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  • Cash to Cash: Toyota, Inventory Management and Heijunka - SCM | Supply Chain Resource Cooperative (SCRC) | North Carolina State University
    entire process from suppliers to manufacturing through to order fulfillment 2 A company can take three actions to decrease the C2C cycle Extend average accounts payable Reduce inventory by reducing the production cycle Decrease average accounts receivable 2 Internal Structure One organization that has successfully implemented a C2C system is Japanese automaker Toyota Its operational success is often attributed to the focus on reduction in inventory The term Toyota uses for their system is heijunka Translated from Japanese it means make flat and level In particular it refers to eliminating spikes in demand but also creating operational efficiency and reducing overall supply chain costs Toyota s lean operation focuses on the idea of buy one sell one Toyota is able to manufacture vehicles in about the same order customers buy them 3 This adaptability to demand has given Toyota the advantage of carrying the least inventory in the field of Japanese auto manufacturers 4 Working with suppliers This concept is one that Toyota uses internally and it also requires of its suppliers to improve the overall C2C cycle In the North American auto supply market suppliers working with Japanese owned automakers perform at higher levels than those working with U S automakers Toyota works with U S suppliers to teach them the lean manufacturing techniques used in Toyota s manufacturing facilities 4 These techniques ensure a short amount of time between when Toyota needs an item and when the supplier makes it Using small batch production this short lead time can be achieved Rather than running large batches and keeping excess inventory plants quickly run a small batch and keep inventory low For Toyota this translates to being able to better meet customers demands because manufacturing facilities do not have to wait on a particular part before beginning production on a vehicle 4 Benefits of Heijunka Toyota s improvement in its supply chain benefits the automaker in many ways Inventory levels at parts distribution centers have decreased by 53 percent from stocking levels in the 1980s Since 1994 the inventory turn of parts in the average dealership has increased from 3 7 to 5 7 Toyota dealerships have achieved 20 percent to 40 percent reductions in floor space utilization 5 The time spent improving the systems of U S suppliers shows results as well From 1997 to 2000 alone supplier on time delivery increased from 76 percent to 93 percent Sixty six percent of suppliers on daily order status are able to deliver within five days or less 5 While inventory management is an effective way to reduce the C2C cycle it not only requires efficient manufacturing but also effective forecasting References 1 Bowman R From Cash to Cash The Ultimate Supply Chain Measurement Tool Supply Chain Brain June 2001 2 Farris M and Hutchinson P Cash to Cash The New Supply Chain Metric International Journal of Physical Distribution and Logistics Management Vol 32 No 4 2002 pg 288 298 3 Andel T Accentuate Heijunka Eliminate Junk Material Handling Engineering

    Original URL path: https://scm.ncsu.edu/scm-articles/article/cash-to-cash-toyota-inventory-management-and-heijunka (2016-04-30)
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  • Findings: An Assessment of Manufacturing Customer Pain Points: Challenges for Researchers - SCM | Supply Chain Resource Cooperative (SCRC) | North Carolina State University
    Insights Polls SCM Topics SCM Research SCRC Article Library Findings An Assessment of Manufacturing Customer Pain Points Challenges for Researchers Findings An Assessment of Manufacturing Customer Pain Points Challenges for Researchers Published on Jul 01 2006 by Robert Handfield PhD Wolfgang Steininger MIM Supply Chain Redesign LLC Findings Ten distinct categories emerged most of which were classified by respondents as severe as well as having a high probability of occurrence For each of these categories we provide 1 examples of statements made by the senior executives that we interviewed to give a better sense of how these respondents are conceptualizing the pain point and 2 implications for research into supply chain trust and collaboration Click on the links below to review the findings in depth Supply chain fragmentation Lack of global project resources Lack of internal collaboration and business intelligence Commodity price increases Global competition Developing SCM talent Power shift from manufacturers towards buyers Regulatory compliance Information technology IT integration Intellectual property protection Figure 1 ranks each category by percentage of responses by participants Figure 2 shows a pain point mapping of interview responses The circle size represents the relative number of responses to the pain point category The vertical y axis represents the perceived severity of the pain point and the horizontal x axis shows the perceived probability of occurrence Note that most circles are in the upper right quadrant indicating very high frequency and severity Categories SCM Research SCM Pain Points Read the Supply Chain Management Professional Newsletter Read the latest supply chain research articles and news as soon as we post them Privacy Policy Professional Resources SCM Articles SCM Resources SCM Terms Supply Chain Management Basics SCM Basics Tariffs and Tax Primer NAICS Navigator SCM Blog Business Process Outsourcing Forecasting Healthcare Supply Management Supply Chain Analytics SCM

    Original URL path: https://scm.ncsu.edu/scm-articles/article/findings-an-assessment-of-manufacturing-customer-pain-points-challenges (2016-04-30)
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  • SCM Pain Points Articles - SCM | Supply Chain Resource Cooperative (SCRC) | North Carolina State University
    emerged most of which were classified by respondents as severe as well as having a high probability of occurrence For each of these categories we provide Categories SCM Research SCM Pain Points Conclusions An Assessment of Manufacturing Customer Pain Points Challenges for Researchers By Robert Handfield PhD Wolfgang Steininger MIM Supply Chain Redesign LLC Posted 07 01 2006 Conclusions What should manufacturers be doing to improve the level of relational social capital in their supply networks through trust and collaboration We decided to start off this special issue Categories Logistics Global Logistics SCM Research SCM Pain Points Methodology An Assessment of Manufacturing Customer Pain Points Challenges for Researchers By Robert Handfield PhD Wolfgang Steininger MIM Supply Chain Redesign LLC Posted 07 01 2006 Methodology Interviews with supply chain executives We began by creating the interview protocol and establishing contact with senior supply chain executives from ten Fortune 100 manufacturing companies to identify pain Categories SCM Research SCM Pain Points Background An Assessment of Manufacturing Customer Pain Points Challenges for Researchers By Robert Handfield PhD Wolfgang Steininger MIM Supply Chain Redesign LLC Posted 07 01 2006 Background Organizations now recognize that business functions that manage the supply chain purchasing logistics and operations are critical contributors to competitive advantage and profitability Until recently organizations attempts to gain Categories SCM Research SCM Pain Points Introduction An Assessment of Manufacturing Customer Pain Points Challenges for Researchers By Robert Handfield PhD Wolfgang Steininger MIM Supply Chain Redesign LLC Posted 07 01 2006 Introduction There is increasing evidence that companies that excel in managing their supply chains repeatedly outperform their rivals Accenture 2002 It is also increasingly clear that companies must collaborate with Categories SCM Research SCM Pain Points Supply Chain View from the Field Blog Robert Handfield Supply Chain Management Articles Library Supply Chain Executive

    Original URL path: https://scm.ncsu.edu/scm-articles/all-articles/category/scm-pain-points (2016-04-30)
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  • Conclusions: An Assessment of Manufacturing Customer Pain Points: Challenges for Researchers - SCM | Supply Chain Resource Cooperative (SCRC) | North Carolina State University
    social capital in their supply networks through trust and collaboration We decided to start off this special issue with a managerial look at supply chain pain points as perceived by a group of senior global logistics executives from a number of different Fortune 100 manufacturing companies We expected these pain points to give us insights into where such companies may be planning to increase collaboration and to risk trust or where they may be reacting to the downside of such collaboration and trust Our review of the 10 pain points identified indicates that trust and collaboration are becoming both more valuable and more costly as supply networks increase in complexity and global manufacturing becomes more competitive Our findings also make it obvious that executives often debate the possible trade offs arising from relationships where trust and collaboration is required Confusion occurs when decision makers toggle between collaborative and transactional relationships Research questions arising from these interactions with managers include the following What are the benefits and costs of supply network collaboration When do benefits outweigh costs Can a transactions cost approach be used to quantify benefits of collaboration or do such benefits remain so intangible that their benefit is difficult to capture and model How can research on relational capital be applied to the supply network context What kind of information is being transferred How and to whom is it being transferred What are the implications of the choice of technology used for such transfers How do context variables such as intensity of competition power shifts and intellectual property protection affect development of trust and collaboration What new skills are required of supply chain personnel to allow quality decision making about whether and how to invest in relational capital in the network Categories Logistics Global Logistics SCM Research SCM Pain

    Original URL path: https://scm.ncsu.edu/scm-articles/article/conclusions-an-assessment-of-manufacturing-customer-pain-points-challenge (2016-04-30)
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  • Methodology: An Assessment of Manufacturing Customer Pain Points: Challenges for Researchers - SCM | Supply Chain Resource Cooperative (SCRC) | North Carolina State University
    describe three or four primary pain points you are experiencing today What is the primary business process or business function associated with this pain e g finance supply management manufacturing marketing etc Could you describe the relative severity of these pains on your business operations in terms of their aggregate loss or severity on a range from relatively low dollars to very high dollars An extreme example might be a catastrophic activity that would shut down your business for a month or more What is the relative probability of these pains occurring That is are they likely to occur frequently or are they extremely rare in terms of occurrence For example theft may be an event that occurs two or three times a year while a terrorist event might happen once in a decade The interview protocol was designed to allow us to identify three or four key pain points being experienced by the expert The executives were also asked to estimate the severity of the pain as well as the probability frequency of its occurrence Finally they were asked to identify the primary process or function associated with the source of the problem Technology support We then conducted interviews with a group of subject matter experts through a study commissioned by a large software manufacturer in preparation for an executive forum focused on the core problems of manufacturing companies and how technology could support them in these instances We mailed invitations to experts at 15 multinational manufacturing companies to join the study with 10 companies agreeing to participate Participants were told that their responses would be kept confidential so individual responses are not reported here The companies represented include a chemicals manufacturer three consumer packaged goods CPG manufacturers three electronics firms one industrial glassmaker and one industrial printing and

    Original URL path: https://scm.ncsu.edu/scm-articles/article/methodology-an-assessment-of-manufacturing-customer-pain-points-challenges (2016-04-30)
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  • Background: An Assessment of Manufacturing Customer Pain Points: Challenges for Researchers - SCM | Supply Chain Resource Cooperative (SCRC) | North Carolina State University
    Recent studies however suggest that senior executives have added supply chain management SCM to this list considering it as critical or very important to their company and industry There is also increasing evidence that companies that excel in managing their supply chains repeatedly outperform their rivals Accenture 2002 Why have executives perceptions of the relative importance of SCM changed so radically Handfield and Nichols 2002 identified three major developments in global markets and technologies that have contributed to this shift Ever increasing customer demands in the areas of product and service cost quality delivery technology and cycle time brought about by global competition The emergence and greater acceptance of higher order cooperative inter organizational relationships and The information revolution In other words it has become clear that most companies must collaborate with suppliers and customers in order to respond to market needs with such collaboration enabled by new information technologies Is collaboration always beneficial We address this question from the perspective of what we refer to as pain points that is specific and well defined aspects of SCM that are hindering smooth flow and ability to innovate in a firm s supply chain as perceived by senior supply chain executives An understanding of current supply chain pain points is essential to coming to grips with the role of collaboration and the trust it often implies in the chain Collaboration is most likely to arise in response to certain pain points and its development may well generate additional such points Therefore in this study we share our insights into the key areas for future research identified by practitioners who experience the daily pains associated with managing supply chain relationships Our pain point map is useful for defining the role of trust and collaboration in the SCM toolbox allowing us to move

    Original URL path: https://scm.ncsu.edu/scm-articles/article/background-an-assessment-of-manufacturing-customer-pain-points-challenges (2016-04-30)
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  • Introduction: An Assessment of Manufacturing Customer Pain Points: Challenges for Researchers - SCM | Supply Chain Resource Cooperative (SCRC) | North Carolina State University
    Insights Library SCM Insights Polls SCM Topics SCM Research SCRC Article Library Introduction An Assessment of Manufacturing Customer Pain Points Challenges for Researchers Introduction An Assessment of Manufacturing Customer Pain Points Challenges for Researchers Published on Jul 01 2006 by Robert Handfield PhD Wolfgang Steininger MIM Supply Chain Redesign LLC Introduction There is increasing evidence that companies that excel in managing their supply chains repeatedly outperform their rivals Accenture 2002 It is also increasingly clear that companies must collaborate with suppliers and customers to respond to market needs Such collaboration while often beneficial may result in challenges that we refer to as pain points that is specific and well defined aspects of SCM that are hindering smooth flow and ability to innovate in a firm s supply chain as perceived by senior supply chain executives An understanding of current supply chain pain points is essential to coming to grips with the role of collaboration and the trust it often implies in the chain Collaboration is most likely to arise in response to certain pain points and its development may well generate additional such points Our review of the 10 pain points identified indicates that trust and collaboration are becoming both more valuable and more costly as supply networks increase in complexity and global manufacturing becomes more competitive Our findings also illustrate the confusion that occurs as decision makers toggle between collaborative and transactional relationships Categories SCM Research SCM Pain Points Read the Supply Chain Management Professional Newsletter Read the latest supply chain research articles and news as soon as we post them Privacy Policy Professional Resources SCM Articles SCM Resources SCM Terms Supply Chain Management Basics SCM Basics Tariffs and Tax Primer NAICS Navigator SCM Blog Business Process Outsourcing Forecasting Healthcare Supply Management Supply Chain Analytics SCM Tutorials CPFR Forecasting

    Original URL path: https://scm.ncsu.edu/scm-articles/article/introduction-an-assessment-of-manufacturing-customer-pain-points-challenges (2016-04-30)
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  • References: Current Trends in Production Labor Sourcing - SCM | Supply Chain Resource Cooperative (SCRC) | North Carolina State University
    Professionals SCM Research Resources SCM Pro Resources SCM Articles SCM White Papers SCM SCRC Director s Blog SCM Tutorials SCM Video Insights Library SCM Insights Polls SCM Topics SCM Research SCRC Article Library References Current Trends in Production Labor Sourcing References Current Trends in Production Labor Sourcing Published on Jun 01 2006 by Rob Handfield PhD References Beebe L and Meyers B 1998 Outsourcing Planning for Strategic Partnerships White Paper The Sheridan Press pdf Casale F 2003 The New Outsourcing From Outsourcing to Outcompeting Business Week Special Advertising Section pdf Griffiths D N D The Theory and Practice of Outsourcing White Paper Kudos Information Ltd pdf IMF Balance of Payments Statistics Yearbook 2003 Categories SCM Research Production Labor Sourcing Read the Supply Chain Management Professional Newsletter Read the latest supply chain research articles and news as soon as we post them Privacy Policy Professional Resources SCM Articles SCM Resources SCM Terms Supply Chain Management Basics SCM Basics Tariffs and Tax Primer NAICS Navigator SCM Blog Business Process Outsourcing Forecasting Healthcare Supply Management Supply Chain Analytics SCM Tutorials CPFR Forecasting Inventory Management Procurement SCM Features Hot Topics Lessons Learned Facts Figures SC Security SCM Topics Inventory Management Supply Chain Procurement Process

    Original URL path: https://scm.ncsu.edu/scm-articles/article/references-current-trends-in-production-labor-sourcing (2016-04-30)
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