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    the Atlantic Cholera s Journey towards Washington D C in 1866 Date s September 1985 to 1985 Location District of Columbia District of Columb Tag s washington d c cholera In September of 1865 citizens of the city of Washington D C heard troubling tales from across the Atlantic of a rapidly westward spreading plague of Cholera The disease caused victims to experience extreme diarrhea until dehydration set in Without

    Original URL path: http://historyengine.richmond.edu/search/dates/19850901-19850930 (2016-02-15)
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    Office in 1981 many immigration policies needed authorization by Congress Moreover since the 1960s Ronald Reagan Signals a Change in US Policy Toward Central America Date s November 16 1980 Location Tag s Cold War Ronald Reagan Containment International Relations Only days after Ronald Reagan s 1980 presidential victory an article in the New York Times explored how his conservative politics would change the nature of the conflicts in El Salvador Nicaragua and Guatemala Alan Riding wrote Reagan Impact Felt in Central America as a broad overview of the actions and reactions that happened in the region due to anticipated changes in United States policy Surgeon General Fights Prejudice to Provide the Facts on AIDS to the Public Date s January 1984 to December 1988 Location Tag s Law Science Technology Medicine Health Timothy Murphy author of AIDS Morality and Culture recalled that in A 1988 report some 8 to 60 percent of persons surveyed considered AIDS to be God s punishment for immoral sexual behavior Many of President Ronald Reagan s closest advisors also felt the individuals who had contracted AIDS were deserving of the plague that was now cleansing the earth of the unfaithful Much of Fear Across

    Original URL path: http://historyengine.richmond.edu/fips/view/40259 (2016-02-15)
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    addition the recently ended Civil War left politicians divided over the issue of Southern representation and reconstruction The question of how to deal with Southern reconstruction was at an all time high By the summer of 1866 the idea of Southern representation in Congress Fear Across the Atlantic Cholera s Journey towards Washington D C in 1866 Date s September 1985 to 1985 Location District of Columbia District of Columb

    Original URL path: http://historyengine.richmond.edu/tags/view/1316 (2016-02-15)
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    There had not been many records indicating that ships from Europe had brought any cases of the disease in the most recent months Theodore The Oncoming Threat of Cholera in New Orleans in 1849 Date s December 30 1848 to January 11 1849 Location ORLEANS Louisiana Tag s New Orleans cholera After a sixteen year hiatus cholera was once again on the doorstep of New Orleans On December 30 1848 reports from Pittsburgh began circling that cholera was the responsible agent for thirteen deaths aboard steamships known as the Diadem the Watkins and the Savannah all of which had docked in the New Orleans harbor A message from Cincinnati stated that fourteen people aboard the Peytona which Cholera and boosterism in New York and Chicago Date s 1866 Location NEW YORK New York COOK Illinois Tag s disease in the north Chicago New York City cholera rivalry Disease epidemics of the mid to late nineteenth century caused an immense amount of fear among everyone and further led to the rivalry and boosterism prevalent between New York City and Chicago during the 1866 cholera epidemic On August 29 1866 The Chicago Tribune reported that cholera deaths in New York were at a standstill and reports extensively from an article from The New York World that not Success against Cholera Washington D C Watches Science Advance Date s May 1866 to 1866 Location Washington City District of Columbia Tag s washington d c cholera In May of 1866 Washington D C was embroiled in political challenges Cholera was spreading throughout the country In addition the recently ended Civil War left politicians divided over the issue of Southern representation and reconstruction The question of how to deal with Southern reconstruction was at an all time high By the summer of 1866 the idea

    Original URL path: http://historyengine.richmond.edu/tags/view/1315 (2016-02-15)
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  • History Engine: Tools for Collaborative Education and Research | Episodes
    of Southern representation in Congress was not uncommon as long as those elected were loyal and true men Papers such as The National Republican illustrated politicians as only sitting at conferences about the disease not solving it Who would make decisions about stopping the disease In this climate government was not a solution Instead it was a class of elite doctors that were portrayed by the media as answering the call in the fight against disease in the nineteenth century Physicians such as Robert Koch and John Snow pursued their study of disease as private practicing individuals not as agents of the state Dr George Johnson was among the ranks of premiere private doctor His theories laid the foundations that led the residents of Washington D C to believe a critical blow against cholera had been presented in the summer of 1866 His work was advertised and praised on May 6 1866 in the article The First Blow against Cholera in a Washington D C newspaper The Daily National Republican Dr Johnson s published work Notes on Cholera was described by critics in the Daily National Republican as the first true and complete explanation of the disease It was believed that the first blow had been struck against cholera in the discovery of what it really was Dr Johnson s purpose in writing it was to sweep away an erroneous theory with regard to the nature of cholera In this quest he explained the disease in simplistic terms and provided the roots of cholera in a short one hundred pages This made the source of cholera visible for the larger public By creating progress in knowledge Americans received hope based upon factual grounds for the first time in 1866 This was is in contrast to the naïve hopes of past

    Original URL path: http://historyengine.richmond.edu/episodes/view/5445 (2016-02-15)
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    Urban Life Boosterism Deep seated racial tensions exploded in Memphis on May 1 1866 For three days violence ruled the city as roaming mobs murdered robbed and burned throughout the Black Quarter By the time Federal troops imposed martial law on May 3 ending the riots Memphis terrorized black community was in shambles Roughly fifty blacks were murdered outright and scores more were wounded Burned to Sexual Violence and the Memphis Riot Date s May 1 1866 to May 3 1866 Location SHELBY Tennessee Tag s Women Memphis Riot Sexual Violence From May 1 1866 to May 3 1866 violence reigned on the streets of Memphis Tennessee At the end of what is today known as the Memphis Riot forty six African Americans and two White men lay dead All four of the African American schools were burned as well as over one hundred private residences Moreover at least five women testified to having been raped These women possessed the fortitude and Memphis Race Riot of 1866 Date s May 1 1866 to May 2 1866 Location SHELBY Tennessee Tag s Crime Violence Race Relations Urban Life Boosterism On May 1 2 1866 Memphis experienced the worst race riot in the city s history with forty six African Americans and two whites dead five African American women raped and hundreds of African American homes and churches burned to the ground At the end of the war four regiments of black Union soldiers were stationed just outside of Memphis at Fort Pickering To the chagrin of the Irish in Passage of the Franchise Act in Tennessee Date s May 3 1866 Location SHELBY Tennessee Tag s African Americans Race Relations Brownlow believed that rapid emancipation of the slaves in Tennessee was a necessary step to the reconstruction of his state On

    Original URL path: http://historyengine.richmond.edu/search/dates/18660501-18660531 (2016-02-15)
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    the preventive measures of the disease and its deadliness Aside from only a few dozen cholera deaths however the overall health and cleanliness of New York was excellent About 12 years prior to the 1866 cholera epidemic John Snow found that cholera was a direct effect of the lack of sanitation within the city The broad street pump in London was contaminated with feces and led to the cholera epidemic that ravaged the city Snow discovered this after removing the handle on the pump which prevented further use of it After doing this there was a sharp decline in and then no more cholera deaths at that time With this information during the epidemic of cholera in New York and Chicago both cities were aware of the cause However blame was placed on the immigrant population or a person s predisposition for the disease possibly in an effort to reduce fear sustain commerce and encourage tourism The Chicago Tribune further reports however that the cholera epidemic was actually quite different in Chicago than the New Yorkers made it seem The city of Chicago was in reality ahead of New York City in terms of municipal cleanliness and overall health of the area Unlike New York Chicago did not have those cellars two stories below which breed pestilence nor those crowded courts and miserable masses of tenement houses which is where cholera often thrived Due to apparent overcrowding in New York cleaning the city and escaping the fate of cholera was actually impossible for them Reporters claimed that New Yorkers knew this to be true and slandered Chicago in an effort to maintain business and get rid of the guilt they had from misrepresenting their disease data Furthermore Chicago s grasp on reporting deaths from cholera seemed to be better in

    Original URL path: http://historyengine.richmond.edu/episodes/view/5447 (2016-02-15)
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    assimilating ex slaves into life as freedmen the Freedmen s Bureau worked to legalize marriages and establish standards for the marriages of freedmen Such Marriage Rules were observed in South Carolina in 1866 when such matters were under the jurisdiction of the Freedmen s Bureau The Marriage Rules contained six sections that outlined the parties eligible Kind Words for Sunday School Children teaches children to live a Christian lifestyle Date s 1866 Location FULTON Georgia Tag s Church Religious Activity Christianity Baptists sunday school Once a month children all over Atlanta Georgia would rush to the front yard to gather up the newspaper With their Bibles in hand they eagerly flipped to their favorite section labeled Kind Words for Sunday School Children These kind words were stories written for the Christian children to read and to take away important lessons that the Bible teaches These stories were stories from the Cholera and boosterism in New York and Chicago Date s 1866 Location NEW YORK New York COOK Illinois Tag s disease in the north Chicago New York City cholera rivalry Disease epidemics of the mid to late nineteenth century caused an immense amount of fear among everyone and further led to the rivalry and boosterism prevalent between New York City and Chicago during the 1866 cholera epidemic On August 29 1866 The Chicago Tribune reported that cholera deaths in New York were at a standstill and reports extensively from an article from The New York The B O Railroad makes a Civil Wrong Date s 1866 Location BALTIMORE Maryland Tag s B amp O Railroad Aaron Bradley Reconstruction Civil Rights In early 1866 on a train owned and operated by the B O Railroad Company Aaron A Bradley a former slave who once escaped to freedom in the early 1830s

    Original URL path: http://historyengine.richmond.edu/search/dates/18660101-18661231 (2016-02-15)
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