illusions due to the refraction of light Snell s law tells you how much a light wave will bend when going from air to glass or vice versa Light going into the glass ends up with a refracted angle that is smaller than the incident angle Going the other way glass to air the light ends up with a larger refracted angle than the incident angle In this case what happens if the refracted angle tries to exceed 90 degrees It reflects back into the glass rather than passing into air This is known as total internal reflection and is a consequence of Snell s Law An example of total internal reflection in a water stream The same thing happens in a fiber optic cable light stays inside the cable because of total internal reflection This Ripple Tank Simulation by Paul Falstad lets you look at waves being bent by refraction and temperature gradients Directions First choose Setup Refraction What is going on Why does the wave change direction when it reaches the lower medium Now choose Setup Temperature Gradient 1 Why do the waves bend to go downwards What is the parallel between this simulation and the description given by Paul Hewitt second link in this list Mini lab on Ray Tracing Simulation exercise 7B turn in answers on a separate sheet of paper Refraction Simulation exercise 7C turn in answers on a separate sheet of paper Lenses Simulation exercise 7D turn in answers on a separate sheet of paper Dispersion 1 Simulation exercise 7E turn in answers on a separate sheet of paper Dispersion of a Square Wave 1 Introduction 2 Basics 2a Motion and Force 2b Newton s Three Laws Forces Simulation 2c Density and Pressure 2d Energy and Power 2e Two Energy Laws Simulation 2D Energy Conservation in a Spring 2 Summary 3 Vibration 3a Simple Harmonic Motion Simulation 3A Simple Harmonic Motion 3b Period Frequency Amplitude Restoring Force Phase 3 Summary 4 Resonance 4a Resonance Examples Simulation 4A Resonance Resonance and Tidal Bores in the Bay of Fundy 4b A Few Other Examples of Resonance Simulation 4B Resonance in a Chain 4 Summary 5 Wave Types 5a Transverse Waves Simulation 5A Transverse Waves 5b Longitudinal Waves Simulation 5B Longitudinal Waves 5c Torsional Waves 5d Examples of Waves Simulation 5C Water Waves The Electromagnetic Spectrum 5 Summary 6 Wave Speed 6a Speeds of Different Types of Waves Simulation 6A Wave Speed 6 Summary 7 Wave Behavior 7a Reflection Simulation 7A Reflection 7b Refraction Simulation 7B Refraction Simulation 7C Lenses Simulation 7D Dispersion 1 Simulation 7E Dispersion of a Square Wave 7c Adding Waves Simulation 7F Adding Wave Pulses Simulation 7G Adding Sine Waves 7d Interference Simulaton 7H Path Difference

    Original URL path: https://soundphysics.ius.edu/?page_id=788 (2016-02-01)
    Open archived version from archive

  • Simulation 7B: Refraction | SOUND
    Different Types of Waves Simulation 6A Wave Speed 6 Summary 7 Wave Behavior 7a Reflection Simulation 7A Reflection 7b Refraction Simulation 7B Refraction Simulation 7C Lenses Simulation 7D Dispersion 1 Simulation 7E Dispersion of a Square Wave 7c Adding Waves Simulation 7F Adding Wave Pulses Simulation 7G Adding Sine Waves 7d Interference Simulaton 7H Path Difference Simulation 7I Interference 7e Diffraction Simulation 7J Diffraction 7f Doppler Shift Simulation 7K Doppler Shift 7 Summary 8 Pitch 8a Pitch 8b Loudness 8c Just Noticeable Difference 8d Timbre The First Time 8 Summary 9 Fourier 9a Wave Shape 9b Fourier Series Simulation 9A Fourier Synthesis 9c Fourier Analysis 9d Timbre Again 9 Summary 10 Perception 10a Structure of the Ear Detailed Structure of the Ear 10b The Place Theory of Hearing 10c The Temporal Theory of Hearing 10d Hearing Loss 10E Auditory Illusions Other Interesting Auditory Phenomena 10 Summary 11 Strings 11a String Resonance Simulation 11A String and Tube Standing Waves 11b Surface Resonances 11c Volume or Helmholtz Resonance 11d Stringed Instruments 11 Summary 12 Tubes 12a Tube Resonance 12b Impedance Simulation 12B Reflection from Boundaries Simulation 12c Mechanical Impedance 12c Woodwind Instruments 12d Brass Instruments 12e Pipe Organs and Other Reed Instruments

    Original URL path: https://soundphysics.ius.edu/?page_id=805 (2016-02-01)
    Open archived version from archive



  •