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  • Muscle gene may provide new treatments for obesity and diabetes | Newswire
    the mammary gland and fat tissues and the oxidation of fatty acids in the liver In the new study Chen and her colleagues focused on MED1 s role in skeletal muscle The researchers created a line of mice genetically modified to lack MED1 only in muscle cells They found that the Med1 knockout mice had enhanced sensitivity to insulin and improved glucose tolerance and also resisted becoming obese even when fed a high fat diet Gene microarray analysis showed that when Med1 was deleted a number of genes that are usually suppressed were activated says Chen In muscle MED1 normally suppresses a genetic program that holds in check certain energy expenditure pathways says Robert G Roeder Arnold and Mabel Beckman Professor and head of the Laboratory of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology We found that these genes are unleashed when MED1 function is abrogated One of these genes is UCP 1 which produces a key protein that works in certain fat cells to generate heat when animals are exposed to cold The researchers also found that MED1 plays a role in development of muscle fibers Muscle is composed of two kinds of fiber called slow and fast twitch Slow twitch fibers contract slowly and can keep going for a long time while fast twitch muscle fibers contract quickly but get tired sooner Removing Med1 caused the muscles to switch from fast to slow twitch fibers which the researchers think may contribute to the animals enhanced tolerance to glucose and sensitivity to insulin Chen and her colleagues also observed that some muscle in the Med1 knockout mice had an increase in the density of mitochondria which provide energy to cells a finding which suggests that targeting Med1 could provide new treatments for muscle diseases caused by malfunctioning mitochondria including some types of

    Original URL path: http://newswire.rockefeller.edu/2010/07/26/muscle-gene-may-provide-new-treatments-for-obesity-and-diabetes/ (2016-02-13)
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  • MED1 | Newswire
    expenditure pathways But when Rockefeller University scientists removed this gene in mice a number of genes that are usually suppressed were activated suggesting that targeting the Med1 gene could provide new therapeutical approaches to treating such metabolic diseases as obesity and diabetes More Tags Laboratory of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology MED1 Robert G Roeder Wei Chen Search for Categories Science News Awards and Honors Campus News Grants Gifts Topics Video

    Original URL path: http://newswire.rockefeller.edu/tag/med1/ (2016-02-13)
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  • Wei Chen | Newswire
    mice a number of genes that are usually suppressed were activated suggesting that targeting the Med1 gene could provide new therapeutical approaches to treating such metabolic diseases as obesity and diabetes More Tags Laboratory of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology MED1 Robert G Roeder Wei Chen February 9 2007 Science News Analysis of Chinese AIDs epidemic shows surprising patterns The Chinese province of Yunnan was the country s point of entry for HIV and is the area in which the AIDS epidemic is most widespread The viral mutations that exist in Yunnan are far more diverse than anywhere else in the country and recent research suggests that HIV in China may be spread by sexual contact more quickly than anyone believed The result a new subtype of the virus that has the potential to jumpstart a new epidemic More Tags HIV Wei Chen December 19 2005 Science News New evidence that SARS cripples the immune system New research gleaned from blood samples of SARS patients suggests that those who died from the disease had immune systems that crashed while the immune systems of those who survived were better able to control the virus More Tags SARS Wei Chen Search for Categories

    Original URL path: http://newswire.rockefeller.edu/tag/wei-chen/ (2016-02-13)
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  • Activation of tumor suppressor gene p53 much more complex than previously believed | Newswire
    and grow normally or they kill the cell before it can generate a tumor Scientists still do not properly understand the conditions that influence one DNA damage response over the other In 1997 Roeder and Wei Gu then a postdoc in Roeder s lab showed that an enzyme called p300 CBP known to modify the chemical composition of histone tails serves as a transcriptional coactivator for p53 Coactivators are regulatory proteins that together with activator proteins are required to turn genes on But Roeder and Gu also showed that p300 could chemically modify and alter the function of p53 itself thus showing for the first time as is now commonly observed that histone modifying enzymes can also modify regulatory factors such as p53 This finding raised questions regarding the functions of the enzymes that are most important for transcription Scientists believe that histone modifications are crucial actors in the activation and repression of gene expression Histones help to package DNA the hereditary material of life into each cell s nucleus The double helical strand of DNA wraps around a ball of histones consisting of four distinct proteins H2A H2B H3 and H4 This fundamental unit called a nucleosome is repeated at regular intervals throughout the length of DNA and under a microscope resembles beads on a string Strings of nucleosomes coil up further to form a more compact chromatin and even further to become the familiar X shaped chromosomes of human cells Beginning with early observations by Rockefeller University s Vincent Allfrey research by Rockefeller University scientist C David Allis and others has provided a large body of evidence that correlated chemical modifications at specific locations on the tails of histone proteins with gene activation In 2002 An Roeder and their Rockefeller colleagues provided important new information about the role of histone tails in gene activation Scientists knew that histone tails repressed gene activation by preventing transcription factors proteins that help read out the information encoded in DNA from gaining access to DNA An and colleagues using a test tube system of coiled up chromatin created from engineered or recombinant histones and DNA showed that as Allfrey and Allis had predicted histone tails and associated modifications are required for reversing the repression of transcription and that p300 plays an important role in this process as a histone modifying enzyme Scientists elsewhere had previously shown that two other histone modifying enzymes called CARM1 and PRMT1 worked with p300 to mediate the function of a class of transcriptional regulatory proteins called nuclear hormone receptors And like p300 CARM1 and PRMT1 can modify both histones and regulatory factors To determine if CARM1 and PRMT1 alone or in conjunction with p300 also are involved in gene activation by p53 An and his co workers put all these proteins in a test tube with pure p53 and tested their function on a target gene wrapped up in a chromatin structure with histones An found that the three proteins worked synergistically in mediating gene activation by

    Original URL path: http://newswire.rockefeller.edu/2004/06/28/activation-of-tumor-suppressor-gene-p53-much-more-complex-than-previously-believed/ (2016-02-13)
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  • p53 | Newswire
    The researchers also provide the first direct evidence that chemical changes to DNA packaging proteins called histones regulate transcription or activation of p53 and other target genes a finding that has major implications for the treatment of human diseases including cancer More Tags p53 Robert G Roeder tumors May 31 2004 Science News Cell growth and death controlled by a single pathway in lymphoma cancer model New research at Rockefeller

    Original URL path: http://newswire.rockefeller.edu/tag/p53/ (2016-02-13)
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  • tumors | Newswire
    it wasn t for a rare neurodegenerative disease called paraneoplastic cerebellar degeneration More Tags Robert Gifford tumors October 22 2007 Science News Balancing act protects vulnerable cells from cancer Tumor suppressing pathways usually suppress tumors That s a good thing Even better When a vital component of the pathway is removed it continues to suppress tumors Research led by Elaine Fuchs at Rockefeller University reveals that when epithelial cells lack a receptor called TβRII the cells hyperproliferate a potentially lethal process balanced by elevated levels of cell death This balancing act occurs in all cells that express a major structural protein called keratin 14 but while some tissues remain healthy for life others spontaneously develop a highly disfiguring and invasive form of skin cancer one of the very few cancers on the rise More Tags Elaine Fuchs tumors June 28 2004 Science News Activation of tumor suppressor gene p53 much more complex than previously believed It s the biochemist s twist on the old light bulb jokes how many proteins does it take to activate a gene Scientists in Robert Roeder s Laboratory of Molecular Biology and Biochemistry at Rockefeller University now know that at least for gene activation by the tumor suppressor p53 the answer is as many as five and perhaps more proteins for a single early step in this process The researchers also provide the first direct evidence that chemical changes to DNA packaging proteins called histones regulate transcription or activation of p53 and other target genes a finding that has major implications for the treatment of human diseases including cancer More Tags p53 Robert G Roeder tumors February 27 2004 Science News Rockefeller researchers identify how protein linked to cancer correct cells when they divide A protein which has been linked to tumor formation when it

    Original URL path: http://newswire.rockefeller.edu/tag/tumors/ (2016-02-13)
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  • Lasker Award (“American Nobel”) honors Rockefeller University scientist Robert Roeder for pioneering studies of how human genes are switched on and off | Newswire
    general transcription machinery thereby providing the cell with added control over gene activity Control of gene expression the proper activation or silencing of genes in cells is crucial in the developing embryo and many diseases arise when gene activity is not tightly controlled Today the Roeder laboratory continues to uncover novel mechanisms by which these coactivators which he calls multicomponent control panels integrate positive and negative regulatory signals ultimately deciding whether to turn up or down a given gene s expression or activity pattern Graduate student s groundbreaking discovery Roeder s pioneering work in transcription began while he was a graduate student in the laboratory of W J Rutter Ph D at the University of Washington in the late 1960s While working on his own independent project Roeder identified in animal cells three different RNA polymerases as well as specific locations within the cell s nucleus that provided an early indication of the polymerases distinct functions In subsequent research at Washington University School of Medicine he showed that these three enzymes recognize and read the messages encoded in distinct classes of genes in eukaryotes organisms whose cells contain DNA in a nucleus RNA polymerase I converts or transcribes DNA into ribosomal RNA rRNA RNA polymerase II transcribes DNA into messenger RNA mRNA and RNA polymerase III transcribes DNA into transfer RNA tRNA Both rRNA and tRNA aid in the production of proteins while mRNA itself provides the recipe for a new protein This last discovery was particularly remarkable considering that at the time the tools of molecular biology had yet to be invented This was the Dark Ages recalls Roeder We didn t have many isolated and characterized genes to work with like we do now For this research he was honored with the American Chemical Society Eli Lilly Award in Biological Chemistry in 1977 Nature s secrets revealed in test tube In the late 1970s Roeder developed cell free systems that allowed him and others to study the function of individual genes and transcription related proteins outside of living cells in effect recreating transcription in a test tube in a way that faithfully mimics the real process in cells Using this powerful test tube technique composed of purified RNA polymerases and components extracted from cell nuclei Roeder identified distinct sets of proteins called accessory factors essential for the individual RNA polymerases to recognize start sites on specific target genes Significantly he simultaneously identified the first gene specific activator called TFIIIA in eukaryotes TFIIIA and similar proteins bind to specific DNA sequences and enhance the reading of corresponding target genes by the appropriate subset of the general transcription machinery Repressors perform the opposite task by inhibiting a gene s activity Hundreds of these transcription activators and repressors subsequently have been identified by Roeder and other scientists and many more are expected for the regulation of genes during such physiological processes as cell growth and division hormonal processes virus infection and tumor growth The challenge we now face is understanding the

    Original URL path: http://newswire.rockefeller.edu/2003/09/13/lasker-award-american-nobel-honors-rockefeller-university-scientist-robert-roeder-for-pioneering-studies-of-how-human-genes-are-switched-on-and-off/ (2016-02-13)
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  • Lasker Award | Newswire
    Basic Medical Research honors Rockefeller University s Ralph M Steinman who discovered dendritic cells the preeminent component of the immune system that initiates and regulates the body s response to foreign antigens More Tags dendritic cells Lasker Award Ralph M Steinman September 13 2003 Awards and Honors Lasker Award American Nobel honors Rockefeller University scientist Robert Roeder for pioneering studies of how human genes are switched on and off Robert G Roeder Ph D a biochemist whose research has led to major advances in understanding how human genes are switched on and off is this year s recipient of the highly prestigious Albert Lasker Award for Basic Medical Research the Albert and Mary Lasker Foundation announced today More Tags Lasker Award Robert G Roeder September 22 2002 Science News Lasker Award Honors Rockefeller University s James Darnell James E Darnell Jr M D the pioneering researcher in the field of gene regulation who has nurtured the careers of over 100 young talented scientists was honored today with the 2002 Albert Lasker Award for Special Achievement in Medical Science More Tags James E Darnell Jr Lasker Award September 26 1999 Awards and Honors Rockefeller Researcher Roderick MacKinnon Receives 1999 Lasker Award

    Original URL path: http://newswire.rockefeller.edu/tag/lasker-award/ (2016-02-13)
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