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  • History Engine: Tools for Collaborative Education and Research | Episodes
    on Election Day as white supremacists employed violence to ensure political upheaval One Southern man claimed that they white Southern Democrats were being trodden under foot by an inferior and barbarous race But by 1870 the Democrats could no longer depend on intimidation to win elections and the emergence of the more militant KKK continually gained momentum primarily for Democratic Party political gains and of course in the name of white supremacy When 2 500 armed whites gathered in Laurens County to violently protest the election results in 1870 violence spread among the upstate of South Carolina Negroes were pulled out of jail beaten and murdered by white supremacy members of the KKK In York County alone in the course of six months there was an estimated 304 incidents of violence Klan violence though the Klan had been officially disbanded in 1969 arose out of all socio economical classes in a decentralized format reigning terror and death wherever possible The federal government under Grant in late 1870 and early 1871 respectively passed the Enforcement Act and the Ku Klux Klan Act hoping to put an end to the once again rebellious South through these increasingly strict federal acts Because of these acts the writ of habeas corpus was suspended in nine South Carolina counties and in most cases the procedure of due process was neglected The trials evidenced by Evans Murphy s questioning during one aspect of the ongoing South Carolina trials proved mostly ineffective and as support waned largely futile In the South Carolina KKK trials alone an account collaborated by the federal government in 1873 discovered that 831 persons were indicted and only 27 of which were ruled guilty 71 persons pled guilty and by 1875 pardons released the last of the imprisoned KKK members and the Civil

    Original URL path: http://historyengine.richmond.edu/episodes/view/3899 (2016-02-15)
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    Date s August 5 1873 to August 8 1873 Location SPARTANBURG South Carolina Tag s African Americans Church Religious Activity Migration Transportation Race Relations On August 8 1873 a correspondent for the Charleston News Courier dispatched a report on a mass exodus led by a black preacher prophet named Bobo described as the spiritual head and adviser of one of the largest negro congregations in the county Bobo s church was located slightly south of Spartanburg and his followers came from nearly every local plantation to hear him preach Southern Historical Society moves to Richmond Date s August 14 1873 Location GREENBRIER West Virginia Tag s Education Migration Transportation From its 1869 establishment in New Orleans the Southern Historical Society sought to establish a branch in every southern state but membership was low in the first four years of the its existence In August of 1873 the SHS held a convention in White Sulphur Springs WV to discuss the society s location leadership mission and operation Most of the delegates to the convention had been Democrats Control the Thirteenth Legislature in Texas Date s January 4 1873 to June 4 1873 Location AUSTIN Texas Tag s Race Relations Controlling both houses of the Legislature the Democrats of the thirteenth legislature furthered the efforts of redeeming the state from the Republicans They would also be crucial in bringing the Texas state government back into the hands of the Democratic Party Although the Republicans still retained a stronghold in the beginning of 1873 through the office of Governor Edmund J Davis Miscegenation laws passed prohibiting racial intermarriage Date s July 7 1873 Location WAKE North Carolina Tag s African Americans Race Relations By 1873 both Virginia and North Carolina had installed conservative white dominated state governments the former having been redeemed in

    Original URL path: http://historyengine.richmond.edu/search/dates/18711228-18750301 (2016-02-15)
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  • History Engine: Tools for Collaborative Education and Research | Fips
    and 1876 equal opportunity education was made a top priority A government funded public school system was instituted albeit with segregated Ku Klux Klan pardons issued by President Grant in South Carolina Date s July 31 1873 Location Tag s African Americans Crime Violence Race Relations The South Carolina branch of the Ku Klux Klan was established during the 1868 Presidential campaign The KKK promptly began using violence including political murders as a means of terrorizing black voters and assuring a Democratic victory Violence and aggression on the part of the KKK toward black voters and Radical white supporters spiraled out of control in April of 1871 President Grant Southern States Convention of Colored Men Date s 1871 Location Tag s African Americans Race Relations By 1870 southern black leaders were convinced that the black vote was worthless if black life and property rights were not respected Outraged at the Republican Party s failure to protect their civil rights and promote blacks for office many leaders debated withdrawing from the party at the Southern States Convention of Colored Men in 1871 The Convention called on the national government to protect The Southern Cotton Industry Date s May 9 1871 Location Tag s Agriculture Economy War The cotton industry in the South in 1871 reported that the cotton crop was 4 185 000 bales which was in excess of the cotton produced before the Civil War The statistics were met by skeptics and many southerners did not seem them to be reliable The report was conducted by a New York company and many southerners saw it as a piece of propaganda by Republicans in the North The data did not divulge South Carolina Supreme Court adjourns after decisions to repeal the homestead exemption and pay back most of the state debt

    Original URL path: http://historyengine.richmond.edu/fips/view/11639 (2016-02-15)
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  • History Engine: Tools for Collaborative Education and Research | Episodes
    educated Americans at this time and this commentator proposed a way to manifest these ideals New York City being the largest city as well as the informational center certainly had many who supported the idea that nature should be valued and used respectfully to enrich one s mind and refresh one s spirit From these beliefs arose the idea for the creation of a huge park to be enjoyed by all the citizens of New York City This journalist in The Horticulturist and Journal of Rural Art and Rural Taste was one of the first to publish his opinions on the issue and explain the beginnings of such a park He criticized New York for not having enough open public spaces and emphasized the Republican idea that nature is closely linked with virtue and comparing New York to cities in Europe most of which had public parks The mayor of New York at the time Ambrose Kingsland had recently proposed 160 acres for a park This proposal was the first of its kind in America for park of such large scale but the writer condemned this as being too small He suggested a 500 acre plot of land between the Harlem River and 39th land that is in fact today part of Central Park Although this author s passionate essay on the importance of establishing a large park brought no immediate action it marked the beginning of a huge public interest in such an endeavor Two years later in 1853 there were still only 143 acres out of New York s 14 000 dedicated to public spaces including cemeteries Many later authors continued the journalist s argument one enumerated the reasons why such a park was a necessity for the city being a haven for health recreation and driving and

    Original URL path: http://historyengine.richmond.edu/episodes/view/3901 (2016-02-15)
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    that suited your means Christianity Although Mary Jane Holladay wrote in her diary that it was her constant prayer that she should be able to please her husband and have a loving marriage she was quite anxious when it came to religion In her opinion it was better to spend time wrestling with and testing her faith Seed Planted for Central Park Date s 1851 Location NEW YORK New York Tag s Arts Leisure Health Death Politics Urban Life Boosterism In 1851 a journalist put into words an ideology that would start a new trend in urban development He proposed the construction of a huge public park that would be enjoyed by thousands of all classes without distinction The ideals of Romanticism and the Republican view of the importance of nature were at a peak among educated Americans at this time and this commentator proposed a way to manifest Abolitionism Takes a Whipping in Virginia Date s 1851 Location GRAYSON Virginia Tag s Abolition Vigilance Committee All that John Gornith heard as he stood tied to an oak tree in the Virginia woods was the crack of the whip In 1851 the Vigilance Committee of Grayson County Virginia arrested Gornith for spreading abolitionist propaganda The Committee forced Gornith a friend of an Ohio abolitionist to renounce his abolitionist sentiments and leave the state but not before tying him to a tree to receive Marriage Morality Date s 1851 to 1854 Location HAMILTON Ohio Tag s Marriage Reciprocity What does it mean for a man or a woman to be with their soul mate Over the centuries marriage has separated into different types of relationships between man and wife Marriage has strayed from the original idea of matrimony into various forms of devotion Historians have noted specific trends in the history

    Original URL path: http://historyengine.richmond.edu/search/dates/18510101-18511231 (2016-02-15)
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  • History Engine: Tools for Collaborative Education and Research | Fips
    Seed Planted for Central Park Date s 1851 Location Tag s Arts Leisure Health Death Politics Urban Life Boosterism In 1851 a journalist put into words an ideology that would start a new trend in urban development He proposed the construction of a huge public park that would be enjoyed by thousands of all classes without distinction The ideals of Romanticism and the Republican view of the importance of nature

    Original URL path: http://historyengine.richmond.edu/fips/view/8924 (2016-02-15)
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    to development This was a road that led to economic prosperity for the South This was the Blue Ridge Railroad In 1860 the President of the Blue Ridge Railroad Company Edward Frost in a report to the stockholders and the state legislature reported on the condition and growth of the line proposed a plan for its expansion and requested renewed assistance from the Reconstructing the Constitution in South Carolina Date s January 14 1868 to March 17 1868 Location Tag s African Americans Education Government Law Politics Race Relations Slavery War The Civil War was over but the fight to ensure that it was not fought in vain was just beginning After the Civil War the North wanted to ensure the abolition of slavery recognition of the rights of African Americans and that the South would remain a part of the nation these were the major goals of the Reconstruction policies To meet these goals The North required all former Confederate War Poetry Lives On in Song Date s January 1 1867 Location Tag s Arts Leisure Education Government War Many Southerners before the Civil War viewed the Northerners as tyrants similar to King George III In War Poetry of the South Poet Laureate of the Confederacy Henry Timrod wrote Carolina and the words on page 113 The despot treads thy sacred sands Thy pines give shelter to his bands Thy sons stand by with idle hands Carolina Without a date one might believe Timrod wrote this poem to describe The Attempted Assassination of Secretary Seward Date s April 15 1865 Location Tag s Crime Violence Government Politics War On an early April day in 1865 Secretary of State William Seward decided to take a ride with his family throughout the countryside around his home During the ride one of

    Original URL path: http://historyengine.richmond.edu/courses/view/5/3 (2016-02-15)
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    early 1830s two of the most pressing questions in the nation were the issues of nullification and secession A common trend among politicians was to use the ideas of the founders to argue both for and against these ideas hence it is not surprising that on December 28 1832 Alexander Rives a Virginia lawyer wrote to James Madison one of the last surviving Founding Fathers seeking council The Black Warrior Affair Exposes U S Tensions with Spain Date s February 28 1854 to March 16 1854 Location Tag s Diplomacy International Economy Law Migration Transportation Politics On March 13 1854 the Charleston Daily Courier ran a series of correspondences from Havana which reported on the escalating Black Warrior affair These correspondences explain that on February 28 the ship Black Warrior stopped in Havana on its way from Mobile to New York as it had done numerous times in the past and upon arriving delivered its manifest to customs as was required The captain listed America s Need for a Second Transcontinental Railway Date s May 18 1869 Location Tag s Economy Migration Transportation Politics Science Technology On Tuesday May 18 1869 an editorial appeared in the Charleston Courier titled The Pacific Railway and a Southern Route in which the author made the argument that the nation needed a southern transcontinental rail route The first Transcontinental Railway had only been completed a few days earlier but already there were calls from southerners for a route that was more suited to their needs A southern Chicago Prepares for Lincoln s Remains Date s April 30 1865 Location Tag s Church Religious Activity Crime Violence Government Health Death Politics Urban Life Boosterism War April 30 1865 was a busy yet solemn day for the residents and city officials of Chicago Buildings were draped

    Original URL path: http://historyengine.richmond.edu/courses/view/5/4 (2016-02-15)
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