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  • History Engine: Tools for Collaborative Education and Research | Episodes
    fate of the 81 soldiers until nearly two weeks after their deaths When newspapers finally received word from their frontier correspondents a horrified nation was stunned by news of an Indian attack like no other to date Massacre screamed the headlines as Americans tried to piece together what had happened The initial shock was accompanied by a desire for revenge against the Indians Slaughter massacre and butchery were the words used to describe the battle It was determined that We must now have a war of extermination Blame for the debacle quickly settled on the government and the Army Americans questioned Indian policy and demanded that the military rather than the Interior Department bureaucracy deal with the hostile Sioux along the Bozeman Trail The fact is that Indian affairs here have been horribly bungled argued the journalist from the frontier The Army sought to divert blame in a drama that involved Civil War generals Grant and Sherman Fort Kearny s commander and Fetterman s superior Colonel Carrington became the immediate scapegoat Carrington was accused of everything from cowardice to incompetence as the War Department sought to paint the fiasco as problem of local rather than national command Courts of inquiry

    Original URL path: http://historyengine.richmond.edu/episodes/view/3875 (2016-02-15)
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    West went on long after Lee surrendered and not just because it took a little while for news to travel The Confederates appeared utterly defeated and yet some still were willing to fight But the South was not the only problem for the North Corruption was rampant in Forts Smith and Gibson Indian Territory now Oklahoma safe havens for both southern and northern refugees from War Poetry Lives On in Song Date s January 1 1867 Location NEW YORK New York Tag s Arts Leisure Education Government War Many Southerners before the Civil War viewed the Northerners as tyrants similar to King George III In War Poetry of the South Poet Laureate of the Confederacy Henry Timrod wrote Carolina and the words on page 113 The despot treads thy sacred sands Thy pines give shelter to his bands Thy sons stand by with idle hands Carolina Without a date one might believe Timrod South Carolina General Assembly Refuses to Ratify Fourteenth Amendment Date s December 1 1866 to December 31 1866 Location RICHLAND South Carolina Tag s Law When South Carolina s legislature reconvened in December of 1866 the governing body was faced with the task of responding to two recent significant national events the radical Republicans domination of that year s Congressional election and the proposal of the Fourteenth Amendment As South Carolinian leaders gathered in Columbia they quickly tackled the Fourteenth Amendment decision Supreme Court Publishes ex parte Milligan Decision Date s December 1 1866 to December 31 1866 Location Washington City District of Columbia Tag s Crime Violence With the publication of ex parte Milligan the Supreme Court gave leverage to arguments that attacked the legality of Freedman s Bureau courts and military commissions during 1865 and 1866 In the decision the Court reversed the wartime conviction

    Original URL path: http://historyengine.richmond.edu/search/dates/18661221 (2016-02-15)
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  • History Engine: Tools for Collaborative Education and Research | Fips
    York Times correspondent from Fort Laramie in what was then the Dakota Territory On December 21 1866 a detachment of 81 soldiers under the command of Captain William Fetterman was lured out of Fort Phil Kearny ambushed by a coalition of Indians and The Sioux and United States Indian Policy Date s 1862 Location Tag s Sioux Wars Sioux Buffalo Indians Native Americans Amos H Gottschall traveled across the North

    Original URL path: http://historyengine.richmond.edu/fips/view/15204 (2016-02-15)
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  • History Engine: Tools for Collaborative Education and Research | Newsearch
    1814 General Andrew Jackson and over 4 000 troops including 750 Choctaw and Chickasaw allies set out for Pensacola Finally reaching the fort on November 6 1814 Jackson sent a surrender demand to Spanish Governor Gonzalez Manrique but British marines opened fire on Jackson s army Jackson next called for an immediate British evacuation of Pensacola The Spanish governor refused Missionaries and the Choctaws Date s 1831 Location INDIAN LANDS Georgia Tag s Church Religious Activity Native Americans Mr Cushman and his fellow missionaries broke ground in the unbroken wilderness of Choctaw Nation on October 15 1827 and on July 31 1831 he published a letter about his experiences in The Missionary Herald titled Effects of the Gospel on the People Upon his arrival in 1827 Cushman found the members of the Choctaw tribe to be entirely heathen and uncivilized in both appearance and practice He Sam Houston Epic Figure Date s February 21 1846 to March 4 1859 Location Washington City District of Columbia Tag s Arts Leisure Government Law Native Americans Politics War President of Texas General or perhaps Senator are the first words to come to mind when discussing Sam Houston To Mrs Virginia Clay wife of Senator Clement Clay of Alabama the fifty five year old Houston was a Senatorial Hercules and a roughish old hero In her book A Belle of the 50 s Mrs Clay explains Houston s whittling habit saying that a seemingly inexhaustible supply of soft wood My God trumps your Great Spirit Date s January 1 1869 to January 1 1877 Location BALTIMORE CITY Maryland Tag s Church Religious Activity Native Americans Pagan religion and practice has always been at odds with Christianity In the mid 19th century the two sects of the Baptist Church sought to educate the many tribes

    Original URL path: http://historyengine.richmond.edu/tags/view/19 (2016-02-15)
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  • History Engine: Tools for Collaborative Education and Research | Episodes
    typical meeting the members decided on a small question to discuss immediately and another question to more seriously and thoroughly debate at a later time For the postponed debate specific members often teams of two or more were assigned positions in favor or against and given several weeks to prepare The March 22 1861 meeting exemplifies the Philosophian Society s typical blend of topics The immediate discussion questioned whether Joan of Arc was an enthusiast or imposter For official debate the men considered if a man was justified in obeying a law of his country which he felt to be morally wrong While the Philosophian Society covered both ancient and current issues the minutes reveal that its members felt the latter to be more important because of the ratio of time and effort spent on each At the conclusion of the debate on April 5 1861 the secretary recorded the Philosophian Society s decision a man was not justified in obeying laws he felt morally wrong The Society s emphasis on contemporary issues also included the admittance of free states into the Southern Confederacy the taking of Fort Sumter immediately following secession and the prohibition of the slave trade in the Southern Confederacy s constitution Furman s Philosophian Society mirrored the larger trend by addressing the divisive and emotionally charged topics of religion politics and war According to Jonathan Daniel Wells debate was not limited to collegiate societies like those at Furman or the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill but spread into the wider southern population Southerners established literary and debating societies to open dialogues in which they willingly and safely discussed such controversial issues for both education and entertainment Stephen Ash s depiction of John Robertson illustrates the importance of a safe forum John Robertson an East

    Original URL path: http://historyengine.richmond.edu/episodes/view/3882 (2016-02-15)
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    considerable drought met the residents of central Mississippi during the summer of 1860 A great number of people from counties such as Leake and Attala were left with ruined crops and no other source of economic gain In many cases both corn and cotton were devastated leaving a considerable number of people without the means or credit to purchase bread On March 28 1861 John Pettus Furman University s Philosophian Society Discusses Divisive Issues Date s March 22 1861 to April 5 1861 Location GREENVILLE South Carolina Tag s Arts Leisure Education Government Law Migration Transportation Politics Slavery On March 22 1861 in Philosophian Hall at Furman University a secretive meeting was called to order A leather bound book as tall as a man s forearm with robin s egg blue pages was then opened reverently and a man s voice read aloud the last meeting s minutes After he finished his hand held a pen poised above the first line of a new page ready to record in flowing script Reactions to Lincoln s Inauguration Date s March 1861 Location MOBILE Alabama Tag s Government Politics Slavery War Lincoln was inaugurated on March 4 1861 One month earlier Jefferson Davis had been inaugurated as the new president of the Confederacy Elizabeth Saxon traveled to Montgomery Alabama to celebrate the inauguration of Davis and then traveled to Mobile when Lincoln was inaugurated In Mobile she visited with a good friend and mentor from her childhood Madame Octavia Walton Invert Well educated Northwestern region of Virginia breaks away from the state Date s April 1861 Location ALLEGHANY Virginia Tag s Agriculture Economy Urban Life Boosterism Although Virginia decided to secede from the Union the northwestern counties of the Allegheny region had different beliefs about the state s actions Three out of

    Original URL path: http://historyengine.richmond.edu/search/dates/18610322-18610405 (2016-02-15)
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  • History Engine: Tools for Collaborative Education and Research | Fips
    to May 1862 Location Tag s Hampton Legion Furman University Civil War It was April 1861 and Furman University was preparing for war The students at this university in Greenville South Carolina had formed an infantry company called the University Riflemen as early as that January with the sectional crisis in mind and now events were reaching a climax On April 17 four days after the surrender of Fort Sumter to Confederate forces in Charleston Professor John F A Letter From Shanghai Date s 1860 Location Tag s Christian Missionaries Cultural Life China In his letter to Reverend Richard Furman missionary J B Hartwell depicted the difficulties of embracing Chinese culture as well as spreading the Word of God in the non Christian community of Shanghai Hartwell gave a summary of the current events that were taking place in Shanghai both with the group of missionaries in the field as well as the ongoing practices of Chinese culture One aspect An Oath of Pretending Date s August 14 1865 Location Tag s Confederacy Civil War Four months after the end of the Civil War Edwin Ware leaned down and signed an oath of loyalty to the United States government swearing

    Original URL path: http://historyengine.richmond.edu/fips/view/11535 (2016-02-15)
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  • History Engine: Tools for Collaborative Education and Research | Episodes
    fluid samples meant a lower risk of infection from person to person be the victims patients or doctors During the early nineteenth century medical science was closer to the art of clever guessing than the practice of proven and solid facts The concept of the four humors or the four principle body fluids was still considered a fact until the American Civil War Previously doctors would take a sick patient and assume that one of his humors was out of balance either blood phlegm yellow bile choler or black bile melancholy and so would take on the task of restoring balance to the patient s humors Because the concept of disease was vague and often rooted in social and political agendas the idea of sanitation was rather foreign It wasn t until the American Civil War when medical officers and commanders alike began to notice that disease often followed battle These observations lead to medical director Dr Jonathan Letterman s sanitation commands for the United States Army Louis Pasteur s bacteria experiments brought to light the reality of microscopic attacks on our bodies further emphasizing the medical profession s growing obsession with sterility and cleanliness In addition to developing new

    Original URL path: http://historyengine.richmond.edu/episodes/view/3885 (2016-02-15)
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