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  • Provost - MIT - Report on the Initiative for Faculty Race and Diversity
    it was incorrectly believed that such hires take place outside of the usual departmental search and hire process which is not true for most schools and departments Often URM or women candidates hired using a Provost Opportunity could be negatively perceived by fellow faculty and or self perception to be a second choice or lower ranked candidate or in some cases to have been hired without the same qualifications In other cases understanding around how the provost hire slot is made available and how it relates to the departmental role of providing new faculty resources e g startup package or lab space was unclear to faculty at large These uncertainties seemed to primarily exist because of non uniform information about the purpose use and process surrounding such hires The result of such perceptions could also influence those not hired using a provost s slot due to the sometime presumption that a URM was hired under a different circumstance Figure 3 URM hiring by school 1991 2009 from cohort analysis Note Data counts dual hires as 50 in each department Figure 4 URM hiring by department from cohort analysis includes minorities of U S and international origin Conclusion Lack of clarity about the use and purpose of Provost Opportunity Hires can lead to an undesired negative perception that could be alleviated with more open communication about the program and its process Hiring by school and department shows patterns in which minorities are consistently not hired in certain departments There are also positive hiring patterns that are apparent in certain other departments disciplines C The cohort analysis included the examination of incoming hiring of all faculty from 1991 to 2009 and determined the percentage of URM hires that took place during this time period The number of URM hires is shown by school and by departmental unit in Figures 3 and 4 respectively There are definite and consistent trends among the different schools as seen in Figure 3 with the percentage of hires over this time period varying across a range from the Whitaker School 22 to MIT Sloan 13 3 SHASS 12 5 to Engineering 9 3 Architecture and Planning 6 3 to the School of Science 3 4 The numbers provided per department indicate significant differences even within schools and also point to some departments in which there has been no minority hiring in the past two decades On the contrary there are certain departments that seem to have achieved relatively significant hiring of URM faculty It is clear that the hiring patterns reflect in some part the relative pools available within a given field Successes within some of these more challenging fields in the recent past however indicate the potential to experience gains in faculty even given these kinds of challenges A careful analysis of such departments within sets of fields or disciplines can lead to the learning and sharing of new approaches at MIT for increasing diversity in departments in similar disciplinary areas Discussion and analysis with units that have had some difficulty in this area may also yield additional ideas about both increasing the pipeline and addressing the search and recruitment process Table 3 Current numbers of URM faculty by school and departmental unit 2009 2010 academic year URM Asian White Grand Total URM Architecture Planning Architecture 2 5 28 35 5 7 Program in Media Arts Sciences 5 15 20 0 0 Urban Studies Planning 3 3 23 29 10 3 Total 5 13 66 84 6 0 Engineering School of Engineering 2 2 0 0 Aeronautics and Astronautics 3 3 26 32 9 4 Chemical Engineering 2 4 25 31 6 5 Civil Environmental Engineering 5 1 31 37 13 5 Biological Engineering 1 2 15 18 5 6 Electrical Engineering Computer Science 9 23 92 124 7 3 Engineering Systems Division 1 6 7 14 3 Material Sciences and Engineering 2 2 32 36 5 5 Mechanical Engineering 3 18 47 68 4 4 Nuclear Science and Engineering 15 15 0 0 Total 26 53 291 370 7 0 Humanities Arts Social Sciences Anthropology Program 1 1 6 8 12 5 Economics 2 2 30 34 5 9 Foreign Languages Literature Section 3 5 8 0 0 History Section 1 1 12 14 7 1 Linguistics Philosophy 2 24 26 7 7 Literature Section 2 1 12 15 13 3 Music Theater Arts Section 2 3 8 13 15 4 Political Science 1 2 21 24 4 2 Program in Science Technology Society 1 12 13 7 7 Program in Writing Humanistic Studies 4 1 4 9 44 4 Total 16 14 134 164 9 8 Sloan School of Management Total 10 15 81 106 9 4 Science Biology 5 49 54 0 0 Brain Cognitive Sciences 2 7 29 38 5 3 Chemistry 3 26 29 0 0 Earth Atmospheric Planetary Sciences 1 2 34 37 2 7 Mathematics 1 6 43 50 2 0 Physics 4 11 59 74 5 4 Total 8 34 240 282 2 8 Whitaker Harvard MIT Division of HST 1 6 7 0 0 Office of Provost Area Office of the Provost 1 1 0 0 Dean for Student Life DAPER Total 1 1 10 12 8 3 Grand Total 66 132 828 1026 6 4 Data from Provost Office of Institutional Research Note Dual hires are only counted once for the primary department or division All data from 2009 2010 academic year as reported November 2009 These hiring numbers are not to be confused with the total number of minority faculty per department which would include all current faculty members regardless of date of hire and would also take into account losses of minority faculty during the cohort time frame The total numbers of URM faculty per school and department for the 2009 2010 academic year at press time are provided in Table 3 These numbers can be compared to national university averages for the top 100 science and engineering research universities based on the 2007 Nelson Report 9 summarized for several STEM disciplines in Table 4 To also provide an idea of the immediately available pool the percentage of URM Ph D s produced in each of these fields is also included In many cases even when viewed on the highest education level namely the number of Ph D graduates URMs remain underrepresented MIT is approximately at or in some cases exceeds the national average for certain fields however there are also several fields for which MIT is below the average Given these data it must be noted that the national Ph D numbers are low in general compared to the U S URM general population which now exceeds 30 Furthermore there is not readily available data on URM postdoctoral candidates by field and discipline Conclusion Over an extended time period there are some units within MIT that had consistently low or zero hiring patterns with respect to minority faculty indicating areas where focus added resources support and new strategies for both pipeline and recruiting could increase numbers There are also units that have had relative success in URM hiring in past years indicating the potential to examine and learn more about recruiting strategies within sets of fields or disciplines Table 4 2007 URM data from top 100 research universities Field Discipline URM Ph D 96 05 URM in top 100 department faculty URM faculty at MIT in 2009 2010 Physical Sciences Chemistry 7 5 3 9 0 Physical Sciences Mathematics 6 1 3 3 2 0 Physical Sciences Physics 5 2 2 5 5 4 Physical Sciences Earth Sciences 5 5 3 7 2 7 Biological Sciences Biology 7 8 4 1 0 Engineering Chemical Engineering 7 7 5 6 6 5 Engineering Civil Engineering 8 2 6 1 13 5 Engineering Computer Science 6 6 2 8 7 3 Engineering Electrical Engineering 7 9 3 3 Engineering Mechanical Engineering 3 7 4 1 4 4 Social Sciences Economics 8 4 5 8 5 9 Social Sciences Political Science 12 7 7 3 4 2 Social Sciences Sociology 16 4 13 5 N A Social Sciences Psychology 12 9 6 9 N A At time of survey URMs represented 28 of the 2006 U S population Data taken from A National Analysis of Minorities in Science and Engineering Faculties at Research Universities Donna J Nelson 2007 Retention A significant number of minority vs non minority faculty leave before or at the associate professor without tenure AWOT case The first three to five years appear more critical to the retention of URM faculty than the majority group C Junior faculty at MIT undergo a two step process to tenure that includes promotion to AWOT and promotion to associate with tenure Cohort analysis data see Table 5 indicate that a disproportionate number of URM faculty leave MIT prior to AWOT or after the AWOT case i e without going up for a tenure case when compared to the non minority faculty group For example 74 of entering White assistant professors were promoted to AWOT whereas only 55 of URM faculty were promoted and 79 of Asian faculty These numbers were statistically significant and provided a meaningful contrast in terms of expected outcomes for URM versus non URM junior faculty at MIT Once beyond the AWOT promotion differences in URM versus non URM tenure rates still indicate a difference 63 vs 53 but it is significantly lower and not statistically significant The findings indicate that a disproportionately large number of minority faculty are lost within the early stages generally the first three to five years that precede the first promotion Reasons for early departure can range from other opportunities offered elsewhere to direct indications about the improbability of tenure but it is clear that many faculty do not make it through these first critical years and end up leaving the Institute This phenomenon constitutes a significant loss in the number of URM faculty retained at MIT Conclusion These findings suggest that earlier intervention more consistent mentoring and oversight and a strong support structure during this time period could make a significant difference Table 5 Promotion rate data for AWOT and tenure taken from cohort analysis Promotion from AWOT to Tenure Asst Professors hired from 1991 to 2000 Promoted to tenure Not promoted N URM 53 47 17 Black 58 42 12 Hispanic 40 60 5 White 63 37 230 Asian 60 40 42 Overall 62 38 289 Promotion to AWOT Asst Professors hired from 1991 2004 Promoted to AWOT Left without promotion N URM 55 45 38 Black 61 39 23 Hispanic 50 50 14 White 75 23 436 Asian 79 19 80 Overall 74 24 554 Includes 1 Native American Mentoring across the Institute lacks consistency including level of commitment and a defined role for mentors I The interview data indicated there was a broad range of mentoring experiences reported by URM faculty Among the most positive experiences were those in which mentors were accountable at the departmental or higher levels for taking an active role in mentoring the junior faculty member Formal programs with such accountability and personal investment from the faculty were most successful In these cases mentors were reported to take on an advocacy role rather than a departmental evaluatory role indicating a difference between the perceived roles of a formal mentor versus a tenure committee member other studies have found that this kind of role is extremely beneficial to the mentee 10 More negative experiences included those in which mentors were non existent or were not engaged or active or in which the junior faculty received ill conceived or overly directive advice Interviews with non minority and minority faculty indicated that poor or negative mentoring experiences are more frequent for URM than non URM faculty and they are particularly high among URM women It should be noted that it can be beneficial for URM junior faculty to have access to at least one mentor from a non URM group and in particular cross racial or cross gender mentoring experiences tend to be positive and helpful experiences 11 12 Finally some junior faculty expressed a lack of knowledge of how mentors might best be utilized to support their careers Conclusion A consistent mentoring approach across the Institute with accountability a defined role of a mentor as well as periodic and timely assessments of progress can contribute to success of junior faculty in the years preceding promotion The potential for subjectivity in tenure promotion decisions as well as communication about expectations is more of a concern for URM faculty I S Interview data indicate there is a greater concern among URM faculty about having an objective review process compared to the non URM sample This data is complemented by survey data that indicate URM faculty feel requirements for tenure are less clearly communicated with them than their non URM counterparts Conclusion Concerns exist among some URM faculty regarding a less than objective tenure review in general or a tenure review that is influenced by aspects of race ethnicity or gender Aspects of the tenure process that are less defined or less clearly communicated can create increased concerns around subjectivity with regard to these matters Many URM faculty particularly though not exclusively in SHASS SAP and Sloan work in research areas that are different from the majority of their peers C In these cases there was often concern expressed about the appropriate choice of referees for promotion There was also concern regarding the level of respect or understanding afforded these different aspects of the chosen research problem by their departmental peers Conclusion Attention and additional effort is required and should be applied toward the support and development of faculty who work in new frontier areas of the field not well represented in a departmental unit or in areas less widely recognized but with potential socio cultural national or global impact Data from the survey indicate that there is more dissatisfaction among tenured URM faculty compared to their White counterparts S MFF with Asian faculty in the middle There also is more dissatisfaction among Asian and URM tenured faculty compared to their untenured counterparts These trends are not statistically significant but are supported by the interviews and by the discussions heard in the faculty forums Although it is clear that faculty generally agree they are satisfied with being a faculty member at MIT when we compare the extremes reported by tenured White to tenured URM faculty and see whether they are very dissatisfied or very satisfied with being a faculty member at MIT the difference approaches the p 10 level of significance Tenured URM faculty and to some extent Asian faculty as well are less likely to be highly satisfied with their MIT lives and are more likely to be dissatisfied Some possible reasons for this difference culled from qualitative URM faculty interviews and the minority faculty forums with senior URM faculty include accumulation of micro inequities and stressors such as Lack of peer recognition and acknowledgement Ceilings or barriers at high levels lab director senior appointments chairs Perception of MIT as an equitable place Fatigue anger or frustration from past efforts to improve diversity Accumulation of micro inequities Ironically these data is accompanied by the fact that it is the URM non tenured faculty particularly the Black faculty who are most likely to be very satisfied with their lives at MIT 67 Black vs 47 White S Untenured URM and Asian faculty are more satisfied than White untenured faculty and more satisfied than their tenured counterparts This may indicate that recent efforts to provide a supportive environment for junior faculty have met some level of success at least in terms of overall satisfaction with life at MIT It is difficult to separate cohort factors such as changes in administrative practice or departmental climates at MIT from differences in attitude that may occur over the course of a faculty career as URM faculty begin to face some of the challenges described by the senior URM faculty The latter was also the case for women Conclusion There is an inverse vector with regard to overall satisfaction in moving from junior to senior faculty rank for URM versus non URM faculty that is disconcerting and if addressed could improve the long time retention of tenured URM faculty at MIT Climate One of the overall issues that impacts the careers and the quality of life of URM faculty is the climate around race and inclusion present within the schools and departments within classrooms labs and other localized work environments at MIT The MIT culture is unique and promotes the scientific standard of objectivity but it also tends to place less emphasis on humanistic aspects of the academic enterprise Within this culture which seeks to view the individual with respect to his her contributions to a field and levels of productivity it can often be difficult to address the larger social culture in which MIT is embedded which includes inherent value placements on aspects such as cultural differences race and diversity Below are findings that address the climate at MIT and its potential impact on URM faculty MIT non URM faculty view diversity as less critical to the Institute s core value of excellence S Based on responses from the quality of life survey to the question I feel a diversified faculty is important for MIT s academic excellence URM faculty and women both indicate diversity to be a more critical component of MIT s core value of excellence than non URM males This difference indicates a deeper dissimilarity in the appreciation of why participation at the highest levels of all groups is needed for future technological and research developments The idea that MIT s long term success depends on recruitment of the top talent throughout the U S as well as the world is a message that has not yet reached a large part of the faculty Furthermore it is clear that the value placed on gaining a diverse

    Original URL path: http://web.mit.edu/provost/raceinitiative/exec-d.html (2016-02-01)
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  • Provost - MIT - Report on the Initiative for Faculty Race and Diversity
    of a future career in academia These efforts can be made in conjunction with the Office of Minority Education and the Office of the Dean for Graduate Education Each department should track its top underrepresented minority undergraduate and graduate students follow their academic careers and post graduate successes and keep information available that will enable or inform a search committee in future years The Institute must enforce the broadening of searches to other carefully selected institutions to increase the numbers of highly qualified URM applicants Because these relationships are strongest on a disciplinary level these interactions should be engaged by department heads and academic deans in a strategic fashion by determining top schools at which URM candidates reside Infrastructure should be provided to enable departments and units to build these relationships The fact that more than half of the current URM faculty come from three or four peer institutions is indicative of a significant problem in the breadth of academic searches For many departments and disciplines even an extension of a search for URM candidates to the top 10 schools could impact these numbers In many cases there are excellent highly ranked institutions particularly in specific areas or fields which also have larger numbers of URM Ph D candidates MIT must form strong and substantive relationships with these institutions that will enable the sharing of information about potential URM candidates early in their graduate careers It is critical that significant effort is placed in building the quality of these partnerships which rely on trust and mutual benefit to yield an exchange and growth of minority scholars Weak efforts could lead to a diminution of respect or trust with MIT and a loss of good faith MIT departments and schools should increase the numbers of prestigious postdoctoral visiting scholar programs that can bring minority scholars to campus naturally expanding the pool of potential candidates over a short timeframe These programs do not need to be solely focused on minority candidates but should be used to increase the pool of URM candidates This benefits MIT and its peer institutions by producing highly qualified scholars with substantive experience and some exposure to the academic rigors at the Institute Such programs would be particularly beneficial if they enable scholars to initiate independent research in a supportive faculty lab environment and to develop a strong mentorship relationship with the faculty member s An example of such an initiative that has been successful in attracting women faculty is the prestigious Pappalardo Fellowship Program established in Physics discussed in Section G Bridge programs in science and engineering that facilitate the transition for excellent students from less competitive undergraduate institutions for MIT graduate school should be designed This approach would be particularly helpful in fields with low numbers of URM students and for which few students matriculate at top tier graduate institutions Such programs could provide a one or two year period of academic rigor at MIT and could also offer academic research opportunities An example of such a program exists in the field of Physics at Vanderbilt University with Fisk University an historically Black university Several of the participants in the bridge program have applied and been admitted to Vanderbilt as graduate students making Vanderbilt one of the top producers of minority physics Ph D s as described in Section G MIT should develop programs that enable departments to build relationships with early and pre career minorities in a substantive fashion More targeted programs can be undertaken by specific departments to attract and evolve future faculty members Resources for such programs should be discussed and made available on the school and administrative level and partnerships among departments can enable shared resources Coordinated efforts such as these can be greatly facilitated in schools or departments that hire a full or part time person to focus on minority recruitment on both the student and the faculty level Resources for such personnel and programs should be implemented to allow a much more extensive use of MIT s own student resources An example of such hires includes the position of manager of diversity recruitment for the School of Architecture and Planning to address outreach diversity awareness and recruiting on every level from undergraduate and graduate students to faculty A second example is the hiring of a full time staff person in the Department of Biology to operate diversity recruitment and outreach programs directed toward undergraduate and graduate students Both of these examples are discussed in more detail in Section G Career building workshops can also bring graduate students and postdoctoral associates to MIT s campus to learn more about the preparation for faculty life the application process and the expectations of applicants They can include assignment of mentors discussion of research plans or discussions on how to choose a good postdoctoral opportunity An example of one such activity was a Future Faculty Workshop supported by MIT s Chemistry Chemical Engineering and Materials Science and Engineering departments headed by Chemistry Department Head Tim Swager Swager partnered with participants at Carnegie Mellon and the University of Massachusetts Amherst in the cross disciplinary area of materials chemistry and engineering and polymer science this example of cross field and cross institutional collaboration is also detailed in Section G Minority undergraduate students should be targeted and encouraged toward graduate school via summer research opportunities at MIT such as the MIT Summer Research Program detailed in Section G Comprehensive on campus honors programs that train and prepare the top URM undergraduates for graduate school at research institutions can also greatly increase the yield of undergraduates that attain Ph D s an example is the Meyerhoff Program at the University of Maryland Baltimore County as described in Section G The disciplinary and departmental units at MIT should engage on a substantive level in professional organizations to specifically reach minority scholars The presence of MIT especially when it includes significant representation from faculty or key staff at organizations that represent minority groups in a range of fields can have

    Original URL path: http://web.mit.edu/provost/raceinitiative/exec-e.html (2016-02-01)
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  • ChemE | Thermodynamics and Molecular Computations
    Reaction Engineering Systems Design and Engineering Transport Processes Biological Engineering Materials Polymers Surfaces and Structures Energy and Environmental Engineering Collaborators UROP Thermodynamics and Molecular Computations Processes as diverse as chemical production bioreaction creation of advanced materials and environmental treatment are ruled by thermodynamics Far left Molecular based understanding of crystallization and nucleation has the potential to improve the solvent selection and crystallization design processes in turn streamlining pharmaceutical development Trout

    Original URL path: http://web.mit.edu/cheme/research/areas/thermodynamics.html (2016-02-01)
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  • ChemE | Catalysis and Reaction Engineering
    Events News Events Seminar Series Hottel Lecture Lewis Lecture Michaels Lecture Wang Lecture Student Seminar News Archives Alumni Alumni News Archives Giving to ChemE Alumni Contact Page Departmental Resources ChemE Phone Directory Department Calendar Seminar Schedule Room Reservations Laboratory Safety Computer Support Research Areas Thermodynamics and Molecular Computations Catalysis and Reaction Engineering Systems Design and Engineering Transport Processes Biological Engineering Materials Polymers Surfaces and Structures Energy and Environmental Engineering Collaborators UROP Catalysis and Reaction Engineering From a simple reaction between molecules to the economical design of a chemical reactor kinetics and catalysts are the key Above left Chemical synthesis in microreactors has the greatest impact for processes requiring precisely controlled or challenging operating conditions difficult compounds energetic intermediates or high pressures and temperatures and for on demand on site production Jensen Group Catalysis and Reaction Engineering A chemical reaction occurs between two small molecules Understanding the kinetics of the reaction and how certain catalysts influence the reaction rate in different ways leads to useful applications In designing a chemical reactor the chemical engineer must consider how the chemical kinetics often modified by catalysis interacts with the transport phenomena in flowing materials The challenge in designing the catalyst is to increase

    Original URL path: http://web.mit.edu/cheme/research/areas/catalysis.html (2016-02-01)
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  • ChemE | Systems Design and Engineering
    Research Research Areas Collaborators UROP News and Events News Events Seminar Series Hottel Lecture Lewis Lecture Michaels Lecture Wang Lecture Student Seminar News Archives Alumni Alumni News Archives Giving to ChemE Alumni Contact Page Departmental Resources ChemE Phone Directory Department Calendar Seminar Schedule Room Reservations Laboratory Safety Computer Support Research Areas Thermodynamics and Molecular Computations Catalysis and Reaction Engineering Systems Design and Engineering Transport Processes Biological Engineering Materials Polymers Surfaces and Structures Energy and Environmental Engineering Collaborators UROP Systems Design and Engineering From early in the development of chemical engineering processes were represented as combinations of unit operations providing a library of building blocks for creating new processes Left A schematic of the natural gas value chain Mathematical models for the design and operation of energy supply chains can significantly improve security of energy supply and help in managing their environmental impact Barton Group Systems Design and Engineering Process design is an imaginative activity an artful blend of intuition and analysis Design is aided by mathematical tools that simulate the behavior of the process and seek optimum operating conditions Effective use of simulation and optimization tools allows unexpected pathways to be explored dangerous operating regions to be identified and transient

    Original URL path: http://web.mit.edu/cheme/research/areas/systems.html (2016-02-01)
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  • ChemE | Transport Processes
    Engineering Systems Design and Engineering Transport Processes Biological Engineering Materials Polymers Surfaces and Structures Energy and Environmental Engineering Collaborators UROP Transport Processes Understanding a fluid s transport processes is the chemical engineer s key to predicting and managing it Above An example of incorporating structure in molecular simulations of complex fluid flow 10 x 10 x 20 DPD simulation of a branched polymer in solvent Armstrong Group Transport Processes Transport

    Original URL path: http://web.mit.edu/cheme/research/areas/transport.html (2016-02-01)
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  • ChemE | Biological Engineering
    Events News Events Seminar Series Hottel Lecture Lewis Lecture Michaels Lecture Wang Lecture Student Seminar News Archives Alumni Alumni News Archives Giving to ChemE Alumni Contact Page Departmental Resources ChemE Phone Directory Department Calendar Seminar Schedule Room Reservations Laboratory Safety Computer Support Research Areas Thermodynamics and Molecular Computations Catalysis and Reaction Engineering Systems Design and Engineering Transport Processes Biological Engineering Materials Polymers Surfaces and Structures Energy and Environmental Engineering Collaborators UROP Biological Engineering Using the tenets of biology and the applied tools of engineering researchers develop an understanding of living systems opening new opportunities and solutions in these complex systems Above Example of tumor targeting one of many biomedical applications for protein engineering specifically yeast surface display Wittrup Group Biological Engineering Thermodynamics transport and chemical kinetics are useful for exploring biological systems as well Biological engineering research may be directed at molecular level processes the cell tissues the organism and large scale manufacturing in biotech processes Its methods include analytical chemistry and biochemistry techniques bioinformatic processing of data and computational solution of chemical reaction and transport models Faculty Daniel G Anderson Daniel Blankschtein Arup K Chakraborty Clark K Colton Charles L Cooney Kwanghun Chung William M Deen Patrick S Doyle

    Original URL path: http://web.mit.edu/cheme/research/areas/biological.html (2016-02-01)
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  • ChemE | Materials
    Lecture Student Seminar News Archives Alumni Alumni News Archives Giving to ChemE Alumni Contact Page Departmental Resources ChemE Phone Directory Department Calendar Seminar Schedule Room Reservations Laboratory Safety Computer Support Research Areas Thermodynamics and Molecular Computations Catalysis and Reaction Engineering Systems Design and Engineering Transport Processes Biological Engineering Materials Polymers Surfaces and Structures Energy and Environmental Engineering Collaborators UROP Materials With help from nature s molecules chemical engineers have found ways to create new materials that can do everything from bone regrowth to powering cell phones Plasma processes are important in micro machining flat panel displays sterilization and many other areas Plasma models are emerging as tools for the development of new plasma equipment and processes as well as diagnosis of process difficulties Above is a schematic diagram of the Research Cluster System of the Sawin Lab Materials The inorganic compounds found in nature are the basis for new materials made by modifying molecular composition and structure These materials have electronic mechanical and optical properties that support a variety of novel technologies Other materials are applied as thin films that create a functional surface Still other materials have biological applications and a new generation of biomaterials is being derived from

    Original URL path: http://web.mit.edu/cheme/research/areas/materials.html (2016-02-01)
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