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  • MIT NSE: CANES INNOVATIONS :: LWR Technology
    P Kearney Memorial Fund NSE Spotlights NSE Policies Employees visitors Students Jobs For Students Contact HOME Search FAQ Contact Jobs NSE Policies EDUCATION RESEARCH PEOPLE NEWS EVENTS ABOUT SUPPORT NSE HOME RESEARCH Fission Fusion Nuclear Security Radiation Sources Detection Measurement Modeling Simulation Materials in Extreme Environments CANES CASL Labs Centers Facilities Resources NSE Spotlights Future of the Nuclear Fuel Cycle Future of Nuclear Power Fuel performance modeling Analysis of LWR fuel performance under irradiation has relied on highly empirical models since the inception of nuclear energy Among those engineering tools FRPACON has been the one used by NRC This code has also been adopted at CANES for analysis of existing and new fuel concepts where new models are required In particular improved models for high burnup high content of PuO 2 and ThO 2 fuel and Pellet Clad Mechanical Interactions PCMI have been applied An option for SiC cladding instead of Zr alloys has also been added The new code called FRAPCON MIT is currently being rewritten for more efficient user interaction In addition efforts were started in 2011 as part of the national program on LWR simulation CASL to introduce microscale modeling in the areas of cladding corrosion creep crud behavior and fretting and wear Among the new models the BDM model for CRUD deposition and thermal analysis in PWRs has been found useful by industry Efforts to predict the generation of hydrogen and its migration through the corroded area into the cladding are in progress Similarly wear and clad grid interactions are being modeled within the CASL effort Publications A Mieloszyk and M S Kazimi An Improved Model for Pellet Clad Interaction for FRAPCON the International Congress on Advances in Nuclear Power Plants 2012 ICAPP 2012 Chicago Illinois June 2012 M Youssef and B Yildiz Mechanical degradation of

    Original URL path: http://web.mit.edu/nse/research/canes/lwr-fuel-performance-models.html (2016-02-01)
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  • MIT NSE: CANES INNOVATIONS :: Fuel Cycle Technology and Policy
    Students 2015 2014 NSE AWARDS ARCHIVES 2015 2014 EVENTS LNSP Seminar Series Rose Lecture Doctoral Research Expo Rising Stars in NSE Del Favero Prize ABOUT NSE at a glance WNSE History FAQ Diversity and Equity NSE Spotlights FUTURE OF NUCLEAR ENERGY Nuclear Fuel Cycle Report Nuclear Power Report ANS mitnse com SUPPORT NSE Mujid S Kazimi Memorial Fund Michael J Driscoll Graduate Fellowship Joseph P Kearney Memorial Fund NSE Spotlights NSE Policies Employees visitors Students Jobs For Students Contact HOME Search FAQ Contact Jobs NSE Policies EDUCATION RESEARCH PEOPLE NEWS EVENTS ABOUT SUPPORT NSE HOME RESEARCH Fission Fusion Nuclear Security Radiation Sources Detection Measurement Modeling Simulation Materials in Extreme Environments CANES CASL Labs Centers Facilities Resources NSE Spotlights Future of the Nuclear Fuel Cycle Future of Nuclear Power Long fuel cycles for LWRS The US industry move toward on line maintenance stimulated this CANES study in which enhanced economic performance of LWR operations and maintenance was pursued by designing for operating cycles of 4 years and beyond considerably longer than the current 18 to 24 month operating cycles Steps to offset the higher fuel costs incurred in single batch cores for these longer cycles by elimination of shutdown time for fuel reloading and associated downtime labor cost were extensively studied These included new epithermal LWR core designs for lifetime up to 8 years and strategies for maintenance which extended the allowable time period between inspections Testing needs that were found limiting had to be extended by new component design or eliminated by on line performance These cycle length extension strategies are being pursued by Small Modular Reactor SMR designers to maximize electric supply reliability and limit access to core to minimize global proliferation concerns Publications Galvin M N E Todreas and L E Conway Maintenance Cycle Extension in the IRIS

    Original URL path: http://web.mit.edu/nse/research/canes/long-fuel-cycles.html (2016-02-01)
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  • MIT NSE: CANES INNOVATIONS :: Fuel Cycle Technology and Policy
    Mujid S Kazimi Memorial Fund Michael J Driscoll Graduate Fellowship Joseph P Kearney Memorial Fund NSE Spotlights NSE Policies Employees visitors Students Jobs For Students Contact HOME Search FAQ Contact Jobs NSE Policies EDUCATION RESEARCH PEOPLE NEWS EVENTS ABOUT SUPPORT NSE HOME RESEARCH Fission Fusion Nuclear Security Radiation Sources Detection Measurement Modeling Simulation Materials in Extreme Environments CANES CASL Labs Centers Facilities Resources NSE Spotlights Future of the Nuclear Fuel Cycle Future of Nuclear Power Water cooled nuclear breeder reactors Fuel breeding in water cooled reactors has been pursued for decades mostly through using tight lattice fuel to reduce water moderation and thorium uranium cycle with higher neutron multiplication More recently attention shifted to the U Pu fuel cycle At CANES a heterogenous assembly CONFU with U fuel and inert hosted PuO 2 fuel was shown to break even in transuranic actinides Also the Hitachi proposed Resource renewable Boiling Water Reactor RBWR feasibility was assessed in collaboration with UC Berkeley and U of Michigan Neutronic thermal hydraulic and fuel performance aspects of the axially heterogeneous design were evaluated New correlations for predicting the void fraction and critical heat flux in tight fuel lattices were produced Furthermore using nitride fuel in place of the oxide has been assessed The higher density nitride fuel hardens the neutron energy spectrum and results in increasing the breeding ratio from 1 04 to 1 14 Another BWR nitride fuel assembly design increased pitch to diameter ratio from 1 13 to 1 20 which maintained the 1 04 breeding ratio but increased the minimum critical power ratio from 1 22 to 1 36 A high porosity 15 nitride fuel is recommended for high burnup conditions Publications K Shirvan N Andrews and M S Kazimi Best Estimate Void Fraction and Critical Power Correlations for Tight Lattice BWR

    Original URL path: http://web.mit.edu/nse/research/canes/water-cooled-breeder-reactors.html (2016-02-01)
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  • MIT NSE: CANES INNOVATIONS :: Fuel Cycle Technology and Policy
    ARCHIVES 2015 2014 EVENTS LNSP Seminar Series Rose Lecture Doctoral Research Expo Rising Stars in NSE Del Favero Prize ABOUT NSE at a glance WNSE History FAQ Diversity and Equity NSE Spotlights FUTURE OF NUCLEAR ENERGY Nuclear Fuel Cycle Report Nuclear Power Report ANS mitnse com SUPPORT NSE Mujid S Kazimi Memorial Fund Michael J Driscoll Graduate Fellowship Joseph P Kearney Memorial Fund NSE Spotlights NSE Policies Employees visitors Students Jobs For Students Contact HOME Search FAQ Contact Jobs NSE Policies EDUCATION RESEARCH PEOPLE NEWS EVENTS ABOUT SUPPORT NSE HOME RESEARCH Fission Fusion Nuclear Security Radiation Sources Detection Measurement Modeling Simulation Materials in Extreme Environments CANES CASL Labs Centers Facilities Resources NSE Spotlights Future of the Nuclear Fuel Cycle Future of Nuclear Power Uranium startup fast reactors Nuclear fuel reprocessing and recycle are unlikely to be deployed in the US in the foreseeable future due in large part to unfavorable economic prospects However fast breeder reactors remain our principal assurance of long term sustainability of nuclear energy A CANES group has developed a generic fast reactor core design using a once through fuel cycle applicable to a wide variety of fast reactor fuel and coolant types which matches the uranium utilization and fuel cycle cost of LWRs The principal enabling feature is the replacement of conventional uranium blankets by high albedo reflectors of materials such as MgO and Zr It was also shown that the used fuel could eventually be removed from storage and employed as the feed for recycle mode breeding if and when need be Accordingly near term fast reactor deployment can now be pursued to focus on capital cost reduction without negatively impacting the uranium market Publications T Fei E Shwageraus M J Driscoll A Cost Effective Once Through Startup Mode for SFRs Trans Am Nucl Soc

    Original URL path: http://web.mit.edu/nse/research/canes/u-fed-fast-reactors.html (2016-02-01)
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  • MIT NSE: CANES INNOVATIONS :: Fuel Cycle Technology and Policy
    Contact HOME Search FAQ Contact Jobs NSE Policies EDUCATION RESEARCH PEOPLE NEWS EVENTS ABOUT SUPPORT NSE HOME RESEARCH Fission Fusion Nuclear Security Radiation Sources Detection Measurement Modeling Simulation Materials in Extreme Environments CANES CASL Labs Centers Facilities Resources NSE Spotlights Future of the Nuclear Fuel Cycle Future of Nuclear Power Systems analysis of the nuclear fuel cycle A vision for the nuclear fuel cycle was put in place about 5 decades ago It was based on the assumption of rapid growth in the use of nuclear energy that might become limited by uranium resources Thus a transition from the utilization of about 1 of the uranium energy in LWR reactors to fuel multi recycling in fast reactors which would be able to fully utilize the energy from uranium Breeding in thermal reactors like the LWRs was envisioned to need thorium as a base fertile fuel A more recent systematic examination of the options for future reactors was conducted in the 2008 to 2011 framework which revealed the availability of vast amounts of uranium ore such that breeding of fuel in reactors might not be needed before the later part of the 21st century The study also revealed that having reactors with a breeding ratio of slightly above one is as good as having those of higher breeding ratio practically limited to 1 25 Thus recycling in reactors other than the metal cooled reactor would be effective from the resource extension point of view These insights were obtained using a specially developed fuel cycle analysis tool CAFCA which was the first such tool with a built in optimization function based on genetic algorithms Publications S Passerini and M Kazimi Sustainability Features of Nuclear Fuel Cycle Options Sustainability vol 4 pp 2377 2398 2012 M S Kazimi E J Moniz C W

    Original URL path: http://web.mit.edu/nse/research/canes/systems-analysis.html (2016-02-01)
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  • MIT NSE: CANES INNOVATIONS :: Fuel Cycle Technology and Policy
    Research Expo Rising Stars in NSE Del Favero Prize ABOUT NSE at a glance WNSE History FAQ Diversity and Equity NSE Spotlights FUTURE OF NUCLEAR ENERGY Nuclear Fuel Cycle Report Nuclear Power Report ANS mitnse com SUPPORT NSE Mujid S Kazimi Memorial Fund Michael J Driscoll Graduate Fellowship Joseph P Kearney Memorial Fund NSE Spotlights NSE Policies Employees visitors Students Jobs For Students Contact HOME Search FAQ Contact Jobs NSE Policies EDUCATION RESEARCH PEOPLE NEWS EVENTS ABOUT SUPPORT NSE HOME RESEARCH Fission Fusion Nuclear Security Radiation Sources Detection Measurement Modeling Simulation Materials in Extreme Environments CANES CASL Labs Centers Facilities Resources NSE Spotlights Future of the Nuclear Fuel Cycle Future of Nuclear Power Deep borehole used fuel disposal This research area recently carried out in collaboration with Sandia has been reinvigorated by favorable mention in the 2012 report of the Presidential Blue Ribbon Commission on America s Nuclear Future It involves permanent sequestration of used LWR fuel or its high level reprocessing wastes in 0 5 m dia 4 km deep boreholes drilled into granitic bedrock to take advantage of its highly favorable hydrological and geochemical environment This technology has many features in common with existing oil gas geothermal well drilling A recent DOE NEUP has supported our work to resolve remaining performance issues An example improvement has been analytical and numerical calculations and laboratory simulation to show that canisters containing used fuel can be loaded into water filled boreholes by free fall leading to significant cost reduction Publications E Bates J Buongiorno E Baglietto M J Driscoll Transient Thermal Modeling of a Deep Borehole Repository Trans Am Nucl Soc Vol 106 p 254 Chicago IL June 2012 A Salazar E Bates M Driscoll Plugging of Deep boreholes Used for HLW Disposal Trans Am Nucl Soc Vol 107 pp 293

    Original URL path: http://web.mit.edu/nse/research/canes/waste-disposal.html (2016-02-01)
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  • MIT NSE: CANES INNOVATIONS :: Advanced Nuclear Reactors and Power Systems
    WNSE History FAQ Diversity and Equity NSE Spotlights FUTURE OF NUCLEAR ENERGY Nuclear Fuel Cycle Report Nuclear Power Report ANS mitnse com SUPPORT NSE Mujid S Kazimi Memorial Fund Michael J Driscoll Graduate Fellowship Joseph P Kearney Memorial Fund NSE Spotlights NSE Policies Employees visitors Students Jobs For Students Contact HOME Search FAQ Contact Jobs NSE Policies EDUCATION RESEARCH PEOPLE NEWS EVENTS ABOUT SUPPORT NSE HOME RESEARCH Fission Fusion Nuclear Security Radiation Sources Detection Measurement Modeling Simulation Materials in Extreme Environments CANES CASL Labs Centers Facilities Resources NSE Spotlights Future of the Nuclear Fuel Cycle Future of Nuclear Power Supercritical CO 2 Power Cycle Although its basic thermodynamic features were conceptualized several decades ago component performance fell short of making the supercritical CO 2 S CO 2 power plants commercially competitive In the late 1990s a CANES group revisited the situation in view of turbomachinery efficiency improvements and the development of compact and efficient printed circuit heat exchangers Performance modeling showed that a recompression version of the cycle was now more efficient than Rankine steam cycles above about 450 C and potentially of lower capital cost This makes a modernized S CO 2 power plant attractive for a variety of

    Original URL path: http://web.mit.edu/nse/research/canes/supercritical-co2-power-cycle.html (2016-02-01)
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  • MIT NSE: CANES INNOVATIONS :: Advanced Nuclear Reactors and Power Systems
    EVENTS LNSP Seminar Series Rose Lecture Doctoral Research Expo Rising Stars in NSE Del Favero Prize ABOUT NSE at a glance WNSE History FAQ Diversity and Equity NSE Spotlights FUTURE OF NUCLEAR ENERGY Nuclear Fuel Cycle Report Nuclear Power Report ANS mitnse com SUPPORT NSE Mujid S Kazimi Memorial Fund Michael J Driscoll Graduate Fellowship Joseph P Kearney Memorial Fund NSE Spotlights NSE Policies Employees visitors Students Jobs For Students Contact HOME Search FAQ Contact Jobs NSE Policies EDUCATION RESEARCH PEOPLE NEWS EVENTS ABOUT SUPPORT NSE HOME RESEARCH Fission Fusion Nuclear Security Radiation Sources Detection Measurement Modeling Simulation Materials in Extreme Environments CANES CASL Labs Centers Facilities Resources NSE Spotlights Future of the Nuclear Fuel Cycle Future of Nuclear Power Optimization and licensing of sodium fast rearctors Sodium cooled Fast Reactors SFRs have been part of the international nuclear enterprise since the 1960s They are valued especially because they offer the potential of improved nuclear fuel use However they have not achieved widespread use primarily because of high costs the inconvenience of using sodium as a reactor coolant and the potential for reactor criticality accidents In a multiuniversity 4 year study an investigation sought ways to improve safety at low cost building upon previously proposed SFR concepts This was done within the context of the NRC s Technology Neutral regulatory Framework TNF a risk informed treatment of safety regulation that was also extended to the potential problem of regulation of proliferation threats We concluded that the costs of SFRs and their electricity output could not easily be reduced below the levels of competing LWRs primarily because of the problems of using sodium as a coolant The TNF was found to be a practical method for guiding safety improvements and evaluating their effectiveness Also past emphases of safety concerns to criticality

    Original URL path: http://web.mit.edu/nse/research/canes/optimization-and%20licensing.html (2016-02-01)
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