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  • A new role for a critical DNA molecule in the immune system | Newswire
    J recombination Coming together Sections of DNA known as loci green and red dots above must be shuffled and recombined in order for immune cells to build receptors that recognize hostile substances New research shows that a DNA repair molecule 53BP1 is critical for this process to occur without it right the loci remain separated They found that the knockout mice had 50 percent fewer lymphocytes in their bone marrow and 80 percent fewer in their thymus a collection of glands that helps produce specialized immune cells The mice also had problems with the lymphocytes that remained To combat infection these cells must have receptors that can recognize a foreign substance when they encounter it beginning the process of producing an antibody to fight it In mice lacking 53BP1 however the sections of DNA or loci that must recombine to build these receptors are farther apart than normal making their recombination much less likely the researchers found The lack of 53BP1 prevented the proper reshuffling of genetic material during recombination Whenever a section of genetic material is cut loose in order to be recombined it must be quickly reattached or else it risks migrating to another chromosome in a process called translocation a common cause of cancer In normal V D J recombination that does not happen but sometimes the genetic material that is being reshuffled does have to travel to a relatively distant place on its own chromosome The researchers found that that process of long distance DNA end joining happened 2 5 times less often in mice that lacked 53BP1 And when recombination falters serious consequences follow Problems with these reactions lead to immunodeficiencies and cancer says Nussenzweig who is also a Howard Hughes Medical Institute investigator Preventing 53BP1 from repairing DNA has been linked to Riddle Syndrome

    Original URL path: http://newswire.rockefeller.edu/2008/10/24/a-new-role-for-a-critical-dna-molecule-in-the-immune-system/ (2016-02-13)
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  • De Lange, Nussenzweig elected to American Academy of Arts and Sciences | Newswire
    that protect the integrity of DNA during chromosome replication Her research focuses on how telomeres fulfill their functions De Lange came to Rockefeller University in 1990 She is a foreign associate of the National Academy of Sciences and has received the Paul Marks Prize for Cancer Research and the National Institutes of Health Director s Pioneer Award among other honors Sherman Fairchild Professor Michel Nussenzweig who is also a Howard Hughes Medical Institute investigator joined the Rockefeller faculty in 1990 He studies the innate and adaptive immune systems specifically the development and functions of the antibody producing lymphocytes known as B cells Nussenzweig is the recipient of a Solomon A Berson Award for Basic Science and an American Association of Immunologists Huang Foundation Meritorious Career Award among other honors The contributions that Drs de Lange and Nussenzweig have made during their careers go far beyond Rockefeller and the scientific community alone they have added important knowledge to our understanding of key biological mechanisms I am pleased to see their outstanding accomplishments recognized by membership in the American Academy of Arts and Sciences says Rockefeller President Paul Nurse who was elected to the academy last year Founded in 1780 by John Adams James Bowdoin John Hancock and other scholar patriots the academy has members from diverse industries and disciplines who have made significant contributions in their fields or to society at large Current research interests at the academy include science and global security the humanities and culture social policy and education Previous generations of inductees include George Washington and Benjamin Franklin in the 18th century Daniel Webster and Ralph Waldo Emerson in the 19th and Albert Einstein and Winston Churchill in the 20th The current membership includes more than 170 Nobel laureates and 50 Pulitzer Prize winners The 227 newly elected

    Original URL path: http://newswire.rockefeller.edu/2007/05/02/de-lange-nussenzweig-elected-to-american-academy-of-arts-and-sciences/ (2016-02-13)
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  • An embryonic cell’s fate is sealed by the speed of a signal | Newswire
    affect a cell s response to a signal However by adapting technology that allows for very precise control over these aspects we found unequivocal evidence that signal level alone does not determine a cell s fate Its presentation is also extremely important Siggia says Together the team dubbed their discovery speed fating Their work will be published in August in Developmental Cell Biologists know a cell determines its location in an embryo and as a result its future role based on chemical cues from its neighbors About 50 years ago the developmental biologist Lewis Wolpert proposed that this determination hinges on the concentration of the signal to which a cell is exposed Go above a certain threshold and you get one fate below and you get a second His proposal is known as the French flag model after a tri color graph used to represent three cell fates based on those cells positions with respect to the source of the signal Prior work from Brivanlou and Siggia had cast doubt on the sole importance of concentration Using a common developmental signaling pathway known as TGF β the team documented what is known as an adaptive response from cells exposed to TGF β signaling molecules This response peaked then declined over time even though the signaling molecules remained present Think of how a constant noise eventually blends into the background If concentration was the sole factor responsible for a response then the response should have continued as long as the signal was present To follow up on this work Benoit Sorre a former Rockefeller postdoc now at the University of Paris Diderot adapted a system that makes use of miniaturized networks of pipes pumps valves and sample chambers all under computer control For experiments he teamed up with Aryeh Warmflash the postdoc who lead the previous TGF β work Together they worked with mouse cells that have the potential to differentiate into muscle or cartilage and bone Progenitor cells like these which can differentiate into a limited set of tissues are the offspring of stem cells In experiments using Sorre s new system the researchers exposed these progenitor cells to signaling molecules from the TGF β pathway and then recorded the cells responses to see if the signal activated the pathway that leads them to choose a fate Sorre and Warmflash started with a continuous signal As Warmflash s previous work suggested this finger stuck on the buzzer approach did not produce a continuous response from the cells Instead the response declined A second set of tests showed a series of brief pulses of signal produced a greater response than one continuous signal Gradually increasing the concentration of the signal however appeared to have the opposite effect The researchers ramped up the concentration of the signal over periods as brief as five hours or as long as 40 hours The longer the period and the slower the rate of increase the weaker the cells response The cells subjected to a 40

    Original URL path: http://newswire.rockefeller.edu/2014/08/04/an-embryonic-cells-fate-is-sealed-by-the-speed-of-a-signal/ (2016-02-13)
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  • Ali H. Brivanlou | Newswire
    More Tags Ali H Brivanlou Juvenile Diabetes Research Foundation Laboratory of Molecular Vertebrate Embryology May 14 2009 Science News For different species different functions for embryonic microRNAs Researchers at The Rockefeller University have discovered that a family of microRNAs that regulates early embryonic development is evolutionarily conserved from fish to amphibians and humans but its function is not The findings are a warning Scientists should not assume that what they learn about microRNAs in animal studies will hold true for people More Tags Ali H Brivanlou MicroRNAs March 18 2009 Grants and Gifts Rockefeller receives new 4 8 million state grant to fund stem cell research The grant from New York will establish new facilities for studying the molecular basis of how stem cells are maintained and how they differentiate More Tags Ali H Brivanlou April 1 2008 Science News Newly identified gene may prompt pancreas cells to form Researchers uncover key genetic signals involved in how the pancreas begins forming a finding they say might lead to regenerative therapies for patients with certain forms of diabetes whose pancreases no longer function More Tags Ali H Brivanlou pancreas September 4 2007 Science News From frogs to humans brains form the same way Scientists had believed that mammals and amphibians distinctly different animals have distinctly different developmental patterns when it comes to the nervous system But a new model of mammalian neural induction provides a bridge across the evolutionary gap More Tags Ali H Brivanlou nervous system development July 13 2006 Science News Human stem cells can contribute to a developing mouse embryo despite evolutionary differences A new line of human embryonic stem cells created using private funds has been coaxed to grow inside a developing mouse embryo giving scientists the unique opportunity to observe as the undifferentiated cells replicate and specialize The results offer a groundbreaking means of both elucidating the beginning of human embryonic development and serving as a starting point from which to understand their potential therapeutic secrets of human embryonic stem cells More Tags Ali H Brivanlou REUS1 stem cells January 5 2004 Science News Feeder free system for maintaining embryonic stem cells pioneered at Rockefeller University Rockefeller University researchers in collaboration with two European scientists have devised a system for maintaining human embryonic stem cell lines that excludes the need for troublesome mouse feeder cells More Tags Ali H Brivanlou BIO HESC stem cells July 3 2003 Science News Genetic clues to stem cells unlimited potential As an embryologist Ali H Brivanlou wants to know every genetic route taken by a small mass of undifferentiated or unformed embryonic cells as they develop into an organism More Tags Ali H Brivanlou stem cells stemness December 2 2002 Science News First quantum dots applied to living organism Quantum dots are nano sized crystals that exhibit all the colors of the rainbow due to their unique semiconductor qualities These exquisitely small human made beacons have the power to shine their fluorescent light for months even years But in the

    Original URL path: http://newswire.rockefeller.edu/tag/ali-h-brivanlou/ (2016-02-13)
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  • French flag model | Newswire
    cells whether to turn into muscle bone brain or other tissue By tracking cells responses to signals researchers found the speed at which the signal arrives has an unexpected influence on that decision More Tags Ali H Brivanlou developmental biology differentiation Eric Siggia French flag model speed fating TGF β Search for Categories Science News Awards and Honors Campus News Grants Gifts Topics Video Archive 2015 2014 2013 2012 2011

    Original URL path: http://newswire.rockefeller.edu/tag/french-flag-model/ (2016-02-13)
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  • speed fating | Newswire
    whether to turn into muscle bone brain or other tissue By tracking cells responses to signals researchers found the speed at which the signal arrives has an unexpected influence on that decision More Tags Ali H Brivanlou developmental biology differentiation Eric Siggia French flag model speed fating TGF β Search for Categories Science News Awards and Honors Campus News Grants Gifts Topics Video Archive 2015 2014 2013 2012 2011 more

    Original URL path: http://newswire.rockefeller.edu/tag/speed-fating/ (2016-02-13)
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  • Using geometry, researchers coax human embryonic stem cells to organize themselves | Newswire
    key to harnessing the promise of regenerative medicine Brivanlou says It brings us closer to the possibility of replacement organs grown in petri dishes and wounds that can be swiftly healed In the uterus human embryonic stem cells receive chemical cues from the surrounding tissue that signal them to begin forming layers a process called gastrulation Cells in the center begin to form ectoderm the brain and skin of the embryo while those migrating to the outside become mesoderm and endoderm destined to become muscle and blood and many of the major organs respectively Brivanlou and his colleagues including postdocs Aryeh Warmflash and Benoit Sorre as well as Eric Siggia Viola Ward Brinning and Elbert Calhoun Brinning Professor and head of the Laboratory of Theoretical Condensed Matter Physics confined human embryonic stem cells originally derived at Rockefeller to tiny circular patterns on glass plates that had been chemically treated to form micropatterns that prevent the colonies from expanding outside a specific radius When the researchers introduced chemical signals spurring the cells to begin gastrulation they found the colonies that were geometrically confined in this way proceeded to form endoderm mesoderm and ectoderm and began to organize themselves just as they would have under natural conditions Cells that were not confined did not By monitoring specific molecular pathways the human cells use to communicate with one another to form patterns during gastrulation something that was not previously possible because of the lack of a suitable laboratory model the researchers also learned how specific inhibitory signals generated in response to the initial chemical cues function to prevent the cells within a colony from all following the same developmental path The research was published June 29 in Nature Methods At the fundamental level what we have developed is a new model to explore

    Original URL path: http://newswire.rockefeller.edu/2014/06/30/using-geometry-researchers-coax-human-embryonic-stem-cells-to-organize-themselves/ (2016-02-13)
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  • gastrulation | Newswire
    human embryonic stem cells to tiny circular patterns on glass plates researchers have for the first time coaxed them into organizing themselves just as they would under natural conditions More Tags Ali H Brivanlou BMP signaling developmental biology gastrulation human embryonic stem cells Search for Categories Science News Awards and Honors Campus News Grants Gifts Topics Video Archive 2015 2014 2013 2012 2011 more About Contact Follow rockefelleruniv Like The

    Original URL path: http://newswire.rockefeller.edu/tag/gastrulation/ (2016-02-13)
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