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  • neurons to explore how memories are created and stored in the brain Previous research has focused on the role of synapses the connections through which neurons communicate An individual synapse is thought to be the minimum unit necessary to establish a memory engram Instead of looking at individual synapses the MIT study explored neurons branch like networks of dendrites and the multiple synapses within them Boosting the signal Neurons sprout dendrites that transmit incoming electrochemical stimulation to the cell body Synapses located at various points throughout the dendritic arbor act as signal amplifiers for the dendrites which play a critical role in integrating these synaptic inputs and determining the extent to which the neuron acts on incoming signals When we experience an emotionally powerful event or reap a big reward like finding a long lost Picasso a flood of neurotransmitters are released and proteins are activated Details associated with the main event get recorded by piggybacking on the protein boost that lasts for a short time after the initial burst These secondary memories are filed on the dendrite in close proximity to the main event the researchers believe The MIT study found that a less significant detail the kind of detail that would normally be relegated to a short term memory and fade away over time may get permanently hitched to a long term memory if two synapses on a single dendritic arbor are stimulated within an hour and a half of each other Every active synapse is a timer Govindarajan said Proteins arrive for a certain amount of time and given enough time in the presence of the proteins the memory becomes strong If there s not enough time and proteins the memory goes away A synapse that received a weak stimulation the kind that would normally accompany a short term memory will express a correlate of a long term memory if two synapses on a single dendritic branch were involved in a similar time frame he said This work was supported by RIKEN Howard Hughes Medical Institute and the National Institutes of Health Preplay of Future Place Cell Sequences by Hippocampal Cellular Assemblies CAMBRIDGE Mass Researchers at MIT s Picower Institute for Learning and Memory report for the first time how animals knowledge obtained through past experiences can subconsciously influence their behavior in new situations The work which sheds light on how our past experiences inform our future choices was reported on Dec 22 in an online publication of Nature Previous work has shown that when a mouse explores a new space neurons in its hippocampus the center of learning and memory fire sequentially like gunpowder igniting a makeshift fuse Individual neurons called place cells fire in a specific pattern that mirrors the animal s movement through space By looking at the time specific patterns and sequences recorded from the firing cells researchers can tell which part of the maze the animal was running at the time In the current work research scientist George Dragoi and Susumu Tonegawa

    Original URL path: https://picower.mit.edu/cms/20110531/neuroscience-news-spring-2011/ (2016-04-25)
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  • exactly how the faulty genes altered synaptic transmission In the fly the Littleton lab focused on synaptotagmin a key protein in synaptic transmission that binds calcium and triggers the fusion of vesicles containing neurotransmitters that allow neurons to excite their targets Humans have several synaptotagmin genes including Synaptotagmin 2 which is principally found at synapses in the peripheral nervous system The current study identified mutations in the calcium binding domain of Synaptotagmin 2 as the key cause of a congenital myasthenic syndrome and peripheral neuropathy in several families in which the gene was mutated The finding that presynaptic genes can cause the disorder refocuses attention on how a defect in the motor nerve not the muscle may be contributing to the disease Guan said It also validates studies in animals that point to synaptotagmin as a calcium sensor that triggers neurotransmitter release This study provides a new picture into potential genetic underpinnings of hereditary muscle weakness and allows us to further dissect how these mutated synaptic proteins block the ability of peripheral nervous system motor axons to communicate The fact that the same mutation can cause disease in humans and flies also indicates the mechanisms underlying the mutated protein are likely to be conserved and we can use the fly model the figure out how the mutation actually disrupts the function of the protein Littleton said This might allow us to figure out ways to treat these disorders as well Original Publication Congratulations to BRAIN Initiative Grant Recipients The National Institutes of Health NIH announced their first round of BRAIN Initiative award recipients Six teams and 15 researchers from the Massachusetts Institute of Technology were recipients Mriganka Sur principal investigator at the Picower Institute for Learning and Memory and the Paul E Newton Professor of Neuroscience in MIT s Department of Brain and Cognitive Sciences BCS leads a team studying cortical circuits and information flow during memory guided perceptual decisions Co principal investigators include Emery Brown BCS professor of computational neuroscience and the Edward Hood Taplin Professor of Medical Engineering Kwanghun Chung Picower Institute principal investigator and assistant professor in the Department of Chemical Engineering and the Institute for Medical Engineering and Science IMES and Ian Wickersham research scientist at the McGovern Institute for Brain Research and head of MIT s Genetic Neuroengineering Group Elly Nedivi Picower Institute principal investigator and professor in BCS and the Department of Biology leads a team studying new methods for high speed monitoring of sensory driven synaptic activity across all inputs to single living neurons in the context of the intact cerebral cortex Her co principal investigator is Peter So professor of mechanical and biological engineering and director of the MIT Laser Biomedical Research Center Ian Wickersham will lead a team looking at novel technologies for nontoxic transsynaptic tracing His co principal investigators include Robert Desimone director of the McGovern Institute and the Doris and Don Berkey Professor of Neuroscience in BCS Li Huei Tsai director of the Picower Institute and the Picower Professor

    Original URL path: https://picower.mit.edu/cms/20140901/picower-e-newsletter-september-2014/ (2016-04-25)
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  • advance our understanding of the human mind and discover new ways to treat prevent and cure neurological disorders Today the National Institutes of Health NIH announced the Read More 1 By Joshua Sarinana In Nedivi Lab News Press Releases Sur Lab News Posted September 30 2014 Fifteen MIT Scientists Receive NIH Brain Initiative Grants Today the National Institutes of Health NIH announced their first round of BRAIN Initiative award recipients Six teams and 15 researchers from the Massachusetts Institute of Technology were Read More 2 By Joshua Sarinana In Bear Lab News Press Releases Posted September 25 2014 Using Science for Service Sofia Essayan Perez is inspired by those around her to teach in Nicaragua conduct neuroscience research MIT senior Sofia Essayan Perez majoring in brain and cognitive sciences with a minor in Read More 0 By Joshua Sarinana In Featured News Lab News Media Mentions Nedivi Lab News News Posted September 24 2014 Neurotech 1 Multi Photon Microscopy How do we see neurons the brain s principal functional units Discover new views made possible by Multi photon microscopy Part 1 of 12 featuring MIT Professors Elly Nedivi and Peter So Read More 0 By Joshua Sarinana In Press Releases Posted September 19 2014 Steve Heinemann in Memoriam With deep sympathy for his family friends and colleagues the MIT community and the Picower Institute for Learning and Memory were greatly saddened by the recent passing of Stephen F Heinemann Read More 0 By Joshua Sarinana In Lab News Media Mentions Nedivi Lab News News Posted September 18 2014 MIT Neurotech Journey Through the Brain Journey into the inner territory of thinking feeling and perceiving as we reveal how next generation neurotechnologies are revolutionizing our understanding of the brain A new video and Read More 0 By Joshua Sarinana In Publications Tonegawa Lab Publications Posted September 18 2014 Bidirectional switch of the valence associated with a hippocampal contextual memory engram Redondo RL Kim J Arons AL Ramirez S Liu X Tonegawa S Nature 2014 Sep 18 513 7518 426 30 doi 10 1038 nature13725 Read More 0 By Joshua Sarinana In Nedivi Lab Publications Publications Posted September 8 2014 Spectral resolved multifocal multiphoton microscopy with multianode photomultiplier tubes Cha JW Tzeranis D Subramanian J Yannas IV Nedivi E So PT Opt Express 2014 Sep 8 22 18 21368 81 doi 10 1364 OE 22 021368 Read More 1 By Joshua Sarinana In Littleton Lab News Press Releases Posted September 4 2014 Patients With a Rare Neuromuscular Disorder and Those With Nerve Damage Tied to Autoimmune Disorders May Share the Same Faulty Synapses Patients with a rare neuromuscular disorder and those with nerve damage tied to autoimmune disorders may share the same faulty synapses neuroscientists at MIT s Picower Institute for Learning Read More 1 By Joshua Sarinana In Littleton Lab News Press Releases Posted September 4 2014 Picower Study Finds Connection Between Rare Muscle Disease and Autoimmune Disorders Patients with a rare neuromuscular disorder and those with nerve damage tied to

    Original URL path: https://picower.mit.edu/cms/2014/09/ (2016-04-25)
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  • Read More 0 By Joshua Sarinana In Chung Lab News Featured News Media Mentions Posted April 18 2014 Kwanghun Chung selected as 2014 Searle Scholar The Searle Scholars Program was founded in 1980 It is funded through the Searle Funds at the Chicago Community Trust established by the estates of Mr and Mrs John G Searle John G Searle was Read More 0 By Joshua Sarinana In Picower e Newsletter Posted April 16 2014 Picower E Newsletter April 2014 In this Issue Assistant Professor Weifeng Xu Faculty Video Profile and Research Background Surprise The Lowly Primary Visual Cortex Performs Complex Sequence Learning Limiting a Certain Read More 1 By Joshua Sarinana In Sur Lab Publications Posted April 16 2014 Structural and molecular remodeling of dendritic spine substructures during long term potentiation Bosch M Castro J Saneyoshi T Matsuno H Sur M Hayashi Y 2014 Apr 16 82 2 444 59 doi 10 1016 j neuron 2014 03 021 PMID 24742465 Read More 0 By Joshua Sarinana In Press Releases Tsai Lab News Posted April 10 2014 Limiting a Certain Protein in the Brain Reverses Alzheimer s Symptoms in Mice Researchers found that the overproduction of the protein known as p25 may be the culprit behind the sticky protein fragment clusters that build up in the brains of Alzheimer s patients The Read More 0 By Joshua Sarinana In Sur Lab Publications Posted April 3 2014 El Boustani et al reply El Boustani S Wilson NR Runyan CA Sur M Nature 2014 Apr 3 508 7494 E3 4 doi 10 1038 nature13130 PMID 24695315 Read More 0 By Joshua Sarinana In Tye Lab Publications Posted April 1 2014 PTEN knockdown alters dendritic spine protrusion morphology not density Haws ME Jaramillo TC Espinosa F Widman AJ Stuber GD Sparta DR Tye KM

    Original URL path: https://picower.mit.edu/cms/2014/04/ (2016-04-25)
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  • On the fifth day he presented the training sequences and random sequences and measured the V1 neural responses The learned sequence ABCD elicited a powerful response compared to unfamiliar sequences in the experimental mice indicating the V1 had changed in response to experience He then altered the timing of the sequences and found that the V1 also detected very precise temporal alternations That makes intuitive sense he noted because in real life sequencing and timing are always coupled so the brain must have a mechanism to respond to it The most mind blowing results of the study according to Bear came from experiments testing the neural response when the second visual stimulus B was replaced with a gray screen following the first stimulus A The primary visual cortex responded as if B were there Bear said The recordings did not report on what the animal was seeing but on what the animal was expecting to see Added Gavornik V1 had formed a memory that B follows A and used that memory to predict what would happen next after A It is as if the mouse were swinging at pitch based on previously learned visual cues But did the experience dependent plasticity evident in the V1 actually arise there or did it reflect feedback from a higher brain region that was actually undergoing the change To find out Gavornik injected directly into V1 a blocker of receptors for the neurotransmitter acetylcholine which is also known to be important for memory formation in the brain He found that this treatment prevented learning in the targeted V1 region A disruption in acetylcholine signaling is one of the first things to go wrong in Alzheimer s disease and one of the few approved treatments for this disease are drugs that promote the action of acetylcholine said Bear Our study raises the possibility of using visual sequence learning as a sensitive assay for earlier diagnosis of Alzheimer s when therapeutic interventions have a better chance of slowing the disease Spatial temporal sequence learning is also impaired in schizophrenia and dyslexia but how this arises remains a mystery What s exciting about our study is that we can now study these mechanisms in the very accessible mouse primary visual cortex said Gavornik When we discover what is going on at a neural and molecular level maybe we can understand better what happens in human disorders and look for new therapeutic approaches On a broader scale the involvement of the V1 in higher level cognitive functions might have intrigued the renowned neuroscientist Santiago Ramón y Cajal who in 1899 speculated that despite significant heterogeneity different regions of cortex still follow general principles Our study supports Cajal s theory said Bear because we show that basic cortical computations may be fundamentally similar in higher and lower regions even if they are used to serve different functions Limiting a Certain Protein in the Brain Reverses Alzheimer s Symptoms in Mice Researchers found that the overproduction of the protein known

    Original URL path: https://picower.mit.edu/cms/20140416/picower-e-newsletter-april-2014/ (2016-04-25)
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  • Lab Publications Clinical Electroencephalography for Anesthesiologists Part I Background and Basic Signatures Clinical Electroencephalography for Anesthesiologists Part I Background and Basic Signatures By Joshua Sarinana Posted December 29 2015 In Brown Lab Publications Publications 0 Purdon PL Sampson A Pavone KJ Brown EN Anesthesiology 2015 Oct 123 4 937 60 doi 10 1097 Recent Posts How the brain processes emotions A new glimpse into working memory Lost memories can be found News Topics Media Mentions Press Releases Neuroscience News Picower e Newsletter Publications Featured News Lab News Bear Lab News Brown Lab News Chung Lab News Flavell Lab News Heiman Lab News Littleton Lab News Miller Lab News Nedivi Lab News Sur Lab News Tonegawa Lab News Tsai Lab News Tye Lab News Wilson Lab News Xu Lab News Publications Bear Lab Publications Brown Lab Publications Chung Lab Publications Flavell Lab Publications Heiman Lab Publications Littleton Lab Publications Miller Lab Publications Nedivi Lab Publications Sur Lab Publications Tonegawa Lab Publications Tsai Lab Publications Tye Lab Publications Wilson Lab Publications Xu Lab Publications Events Colloquia Picower Lectures Special Seminars Symposia Picower Retreats Plastic Lunches Press Inquiries Najat Kessler Communications Administrator Email najatk mit edu Phone 617 452 2485 The Picower Institute

    Original URL path: https://picower.mit.edu/cms/20151229/clinical-electroencephalography-for-anesthesiologists-part-i-background-and-basic-signatures/ (2016-04-25)
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  • nucleus induces fast and local modulation of arousal state Thalamic reticular nucleus induces fast and local modulation of arousal state By Joshua Sarinana Posted December 29 2015 In Brown Lab Publications Publications 0 Lewis LD Voigts J Flores FJ Schmitt LI Wilson MA Halassa MM Brown EN Elife 2015 Oct 13 4 pii e08760 doi 10 7554 eLife 08760 Recent Posts How the brain processes emotions A new glimpse into working memory Lost memories can be found News Topics Media Mentions Press Releases Neuroscience News Picower e Newsletter Publications Featured News Lab News Bear Lab News Brown Lab News Chung Lab News Flavell Lab News Heiman Lab News Littleton Lab News Miller Lab News Nedivi Lab News Sur Lab News Tonegawa Lab News Tsai Lab News Tye Lab News Wilson Lab News Xu Lab News Publications Bear Lab Publications Brown Lab Publications Chung Lab Publications Flavell Lab Publications Heiman Lab Publications Littleton Lab Publications Miller Lab Publications Nedivi Lab Publications Sur Lab Publications Tonegawa Lab Publications Tsai Lab Publications Tye Lab Publications Wilson Lab Publications Xu Lab Publications Events Colloquia Picower Lectures Special Seminars Symposia Picower Retreats Plastic Lunches Press Inquiries Najat Kessler Communications Administrator Email najatk mit edu Phone

    Original URL path: https://picower.mit.edu/cms/20151229/thalamic-reticular-nucleus-induces-fast-and-local-modulation-of-arousal-state-2/ (2016-04-25)
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  • dynamic switch of electric dipoles using graphene field effect transistors on ferroelectric gates Detangling extrinsic and intrinsic hysteresis for detecting dynamic switch of electric dipoles using graphene field effect transistors on ferroelectric gates By Joshua Sarinana Posted December 29 2015 In Brown Lab Publications Publications 0 Ma C Gong Y Lu R Brown E Ma B Li J Wu J Nanoscale 2015 Nov 28 7 44 18489 97 doi 10 1039 c5nr03491d Recent Posts How the brain processes emotions A new glimpse into working memory Lost memories can be found News Topics Media Mentions Press Releases Neuroscience News Picower e Newsletter Publications Featured News Lab News Bear Lab News Brown Lab News Chung Lab News Flavell Lab News Heiman Lab News Littleton Lab News Miller Lab News Nedivi Lab News Sur Lab News Tonegawa Lab News Tsai Lab News Tye Lab News Wilson Lab News Xu Lab News Publications Bear Lab Publications Brown Lab Publications Chung Lab Publications Flavell Lab Publications Heiman Lab Publications Littleton Lab Publications Miller Lab Publications Nedivi Lab Publications Sur Lab Publications Tonegawa Lab Publications Tsai Lab Publications Tye Lab Publications Wilson Lab Publications Xu Lab Publications Events Colloquia Picower Lectures Special Seminars Symposia Picower Retreats

    Original URL path: https://picower.mit.edu/cms/20151229/detangling-extrinsic-and-intrinsic-hysteresis-for-detecting-dynamic-switch-of-electric-dipoles-using-graphene-field-effect-transistors-on-ferroelectric-gates/ (2016-04-25)
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