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  • History Engine: Tools for Collaborative Education and Research | Fips
    this day and age newspapers rarely print fiction Of course there is the occasional magical story written by a third grade class that appears every once a week in the Arts and Entertainment section of the paper but for the most part fictional stories of real substance are not published in newspapers anymore This was not the case in the 1800 s Appearing in The Valley Star each week was a Railroads of antebellum Virginia Date s January 29 1849 Location Tag s Economy Government Migration Transportation Urban Life Boosterism In February 1840 the Virginia Legislature was busy discussing the Lynchburg and Tennessee Railroad Bill The Bill argued that the Southwestern part of Virginia needed access to major trade routes The majority was in opposition to the original bill for many reasons particularly monetary so Mr Paxton of Rockbridge County Virginia proposed a substitute bill which was found more agreeable by The Price on a Life Date s February 26 1849 Location Tag s African Americans Government Law Politics Race Relations Slavery War Daily habits such as flipping through a newspaper must have been hard on an anti slavery southerner The newspapers prior to the Civil War are full of

    Original URL path: http://historyengine.richmond.edu/fips/view/14232 (2016-02-15)
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  • History Engine: Tools for Collaborative Education and Research | Episodes
    to agrarian interests Under the leadership of John C Calhoun South Carolina stated that a national tariff was unconstitutional when it benefited some states and not others To ease tension President Andrew Jackson lowered the tariff in July 1832 It was not enough In November of 1832 South Carolina s Nullification Convention met and pronounced both tariffs unconstitutional as well as unenforceable If the national government made any attempt to enforce the tariff South Carolina would secede from the Union In response Jackson sent the tactical strategist Maj Gen Winfield Scott and five additional companies of Artillery and two companies of the fourth regiment of Infantry to Charleston On December 10 1832 Jackson sent a message to South Carolina declaring its actions inconsistent and incompatible While South Carolina reacted vehemently to the tariff many Virginians demurred South Carolina s governor James Hamilton mentioned that Nullification was a peaceful and constitutional remedy The Lynchburg Virginian however scoffed at his diction and saw war and revolution ahead not peace Governor Hamilton readied the State Guard in Charleston and requested the removal of U S troops from the state citadel in Charleston The paper claimed war is no children s game least of

    Original URL path: http://historyengine.richmond.edu/episodes/view/3984 (2016-02-15)
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  • History Engine: Tools for Collaborative Education and Research | Fips
    their own proposition should be accepted proclaimed the Lynchburg Virginian in reference to South Carolina s actions in December 1832 It all began in 1828 when Congress enacted the so called Tariff of Abominations Many Southerners thought the highly protective Keeping the Family Together Date s December 3 1837 Location Tag s African Americans Race Relations Slavery If you can t send all pray be so good to send for

    Original URL path: http://historyengine.richmond.edu/fips/view/13697 (2016-02-15)
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  • History Engine: Tools for Collaborative Education and Research | Episodes
    major concerns were the tariffs of May 29 1828 and June 14 1832 South Carolina believed these measures were unfair and didn t fall within the constitutional power of Congress to raise revenue they proclaimed the laws null and void and threatened succession In his address Jackson showed that the doctrine of nullification was incompatible with the existence of the Union contradicted expressly by the letter of the Constitution unauthorized by its spirit inconsistent with every principle on which It was founded and destructive of the great object for which it was formed First he posited that South Carolina s objections based on stated powers and fairness were misguided and incorrect because the Constitution gave Congress the discretionary power to raise revenue by taxation Next Jackson argued the Constitution joined the states into a single nation and in becoming parts of a nation they surrender many of their essential parts of sovereignty Thus secession was wholly unconstitutional because it is an affront to national authority Finally Jackson warned the people of South Carolina who he believed were tricked into nullification by political and social leaders that any action of disunion by force is treason He made an emotional appeal for these people to see the error of their position His address ends with a hope that the nation will survive and be reconciled by reasonableness and harmony but also an assurance that it will be reconciled by force if necessary President s Jackson s speech came at a crucial time during his presidency he had just been elected to a second term but already his popular and political support was flagging But according to historian Arthur M Schlesinger Jr Jackson s handling of the nullification crisis and his resolve to ensure the survival of the union both evident in the

    Original URL path: http://historyengine.richmond.edu/episodes/view/4142 (2016-02-15)
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  • History Engine: Tools for Collaborative Education and Research | Fips
    using some President Andrew Jackson Wins Re Election Date s November 2 1832 Location Tag s Economy After Andrew Jackson lost the close presidential election of 1824 he focused on defeating John Quincy Adams four years later Jackson easily succeeded becoming the first president to hail from a state other than Virginia or Massachusetts This distinction can help symbolize the expansion of the United States during his eight years in office Originally the Democrats had not anticipated Jackson s House of Representatives passes the first gag rule on slavery Date s May 26 1836 Location Tag s Slavery First introduced to the House floor by South Carolina s James Henry Hammond the gag rule was a radical measure designed to completely eliminate debate dealing with abolition Traditionally representatives received and tabled antislavery prayers or buried them in committee the gag rule however prevented even this formality from taking place This was not a spontaneous development but a response President Andrew Jackson issues the Specie Circular Date s July 11 1836 Location Tag s Economy In 1832 President Andrew Jackson refused to re charter the Bank of the United States opting instead to deposit government funds in select state or pet banks The state banks facing little regulation freely loaned paper money to virtually anyone who asked for it A flurry of land speculation and inflation followed To curtail these alarming trends Jackson issued the Species Circular Martin Van Buren wins presidential election Date s November 1836 Location Tag s Slavery Commonly referred to as the Little Magician of President Andrew Jackson Van Buren was a Northern Democrat who did not own slaves As such his victory in the 1836 election was by no means inevitable he was widely considered a compromising Yankee who could not be trusted to respect states

    Original URL path: http://historyengine.richmond.edu/fips/view/1273 (2016-02-15)
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  • History Engine: Tools for Collaborative Education and Research | Episodes
    The editorial staff of the Enquirer stated that although from the moment this paper saw the light it has been the devoted friend of the Rights of the States and they were opposed to the abominable Tariff system they were equally opposed to the course which South Carolina has taken The Enquirer was strongly Democratic in the same issue there was an article celebrating the reelection of Andrew Jackson The fact that it was both Democratic and Southern make it seem likely that the editorial staff of the Enquirer would have supported or at least sympathized with John C Calhoun s plan for nullification Robert Remini noted in his biography of President Jackson that although most Southern states were angry about the tariff none went as far as South Carolinians did The fact that the Enquirer referred to nullification as an absurd and a dangerous heresy demonstrates that the political climate in South Carolina was much more radical than that of other Southern states in the early 1830s By the 1860s however when the Southern states began to secede from the Union the political climate had changed dramatically But in December of 1832 most Southern states like Virginia felt that

    Original URL path: http://historyengine.richmond.edu/episodes/view/4059 (2016-02-15)
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  • History Engine: Tools for Collaborative Education and Research | Fips
    nullification crisis In one of the articles the editorial staff of the Enquirer expressed their feelings about nullification The editorial staff of the Enquirer stated that although from the moment this paper saw the light it has been the devoted friend of the Rights of the States Southern Outrage Date s September 8 1835 Location Tag s boycott anti abolitionism Anti abolitionists reacted violently and swiftly to the onslaught of

    Original URL path: http://historyengine.richmond.edu/fips/view/14216 (2016-02-15)
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  • History Engine: Tools for Collaborative Education and Research | Episodes
    and 1830s of selling slaves from the border states to traders who sold the dismayed slaves down river to labor on highly profitable cotton rice or sugar plantations of the Southwest and Deep South Being sold to the Deep South was possibly one of the greatest fears of many Upper or Border South slaves The prospect of being sold away from family and friends was considered by some a worse punishment than whipping According to historian William W Freehling economic growth booming land sales and the invention of the cotton gin encouraged the interstate slave trade as cotton was very profitable and grew more productively in more tropical climates Freehling also notes that between 1790 and 1860 Border and Middle Souths lost close to 750 000 slaves This drain was especially prevalent in the 1850s cotton boom comprising a substantial percentage of the slave population of these states In comparison after the tobacco bust of the eighteenth century the Border South was much more industrial grew a wider variety of crops and was more economically diversified and willing to sell their slaves down the river for a high profit Most slaveholding southerners claimed to look down on these slave traders

    Original URL path: http://historyengine.richmond.edu/episodes/view/3952 (2016-02-15)
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