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  • MIT Department of Physics
    deteriorations Chen et al Nature Communications 2014 Dai et al PNAS 2015 On an entirely different scale we have also found that cell memory loses resilience to environmental perturbations approaching such a critical transition Axelrod et al eLife 2015 More recently we have collaborated with field ecologists to explore these dynamics in intertidal marine communities and in honey bee colonies suggesting that critical slowing down provides a powerful framework for studying sudden transitions in a wide range of biological systems Evolution of cooperation The conditions required for the initiation and maintenance of cooperative behaviors is a classic problem in evolutionary biology How can cooperators survive when they can be taken advantage of by cheaters As a Pappalardo Postdoctoral Fellow here at MIT Jeff used sucrose metabolism in yeast as a model system to study the evolution of cooperation Gore et al Nature 2009 The normal cooperative cells secrete the enzyme that breaks down sucrose whereas cells lacking the gene encoding this enzyme act as cheaters because they do not contribute to breaking down this shared resource Jeff found that the cooperators can survive even in the presence of cheaters because the cooperators capture a small fraction 1 of the sugar they create before it is shared thus giving the cooperators some preferential access to the fruits of their labor The laboratory has used this model system to demonstrate that both spatial expansion and competition between species can favor cooperation Datta et al PNAS 2013 Celiker and Gore Molecular Systems Biology 2013 We have also found that the evolutionary dynamics between cooperator and cheater interact in a feedback loop with changes in the population size to determine how populations respond to environmental deterioration Sanchez and Gore PLOS Biology 2013 More recently the laboratory has explored the evolutionary consequences of the cooperative inactivation of antibiotics by bacteria Yurtsev et al Molecular Systems Biology 2013 Artemova et al Molecular Systems Biology 2015 Multi species community assembly A major part of the group is now focusing on the rules governing multi species community assembly For example we are asking whether the outcome of pairwise competition between species allows us to predict the outcome when three or more species are in competition We are also performing experiments to explore the role of stochastic colonization in determining the microbial community in the gut of the worm C elegans In all of these experiments we aim to perform theoretically motivated experiments followed by experimentally motivated theory and modeling This is a research paradigm that has been fabulously successful in the areas traditionally considered to be physics and we believe that this physics approach can provide powerful insight into living systems Biographical Sketch Jeff joined the MIT Physics Department as an Assistant Professor in January 2010 after spending the previous three years in the Department as a Pappalardo Fellow working with Alexander van Oudenaarden With the support of a Hertz Graduate Fellowship in 2005 he received his PhD from the Physics Department at the University of California Berkeley

    Original URL path: http://web.mit.edu/physics/people/faculty/gore_jeff.html (2016-02-01)
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  • MIT Department of Physics
    4839 OFFICE 6 305 ASSISTANT Joyce Berggren 617 253 4827 RELATED LINKS MIT Center for Theoretical Physics 8 251 String Theory for Undergraduates A First Course in String Theory Cambridge University Press June 2004 Area of Physics Theoretical Particle Physics Research Interests Professor Zwiebach¹s specialties are String Theory and Theoretical Particle Physics His central contributions have been in the area of String Field Theory where he did the early work on the construction of open string field theory and then developed the field theory of closed strings Zwiebach has also made important contributions to the subject of D branes with exceptional symmetry and to the subject of tachyon condensation In 1999 Ashoke Sen and Zwiebach showed that open string field theory can be used to calculate the tachyon potential and to confirm the existence of a critical point at the expected depth The developments that followed led to vacuum string field theory a new version of open string field theory based on the vacuum of the tachyon In the early 2000 s Zwiebach studied the cosmology of closed string tachyons and together with Okawa and Berkovits developed heterotic string field theory Zwiebach then worked on exact analytic solutions in open string field theory Starting in 2009 Zwiebach and Chris Hull began work on double field theory an approach that aims to capture the T duality properties of string theory in effective actions Together with Olaf Hohm Hull and Zwiebach constructed an action in terms of the generalized metric that incorporates a number of elements of generalized geometry Zwiebach continues to work on this area focusing now on stringy corrections to general relativity Teaching Interests Professor Zwiebach designed and taught a new course in the MIT undergraduate curriculum String Theory for Undergraduates 8 251 first offered in the 2002 Spring term

    Original URL path: http://web.mit.edu/physics/people/faculty/zwiebach_barton.html (2016-02-01)
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  • MIT Department of Physics
    Directory Academic Staff Directory Administrative Staff Directory Pappalardo Fellows Directory Postdoctoral Scholars Departmental Committees Society of Physics Students Physics Graduate Student Council Undergraduate Women in Physics Graduate Women in Physics Alumni and Friends Events Events Upcoming Events Pappalardo Fellowships Symposium Colloquium Schedule Department Calendar Boston Area Physics Calendar Other Physics Events Giving Giving Giving to Physics Alumni Friends Profiles physics mit Green Center for Physics Pappalardo Fellowships MIT Alumni Association Policies People Faculty Directory Academic Staff Directory Administrative Staff Directory Pappalardo Fellows Directory Postdoctoral Scholars Departmental Committees Society of Physics Students Physics Graduate Students Council Undergraduate Women in Physics Graduate Women in Physics MIT Association of Postdoctoral Scholars Alumni Friends Academic Staff Sean Robinson Lecturer Name Sean P Robinson Title s Lecturer Email spatrick mit edu Phone 617 253 5082 Address Massachusetts Institute of Technology 77 Massachusetts Avenue Bldg 4 362 Cambridge MA 02139 Related Links Dr Robinson s Home Page MIT Physics Junior Laboratory Area of Physics Theoretical Particle Physics Physics Advanced Laboratory Instruction Research Interests Sean P Robinson s primary research interests are in quantum field theory general relativity and the various points of connection between these subjects Current work involves the use of quantum anomalies to understand black hole thermodynamics He is also heavily involved in physics education focusing on advanced laboratory instruction in experimental physics Biographical Sketch Sean P Robinson received an S B in Physics from M I T in 1999 and a Ph D in Theoretical Particle Physics from M I T in 2005 He has held staff positions in the M I T Physics Department since 2005 with a focus on education and academic programs administration From 2005 2007 he represented the Physics Department as Space and Renovation Manager in the PDSI project management leading to the construction of the Green Center for

    Original URL path: http://web.mit.edu/physics/people/academic/robinson_sean.html (2016-02-01)
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  • MIT Department of Physics
    spin up and spin down that can flow without friction This has analogies to electron pairs in a superconductor that transport current without resistance In contrast to bulk materials in Zwierlein s experiments one can freely tune the interaction between atoms and make it as strong as quantum mechanics allows In this regime fermion pairs are strongly bound and superfluidity is extremely robust Scaled to the density of electrons in solids superfluidity would in fact occur far above room temperature Recently in an experiment they like to call the Little Fermi Collider LFC the group has managed to collide spin up and spin down clouds of atoms with extreme interactions and observed that these gases bounce off each other despite their ultralow densities Currently the group studies strongly interacting Fermi gases in two dimensions and atomic gases in artificial crystals of light so called optical lattices The goal is to use these gases as model systems for strongly interacting quantum matter from High Tc superconductors to Neutron Stars Biographical Sketch Martin Zwierlein studied physics at the University of Bonn and at the Ecole Normale Supérieure in Paris His doctoral thesis in the group of Wolfgang Ketterle at MIT focused on the observation of superfluidity in ultracold fermionic gases a novel form of strongly interacting matter After a postdoctoral stay at the University of Mainz in the group of Immanuel Bloch he joined the MIT physics department in 2007 His group is using ultracold atomic gases to study models of many body physics relevant for condensed matter nuclear and astrophysics He and his team recently observed Fermi polarons and the quantum limit of diffusion in strongly interacting Fermi gases His awards include the Klung Wilhelmy Weberbank Prize Freie Universität Berlin 2007 Young Investigator Awards from the Air Force Office of Scientific

    Original URL path: http://web.mit.edu/physics/people/faculty/zwierlein_martin.html (2016-02-01)
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  • MIT Department of Physics
    Matter at MIT Dark Matter Time Projection Chamber CERN Expert Q A from Nova ScienceNOW Area of Physics Experimental Nuclear and Particle Physics Research Interests Professor Peter Fisher s main activities are the experimental detection of dark matter using a new kinds of detectors His other interests include the wireless power transfer pedagogical work on electromagnetic radiation new kinds of particle detectors and bonsai Biographical Sketch Prof Peter Fisher is a professor in the Physics Department and currently serves as department head He carries out research in particle physics in the areas of dark matter detection and the development of new kinds of particle detectors He also has an interest in compact energy supplies and wireless energy transmission Prof Fisher received a BS Engineering Physics from Berkeley in 1983 and a Ph D in Nuclear Physics from Caltech in 1988 Selected Publications First Dark Matter Search Results from a Surface Run of the 10 L DMTPC Directional Dark Matter Detector S Ahlen Boston U J B R Battat T Caldwell C Deaconu MIT D Dujmic MIT LNS MIT W Fedus MIT P Fisher MIT LNS MIT MKI MIT F Golub Brandeis U S Henderson MIT A Inglis Boston U et al Jun 2010 5 pp Published in Phys Lett B695 2011 124 129 e Print arXiv 1006 2928 hep ex Neutrino oscillation experiments at the Gösgen nuclear power reactor By Caltech SIN TUM Collaboration G Zacek et al 1986 Published in Phys Rev D 34 2621 2636 1986 Final report on the search for neutrinoless double beta decay of Ge 76 from the Gotthard underground experiment By D Reusser M Treichel F Boehm P Fisher K Gabathuler H E Henrikson V Jorgens L W Mitchell C Nussbaum J L Vuilleumier Neuchatel U Caltech PSI Villigen Oct 1991 4pp Published in

    Original URL path: http://web.mit.edu/physics/people/faculty/fisher_peter.html (2016-02-01)
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  • MIT Department of Physics
    4866 OFFICE 6 405 ASSISTANT Charles Suggs 617 253 8363 AFFILIATIONS Center for Theoretical Physics Laboratory for Nuclear Science RELATED LINKS Prof Adams s Home Page Area of Physics Theoretical Particle Physics String Theory Research Interests Allan Adams s research in theoretical physics focuses on string theory both as a model of quantum gravity and as a strong coupling description of non gravitational systems Like water string theory enjoys many distinct phases in which the low energy phenomena take qualitatively different forms In its most familiar phases string theory reduces to a perturbative theory of quantum gravity These phases are useful for studying for example the resolution of singularities in classical gravity or the set of possibilities for the geometry and fields of spacetime Along these lines Adams is particularly interested in microscopic quantization of flux vacua and in the search for constraints on low energy physics derived from consistency of the stringy UV completion In other phases when the gravitational interactions become strong and a smooth spacetime geometry ceases to be a good approximation a more convenient description of string theory may be given in terms of a weakly coupled non gravitational quantum field theory Remarkably these two descriptions with and without gravity appear to be completely equivalent with one remaining weakly coupled when its dual is strongly interacting This equivalence known as gauge gravity duality allows us to study strongly coupled string and quantum field theories by studying perturbative features of their weakly coupled duals Gauge gravity duals have already led to interesting predictions for the quark gluon plasma studied at RHIC A major focus of Adams s present research is to use such dualities to find weakly coupled descriptions of strongly interacting condensed matter systems which can be realized in the lab Biographical Sketch Allan Adams has

    Original URL path: http://web.mit.edu/physics/people/faculty/adams_allan.html (2016-02-01)
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  • MIT Department of Physics
    rule which relates polarized lepton scattering to the spin substructure of the nucleon Tests of this sum rule in the late 1980s sparked a renewal of interest in the hadron spin physics Jaffe together with students and collaborators explained the role of higher twist and nuclear effects in deep inelastic lepton scattering Jaffe and Aneesh Manohar of UC San Diego first explained the contribution of the orbital angular momentum to the spin of the nucleon In a series of papers Jaffe and Xiangdong Ji of the University of Maryland described phenomena associated with transverse spin in hadron substructure and defined transversity a novel quark spin observable now being studied in a variety of experiments Jaffe was deeply involved in the development of the spin physics program at Brookhaven National Lab Jaffe also began the systematic study of exotic hadrons in the 1970s He proposed that the scalar spinless mesons should be interpreted as two quark two antiquark states an interpretation which has only recently won wide acceptance He and Kenneth Johnson launched the theory of glueballs hadrons made entirely of the gluons which mediate confining forces Together with Edward Farhi Jaffe first described the properties of strange quark matter and explored its significance in astrophysics In the late 1990 s Jaffe Farhi and collaborators developed analytical and computational tools for the study of quantum vacuum energies Casimir energies with applications in the Standard Model and beyond More recently Jaffe s interest in vacuum fluctuation mediated phenomena has taken a practical turn In collaboration with Mehran Kardar Thorsten Emig Noah Graham Giuseppe Bimonte and several students and postdocs Jaffe developed powerful practical methods to determine the geometry dependence of Casimir forces as they affect micro electro mechancial systems This work at the intersection of statistical physics scattering theory and classical electromagnetism has revolutionized the both the conceptual framework in which fluctuation forces are considered and has made possible exact calculation of Casimir forces and related phenomena for many systems of experimental interest Biographical Sketch After attending public schools in Stamford Connecticut Robert Jaffe received his AB summa cum laude in Physics from Princeton where he was Valedictorian of the Class of 1968 He received his MS 1971 and PhD 1972 degrees from Stanford University At Stanford he founded the Stanford Workshops on Political and Social Issues In 1972 Jaffe came to MIT as a postdoctoral research associate in the Center for Theoretical Physics and joined the MIT faculty in 1974 Professor Jaffe has spent sabbatical years at the SLAC Oxford Boston University and Harvard In 2004 he was a resident scholar at the Rockefeller Foundation Study Center at Bellagio Italy Jaffe has served on and chaired numerous program advisory committees scientific steering committees and visiting committees at national labs and major universities Since 2005 Professor Jaffe has been collaborating on the development of a new private university of science and technology in Lahore Pakistan as a member and chair of its external advisory committee In 2008 Jaffe was elected to a

    Original URL path: http://web.mit.edu/physics/people/faculty/jaffe_robert.html (2016-02-01)
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  • MIT Department of Physics
    Green Center for Physics Pappalardo Fellowships MIT Alumni Association Policies People Faculty Directory Academic Staff Directory Administrative Staff Directory Pappalardo Fellows Directory Postdoctoral Scholars Departmental Committees Society of Physics Students Physics Graduate Students Council Undergraduate Women in Physics Graduate Women in Physics MIT Association of Postdoctoral Scholars Alumni Friends Faculty WASHINGTON TAYLOR IV Professor of Physics EMAIL wati at mit edu PHONE 617 258 0729 OFFICE 6 317 ASSISTANT Charles Suggs 617 253 8363 RELATED LINKS MIT Center for Theoretical Physics Physics of Energy 8 21 Area of Physics Theoretical Particle Physics and Quantum Gravity Research Interests Professor Taylor s research interests are centered on basic theoretical questions related to quantum physics and gravity Some of Taylor s principal research contributions have been in fundamental aspects of string theory including the physics of D branes string field theory the matrix model formulation of M theory and string compactifications Taylor s work combines mathematical computational and physics approaches and has led to progress on mathematical problems as well as in physics Taylor s recent research has focused on exploring the large number of apparent solutions to string theory and connections between these solutions and observable particle physics and cosmology A more detailed description of Taylor s current and past research program can be found here Biographical Sketch Washington Taylor is a Professor of Physics in the MIT Center for Theoretical Physics CTP Taylor received his BA in mathematics from Stanford and his PhD in physics from UC Berkeley in 1993 He came to MIT as a postdoc in the CTP in 1993 Taylor joined the faculty at Princeton University in 1995 and returned to MIT in 1998 where he was appointed the Class of 1942 Career Development Professor in 2000 and became a full professor in 2002 In 2008 Taylor was

    Original URL path: http://web.mit.edu/physics/people/faculty/taylor_washington.html (2016-02-01)
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