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  • History Engine: Tools for Collaborative Education and Research | Fips
    from where he was in Albemarle County Virginia On the morning of October 16 1959 John Brown a radical abolitionist and 17 white men and five African Americans Sons of Temperance Young Southern Men and the Temperance Movement Date s 1856 Location Tag s Church Religious Activity Education Temperance reforms in the nineteenth century were not widely known for their success in the South In fact Delaware was the only slaveholding state to enact prohibition laws in the 1850s However temperance reform victories can be seen on a smaller yet equally effective scale throughout the southern United States especially among young men The Southern temperance movement was driven This Sin Polluted Earth Date s January 3 1857 Location Tag s African Americans Church Religious Activity Crime Violence Race Relations Slavery On January 3 1857 cries of pain echoed throughout the plantation The crack of the whip onto bare skin had an unmistakable sound All those who witnessed the brutal whipping cringed with each crack The slave s back was already covered with old scars some several years old and some only days old Mary Boyden became used to seeing her father discipline unruly slaves but this time Student Withdraws After

    Original URL path: http://historyengine.richmond.edu/fips/view/13597 (2016-02-15)
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  • History Engine: Tools for Collaborative Education and Research | Episodes
    1859 Stuart on the other hand was born in nearby Staunton where he was greatly involved with politics Although both of these men were politicians they also owned land that they farmed In his letter to Stuart Letcher seemed very concerned that Stuart had received some particular seeds for his farm These seeds were more than likely either wheat or corn because these two crops were the most popular in the Shenandoah Valley Also Letcher showed much interest in making sure the seeds pleased Stuart This letter proves how much agriculture was important to the South Even though the two men were politicians they depended on agriculture to supply food for their families as well as wealth to further their political careers Farming provided economic and social well being for many other families in the South Without farms many people would not have been able to survive Particularly in western Virginia much of the most fertile land was depleted so many families resorted to subsistence farming They also tried to grow enough crops to profit from their hard labor The Stuart family was definitely one of these families who practiced both for profit and subsistence farming The great concern for the delivery of the seeds demonstrates how these seeds were important The Stuart family needed these seeds to continue the preservation of their family They needed the seeds for food and to sell their crops on the market Congressman John Letcher knew the situation of his friend and fellow politician because he was also in the same position Letcher hailed from Rockbridge County where agriculture played a similar role as it did in Augusta Letcher and his family practiced subsistence as well as market based farming just like the Stuarts Numerous Southern families such as the Letchers and Stuarts relied

    Original URL path: http://historyengine.richmond.edu/episodes/view/3846 (2016-02-15)
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  • History Engine: Tools for Collaborative Education and Research | Fips
    Death Education University honor systems meant something very different in nineteenth century South from what they do in the twenty first century The Honor Systems essentially were guides on how to be a Southern Gentlemen The University of Virginia s Honor Code which in the twentieth century the university defined as only outlawing lying cheating and stealing included rules against spitting in public and Property of a Newspaper Owner Date s October 15 1856 to October 16 1856 Location Tag s African Americans Economy Government Politics Race Relations Slavery Joseph Addison Waddell was a wealthy and influential man in nineteenth century Augusta County Virginia He owned the Staunton Spectator from 1856 1860 The Spectator reached many residents of Augusta County He kept an extensive diary during his life of which the years 1855 1865 are still preserved On October 15 1856 after having contemplated the hopeless Know Nothing campaign The Peculiarity of William Knoth s Insanity Date s September 14 1853 Location Tag s Health Death Migration Transportation Race Relations Slavery William Knoth an inmate of the Insane Asylum located in Augusta County Virginia escaped the facility and fled to Canada He was described as being in a deranged state prior to his flight Knoth had believed that the people of Augusta were hostile towards him because he was prejudiced against slavery This is assumed to be the reason why he left for Canada In addition the inmate took with him A Woman s Worth Date s 1851 Location Tag s African Americans Race Relations Slavery Women When reading novels from nineteenth century one often sees an overbearing mother whose only joy in life is finding suitable matches for her infinite number of daughters In these stories the daughter does not normally have much if any say as to whom

    Original URL path: http://historyengine.richmond.edu/fips/view/13638 (2016-02-15)
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  • History Engine: Tools for Collaborative Education and Research | Episodes
    Albemarle and Orange Counties He worked often to secure the individual rights of freedmen that many white southerners worked to undermine Not only did white Southerners try to oppress the freedmen but the orders of the U S Army to their soldiers were often oppressive as well While working in the Louisa County courthouse Hopkins noted in his array of cases laid before him on January 13 1868 that the freedmen are being outraged and swindled to about the extent that such an ignorant stupid and yielding subservient class would be anywhere else The South under Union military rule was almost as hard as life in slavery for the freedmen The Union soldiers were ordered to arrest vagrant black men in the cities and to remove them to the countryside to work on plantations assuming they were too lazy to work in the cities Historian Eric Foner notes that General Weitzel the U S Army commander at Richmond had ordered that before receiving assistance whites take an oath of loyalty and blacks sign labor contracts forcing the freedmen into essentially a less glorified version of slavery for the sake of the South s economy The soldiers carried out the harsh orders of the U S Army lest they face the consequences of desertion death The sentiments of individual soldiers did not always mirror the unjust commands nor advocate a uniformly racist view towards the freedmen Hopkins recorded in his diary one example of individual soldiers ethics differing from the ethics of the entire U S Army On January 13 Hopkins retired from the courthouse to his hotel room where his good friend Mr Butler came to visit him Butler proceeded to recount a deed of heroism committed at the hands of a sailor from the U S Navy one Thomas

    Original URL path: http://historyengine.richmond.edu/episodes/view/3851 (2016-02-15)
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    Abraham Lincoln Mary Todd Lincoln Elizabeth Keckly Mary Todd Lincoln wrote many letters to Lizzie Lizzie was one of Lincoln s closest friends Her full name was Elizabeth Keckly and she was a former slave It should come as no surprise that one of Mary Todd Lincoln s closest friend was a former slave Mary showed much support for the emancipation of slaves Lincoln met dressmaker and best friend Elizabeth Keckly through her involvement Texas slaves escape to Mexico Date s 1850 to 1861 Location HOUSTON Texas Tag s African Americans Law Migration Transportation While slavery did not exist as early in Texas as in other states such as Virginia and the Carolinas it still played an important role in the economy and history of Texas In fact by the time of the Civil War slavery was as strongly established in Texas the newest slave state as it was in the oldest slave state in the Union One slave James Boyd was 107 years old when he was interviewed in Occupied New Orleans Date s 1862 to 1865 Location ORLEANS Louisiana Tag s Economy Government Politics James Jameson was a long way from home During the Civil War he was a Union soldier in the Massachusetts Artillery battery stationed in and around New Orleans once it came under Union control He wrote to his brother and sister about his experiences in the Deep South In correspondence with William Wardwell Jameson discussed setting up a business in New Orleans because he saw Alabama s Constitutional Convention meets Date s November 5 1867 to December 6 1867 Location MONTGOMERY Alabama Tag s Race Relations War Under the Reconstruction Acts of 1867 Alabama was placed in the Third Military District along with Georgia and Florida General John Pope a native of Kentucky who

    Original URL path: http://historyengine.richmond.edu/search/dates/18680113 (2016-02-15)
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  • History Engine: Tools for Collaborative Education and Research | Fips
    to his offices in Louisa Albemarle and Orange Counties He worked often to secure the individual rights of freedmen that many white southerners worked Brazil as the New South Date s June 8 1867 Location Tag s African Americans Agriculture Economy Government Politics Migration Transportation Race Relations War For southern whites the end of the Civil War ushered in a period of poverty dependence and hate The Union soldiers had confiscated or destroyed much of the plantation owners valuable property and without property or the system of slavery that had sustained the South for so many generations the agricultural economy plummeted and became extremely vulnerable to carpetbaggers and scalawags Those Working Women Date s August 26 1866 Location Tag s Agriculture Economy Women Anne Watson was part of a wealthy Virginia plantation family that flourished in the 19th century in Louisa County She lived a life of luxury and refinement until tragedy struck and she lost several children and her husband all by 1853 After her husband s death she was forced into a dominant role in the running of the household in both the domestic and business spheres This new role David Watson Prepares for Battle Date s December

    Original URL path: http://historyengine.richmond.edu/fips/view/14012 (2016-02-15)
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  • History Engine: Tools for Collaborative Education and Research | Episodes
    of 1838 The petition stated we entreat you to legislate for the termination of slavery in this state Nathan Mendenhall signed the petition and Senator J T Morehead from Guilford County North Carolina presented the petition to the Senate The Senate received the petition a few days before its adjournment The Western Carolinian Newspaper reported the petition to the general public on January 17 1839 The journalist from the Western Carolinian did not write positively about the abolition attempt and was shocked that the movement was happening at home A petition to Congress about slavery was very common at this time Congress was force to issue a gag rule to end the constant debate about anti slavery petitions The major issue however was that the Quakers pushed this petition from a very prominent slave owning state Quakers were very vocal about their religious beliefs against slavery which sometimes got them into a lot of trouble The Quakers strongly upheld the idea that all men are equal in the eyes of God Quakers also felt the need to obey the law and be moral citizens However these two conflicting beliefs did not stop the Quakers fight Many Quakers such as Nathan Mendenhall were active in the manumission society This was a society that Mendenhall and his fellow Quakers created in attempt to set up new areas in Liberia for freed slaves to live Other Quakers owned freed slaves to keep them from being resold into slavery worked directly with the Underground Railroad and were active in court cases dealing with possession of slaves Due to this obvious protest of slavery Quakers faced many conflicts with their slave owning neighbors Quakers received harsh treatment and persecution for their actions as well These problems caused many Quakers to flee to the new frontier

    Original URL path: http://historyengine.richmond.edu/episodes/view/3852 (2016-02-15)
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    Providence Rhode Island Kanawha Virginia Tag s Land Resource Hunting Cotton Timber Land played an important role in the United States economy more specifically the raising of cotton A traveler of this era notes of his stop at Rhode Island writing that cotton was the source of wealth as there were many manufacturers of cotton which performed weave ticking shirting and sheeting He goes on to mention that Rhode Island is the greatest manufacturing state in the Union having History Engine Episode I Date s 1800 to 1825 Location Charleston South Carolina Tag s African American history Transatlantic Slave Trade When slaves were sold across the Atlantic they brought with them some aspects of their culture A few of these aspects included music and the instruments used to create the music of their original cultures Naturally being from totally differing regions the Africans cultures were completely different from that of Europeans This is shown in the accounts of the Europeans travels to Africa in Breastfeeding Date s 1830 to 1835 Location LIBERTY Georgia Tag s African Americans Health Death Race Relations Slavery Women In the days before baby formula new mothers had far fewer options for food for their babies Because of rampant childhood diseases and absence of many other options of sustenance for infants breastmilk played a vitally important role in the development of society and families Many slaveholding women designated enslaved women to be wet nurses for the newly born white children As Robert Mallard Horrible experiences slaves endure in the 1800 s Date s February 6 1839 Location WASHINGTON Virginia Tag s Slavery Slave Living Conditions The experience of slavery for men women and children was equally horrible The amount of labor on the plantation farms was the same for both genders The differences between the genders

    Original URL path: http://historyengine.richmond.edu/search/dates/18390117 (2016-02-15)
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