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  • Understanding Legistlation Related to Procurement: Procurement : A Tutorial - SCM | Supply Chain Resource Cooperative (SCRC) | North Carolina State University
    mainland China These laws require reporting of any request to participate in a boycott which purchasers often fail to do Export Administration Act Various laws and regulations govern and sometimes even restrict the export of goods information and services Purchasers may not perceive that they are engaged in exporting However the law views certain types of drawings specifications and prototypes forwarded to a foreign entity as restricted exports of technology Purchasers are urged to seek the advice of an expert when questions arise in this area Customs Laws This body of law addresses the importation of goods into a country Customs brokers who are familiar with customs laws can be quite valuable in understanding the rules and regulations governing importation Foreign Laws In addition to the laws that apply to foreign transactions the laws and regulations of other countries involved in a business transaction may also apply These laws will likely address contract law export control currency control and criminal law Some transactions could be illegal if structured in a certain manner International Laws Other laws may apply to a business transaction that are not part of any specific country s laws and regulations Maritime laws are a good example of international laws that affect international commerce Several international documents are also pertinent to international transactions These include The United Nations Convention on Contracts for International Sale of Goods CISG and International Contracting Terms INCOTERMS The laws governing purchasing are complex and varied Other laws address environmental and labor issues This overview simply points out that today s purchaser must be aware of the laws and regulations governing domestic and international purchasing A purchaser is urged to discuss with legal counsel any questions that arise during the performance of job responsibilities Ignorance of the law is not a valid defense Contracts vs Agreements Contract is a type of agreement Let s go to the store and buy some potato chips Contract is an agreement between two or more people to do specified things in exchange for other specified things Shirley wants to go to the store to buy some potato chips but she doesn t have a car So Shirley says to Rich I will pay you a pound to take me to the store to buy some potato chips Rich agrees and takes Shirley to the store Elements of a Contract Offer Acceptance Consideration Betsy and Mimi s Contract An EXAMPLE Offer An offer is a proposal or expression by one person that he or she is willing to do something for certain terms Betsy goes into Mimi s wholesale video store and says to Mimi I want to buy 1 000 videotapes of the movie Terminator from you I will pay you 10 for each videotape Conditional Offers Betsy goes into Mimi s wholesale video store and says to Mimi I want to buy 1 000 videotapes of the movie Terminator from you I will pay you 10 for each videotape IF you deliver them to my place

    Original URL path: https://scm.ncsu.edu/scm-articles/article/understanding-legistlation-related-to-procurement-procurement-a-tutorial (2016-04-30)
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  • PERIODIC REVIEW SYSTEM: Inventory Management Models : A Tutorial - SCM | Supply Chain Resource Cooperative (SCRC) | North Carolina State University
    start at some restocking level R At regular time intervals ex 3 days two weeks etc the inventory level is reviewed This new inventory level is called I Some amount Q is added to bring the inventory level back up to R Q R I EXAMPLE 1 A retailer reviews the inventory for a certain product every 3 days The restocking level is 20 If the inventory level is low new items are available in the storeroom and are immediately brought out Determining the restocking level Where average demand during the reorder period plus thereplenishment lead time if there is a delay getting new products in SS safety stock This is a cushion of inventory held to mitigate the uncertainties of forecasts and lead times Higher safety stock levels increase the likelihood that goods are available but also drive up inventory levels and costs EXAMPLE 2 A pharmacy sells an over the counter drug Vaxidene Every 10 days the vendor comes by to check the inventory levels and order more of the drug It takes about 3 more days to get the new order in Demand per day is about 20 bottles but can vary The pharmacy would like to keep a safety stock of about 30 bottles to protect against stockouts just in case demand levels or lead times are greater than expected Solution GRAPHICS 13 days 20 bottles 260 bottles SS 40 bottles 260 40 300 bottles Categories SCM Topics Inventory Management Supply Chain SCM Tutorials Inventory Management Read the Supply Chain Management Professional Newsletter Read the latest supply chain research articles and news as soon as we post them Privacy Policy Related Articles Introduction Inventory Management Models A Tutorial INDEPENDENT VS DEPENDENT DEMAND INVENTORY SYSTEMS An EXAMPLE Inventory Management Models Tutorial ECONOMIC ORDER QUANTITY EOQ MODEL Inventory

    Original URL path: https://scm.ncsu.edu/scm-articles/article/periodic-review-system-inventory-management-models-a-tutorial (2016-04-30)
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  • The New Purchasing and Supply Management Workplace: Procurement : A Tutorial - SCM | Supply Chain Resource Cooperative (SCRC) | North Carolina State University
    compensation discrepancies as new hires arrive with higher pay and benefits The need to elevate the level of purchasing professional often results in buying talent in the open market at a premium price New employees are increasingly demanding to work from home or remote sites presenting communication coordination and organizational challenges Professionals from other functional groups will increasingly accepting assignments in procurement These professionals often arrive from groups that historically pay more than procurement creating pay differentials Sourcing Organizational Structures Developing the right organizational structure will become more chaotic because of the convergence of many factors Commodity sourcing experts will increasingly be dispersed around the globe at business unit or geographic buying locations with coordination Sourcing personnel will increasingly have dual reporting relationships Greater use of global commodity teams adds to organizational complexity Increased global sourcing requires the coordination of worldwide purchasing activities A shared services model requires an umbrella organization to oversee activities across business units An integrated supply chain perspective will result in new executive positions with responsibility for overseeing and coordinating supply chain activities E procurement systems will place purchasing authority at different levels and locations throughout the organization Key Sourcing Organizational Features Integrating the Supply Chain Future organizational designs must recognize the need to achieve integration across the supply chain IT systems that facilitate information sharing Cross functional project teams with supplier and customer involvement Shared risk and reward projects with appropriate measures of success Customer Advisory Boards with supplier involvement Buyer supplier councils Supply chain strategy development involving key customers and suppliers Procurement s Changing Role Higher level outsourcing will begin to shift how procurement and supply organizes its activities and responsibilities Separating Purchasing Authority A separation of purchasing activities will occur as organizations structure themselves to pursue strategic sourcing Strategic Sourcing Activities Manage strategic relationships Develop company wide electronic systems Develop and manage alliances and partnerships Develop company wide contracts Manage critical commodities Transactional Activities Execute transactions with strategic suppliers Use e systems to obtain standard or indirect items through catalogues Source items that are unique to the operating unit Generate and forward material releases Manage accounts payable and material control Source Monczka Trent and Handfield Purchasing and Supply Chain Management Southwestern College Publishing 2002 Sourcing s New Look The design and structure of the sourcing group will change significantly Smaller professional staff Minimal involvement with day to day operations or transactions Act as an internal consultant and problem solver Responsible for managing alliances and other critical relationships Greater responsibility for non traditional purchasing Involvement with cross enterprise negotiations Manage integrative activities with suppliers and the rest of the organization Become process managers that oversee strategic and tactical responsibilities Segment sourcing strategies to match requirements with an appropriate strategy Categories SCM Procurement SCM Topics Procurement Process SCM Tutorials Procurement Read the Supply Chain Management Professional Newsletter Read the latest supply chain research articles and news as soon as we post them Privacy Policy Related Articles The New Purchasing and Supply Management Workplace Procurement A

    Original URL path: https://scm.ncsu.edu/scm-articles/article/the-new-purchasing-and-supply-management-workplace-procurement-a-tutorial (2016-04-30)
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  • E Procurement Articles - SCM | Supply Chain Resource Cooperative (SCRC) | North Carolina State University
    Donavon Favre MA Tracy Freeman MBA Robert Handfield Ph D Jeffrey Stonebraker Ph D Don Warsing Ph D SCM Professionals SCM Research Resources SCM Pro Resources SCM Articles SCM White Papers SCM SCRC Director s Blog SCM Tutorials SCM Video Insights Library SCM Insights Polls SCM Topics SCM Research E Procurement Supply Chain Management SCRC Articles Library E Procurement Supply Chain Management Articles The Procurement Process e Procurement Procurement A Tutorial By Robert Handfield PhD Posted 01 28 2011 The Procurement Process e Procurement e Procurement What is Solicitation What are Online Reverse Auctions Benefits of e Procurement e Procurement e Procurement is the term used to describe the automation through web enabled tools Categories SCM Procurement E Procurement SCM Topics Procurement Process SCM Tutorials Procurement E Procurement and the Purchasing Process By Robert Handfield Ph D Posted 10 22 2003 Many organizations are beginning to re evaluate their purchasing processes and identify new types of e procurement tools that will meet their needs This summer Karl Mundt and Mark Benson have been Categories SCM Features Hot Topics SCM Procurement E Procurement SCM Topics Procurement Process SCM Tutorials Procurement Supply Chain View from the Field Blog Robert Handfield Supply Chain Management Articles Library Supply Chain Executive Training Professional Resources SCM Articles SCM Resources SCM Terms Supply Chain Management Basics SCM Basics Tariffs and Tax Primer NAICS Navigator SCM Blog Business Process Outsourcing Forecasting Healthcare Supply Management Supply Chain Analytics SCM Tutorials CPFR Forecasting Inventory Management Procurement SCM Features Hot Topics Lessons Learned Facts Figures SC Security SCM Topics Inventory Management Supply Chain Procurement Process Six Sigma SC Risk Supplier Partnerships SCM Supplier Evaluation Logistics Global Logistics Logistics Definition SCM Procurement E Procurement SCM Video Insights Library SCM Research Production Labor Sourcing SCM Pain Points Supply Chain Sustainability Supply Chain Sustainability

    Original URL path: https://scm.ncsu.edu/scm-articles/all-articles/category/e-procurement (2016-04-30)
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  • INDEPENDENT VS DEPENDENT DEMAND INVENTORY SYSTEMS - An EXAMPLE: Inventory Management Models Tutorial - SCM | Supply Chain Resource Cooperative (SCRC) | North Carolina State University
    a Dependent Demand Item Continuing with the EXAMPLE Summary EXAMPLE A pharmaceutical firm offers a new drug The firm can try to predict demand for the drug or even try to manipulate demand through pricing incentives and other marketing efforts BUT ultimately demand is determined by the marketplace What is a Dependent Demand Item An item whose demand is Tied directly to the demand or production level of another item Dependent demand items and the systems for managing them are usually most relevant to manufacturers Continuing with the EXAMPLE Suppose the pharmaceutical firm decides to manufacture 15 000 bottles of the new drug every other week based on a forecast of the independent demand Based on this the firm knows exactly how many bottles and caps are needed and when because the demand for these items is dependent on the production schedule of 15 000 bottles every other week The bottles and caps are dependent demand items because 1 the firm controls their demand through the production schedule and 2 their demand is tied to the production of finished bottles Summary An item has independent demand when we can t control it or tie it directly to another item s demand An item has dependent demand when the demand for an item is controlled directly or tied to the production of something else Independent demand and dependent demand items require very different solutions In the remainder of this section we will discuss two classic independent demand systems Categories SCM Topics Inventory Management Supply Chain SCM Tutorials Inventory Management Read the Supply Chain Management Professional Newsletter Read the latest supply chain research articles and news as soon as we post them Privacy Policy Related Articles Introduction Inventory Management Models A Tutorial FUNCTIONS AND DRIVERS OF INVENTORY Inventory Management Models A Tutorial

    Original URL path: https://scm.ncsu.edu/scm-articles/article/independent-vs-dependent-demand-inventory-systems-an-example-inventory-mana (2016-04-30)
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  • The Procurement Process - Implementing the Plan: Procurement : A Tutorial - SCM | Supply Chain Resource Cooperative (SCRC) | North Carolina State University
    number of qualified sellers who want the business Buyers ask for bids only from technically qualified suppliers who want the contract which in turn means they will price competitively Adequate time is available for suppliers to evaluate the requests for quotation The buyer does not have a preferred supplier for that item If a preferred supplier exists the buyer may simply choose to negotiate the final details of the purchase contract with that supplier Negotiation is appropriate when Any of the previously mentioned criteria for competitive bidding are missing For example the item may be a new and or technically complex item with only vague specifications The purchase requires agreement about a wide range of performance factors such as price quality delivery risk sharing and product support The buyer requires early supplier involvement The supplier cannot determine risks and costs The supplier requires a long period of time to develop and produce the items purchased This often makes estimating purchase costs on the part of the supplier difficult Purchase Approval Purchase Orders Reasons for departments to have visibility to purchase orders and incoming receipts The accounting department gains visibility to future accounts payable obligations It also has an order against which to match a receipt for payment when the material arrives The purchase order provides the requesting department with an order number to include in its records The requestor can refer to the purchase order number if he or she must inquire into the status of an order Receiving has a record of the order to match against the receipt of the material Receiving also can use outstanding purchase orders to help forecast its inbound workload Traffic becomes aware of inbound delivery requirements and can make arrangements with carriers or use the company s own vehicles to schedule material delivery Blanket Purchase Orders A blanket purchase order is an open order effective for a year covering repeated purchases of an item or family of items Blanket orders eliminate the need to issue a purchase order whenever there is a need for material After a buyer establishes a blanket order with a supplier the ordering of an item simply requires a routine order release The buyer and seller have already negotiated or agreed upon the terms of the purchase contract With a blanket purchase order the release of material becomes a routine matter between the buyer and seller Purchase Release Update Supplier Scorecard Continuous Improvement Establishing maintaining and improving business relationships with suppliers is another way procurement adds value to an organization Key factors procurement consider to ensure successful supplier relationships need to be Setting expectations implement and maintain supplier performance measures ensure the measures are fully understood by all parties ensure the measure are good indicators of the health of the relationship to all parties involved Ensuring all business requirements are fully understood and met Ensuring collaborative work practices are implemented to ensure a joint approach to problem solving and the identification of improvement opportunities Categories SCM Procurement SCM Topics

    Original URL path: https://scm.ncsu.edu/scm-articles/article/the-procurement-process-implementing-the-plan-procurement-a-tutorial (2016-04-30)
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  • Types of Goods and Services Purchased: Procurement : A Tutorial - SCM | Supply Chain Resource Cooperative (SCRC) | North Carolina State University
    SCM Professionals SCM Research Resources SCM Pro Resources SCM Articles SCM White Papers SCM SCRC Director s Blog SCM Tutorials SCM Video Insights Library SCM Insights Polls SCM Topics SCM Research SCRC Article Library Types of Goods and Services Purchased Procurement A Tutorial Types of Goods and Services Purchased Procurement A Tutorial Published on Jan 26 2011 by Robert Handfield PhD Types of Goods and Services Purchased Raw Materials Semi finished Products and Components Finished Products Maintenance Repair and Operating Items Production Support Items Services Capital Equipment Transportation and Third Party Purchasing Raw Materials Semi finished Products and Components Finished Products Maintenance Repair and Operating Items Production Support Items Services Capital Equipment Transportation and Third Party Purchasing Categories SCM Procurement SCM Topics Procurement Process SCM Tutorials Procurement Read the Supply Chain Management Professional Newsletter Read the latest supply chain research articles and news as soon as we post them Privacy Policy Related Articles The World of Global Procurement Q A with John Zapko VP of Global Procurement Lenovo Understanding Legistlation Related to Procurement Procurement A Tutorial The New Purchasing and Supply Management Workplace Procurement A Tutorial The Procurement Process e Procurement Procurement A Tutorial The Procurement Process Implementing the Plan Procurement A Tutorial The Procurement Process Creating a Sourcing Plan Procurement A Tutorial Role of Procurement within an Organization Procurement A Tutorial Types of Goods and Services Purchased Procurement A Tutorial Introduction Procurement A Tutorial E Procurement and the Purchasing Process Professional Resources SCM Articles SCM Resources SCM Terms Supply Chain Management Basics SCM Basics Tariffs and Tax Primer NAICS Navigator SCM Blog Business Process Outsourcing Forecasting Healthcare Supply Management Supply Chain Analytics SCM Tutorials CPFR Forecasting Inventory Management Procurement SCM Features Hot Topics Lessons Learned Facts Figures SC Security SCM Topics Inventory Management Supply Chain Procurement Process Six Sigma

    Original URL path: https://scm.ncsu.edu/scm-articles/article/types-of-goods-and-services-purchased-procurement-a-tutorial (2016-04-30)
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  • Introduction: Procurement : A Tutorial - SCM | Supply Chain Resource Cooperative (SCRC) | North Carolina State University
    what we call the procurement process This is the process used to Identify opportunities Identify business requirements Analyze the business supply chain and suppliers to generate options Create a strategic sourcing plan Implement the plan through negotiation of value adding agreements Establish on going supplier management and continuous improvement in performance The challenges in ensuring that this process occurs effectively and efficiently is the theme of this tutorial Until an organization is able to streamline the day to day procurement process other important strategic activities that help their organization become more competitive will continuously be put on hold This course introduces topics and ideas associated with purchasing in multiple industries Learning Objectives By then end of this tutorial you will be able to Distinguish between types of goods and services purchased Understand the fundamental objectives of procurement Describe the procurement process Understand how supply chain professionals should interact with procurement on a day to day basis Tutorial Outline Types of goods and services purchased Role of procurement within an organization The purchasing process Understanding legislation related to procurement Developing good contracts Purchasing law The new purchasing and supply management workplace Categories SCM Procurement SCM Topics Procurement Process SCM Tutorials Procurement Read the Supply Chain Management Professional Newsletter Read the latest supply chain research articles and news as soon as we post them Privacy Policy Related Articles The World of Global Procurement Q A with John Zapko VP of Global Procurement Lenovo Understanding Legistlation Related to Procurement Procurement A Tutorial The New Purchasing and Supply Management Workplace Procurement A Tutorial The Procurement Process e Procurement Procurement A Tutorial The Procurement Process Implementing the Plan Procurement A Tutorial The Procurement Process Creating a Sourcing Plan Procurement A Tutorial Role of Procurement within an Organization Procurement A Tutorial Types of Goods and Services

    Original URL path: https://scm.ncsu.edu/scm-articles/article/introduction-procurement-a-tutorial (2016-04-30)
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