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  • Experiments explain the events behind molecular ‘bomb’ seen in cancer cells | Newswire
    caps at the end of chromosomes known as telomeres become shortened as a result of cell divisions With less DNA present in telomeres it becomes harder to prevent separate chromosomes from attaching to each other If those abnormal cells survive and continue to divide they can give rise to cancer The researchers recreated telomere crisis in human cells by blocking the protein complex that prevents telomeres from fusing and disabling some of the molecular pathways that protect cells from turning cancerous First author John Maciejowski a postdoc in de Lange s lab filmed the events that followed For a long time researchers believed that once two chromosomes fused together at their telomeres they would eventually break apart during cell division But the researchers found that s not what happened at all Instead cells with fused chromosomes continue to divide with their chromosomes attached Once division is complete and the new daughter cells try to move away from each other the piece of chromosome they share becomes stretched forming what s known as a chromatin bridge I think of it as a balloon that s been pinched in the middle and the two outer circles are pulling away from each other says de Lange Or like a tug of war and each cell represents the opposing team and the rope gets stretched and stretched and stretched The chromatin bridge can reach 0 2 millimeters an unheard of size at the cellular level Eventually that bridge is broken down by one of the enzymes designed to target unfriendly DNA such as that from viruses And here the researchers got a surprise they discovered the enzyme that degrades the bridge DNA TREX1 is normally present outside the nucleus that contains chromosomes But as the two attached cells march away from each other stretching

    Original URL path: http://newswire.rockefeller.edu/2015/12/17/experiments-explain-the-events-behind-molecular-bomb-seen-in-cancer-cells/ (2016-02-13)
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  • cancer | Newswire
    be capable of reducing the growth and spread of breast cancer cells More Tags breast cancer cancer Elizabeth and Vincent Meyer Laboratory of Systems Cancer Biology metastasis Sohail Tavazoie tRNA March 24 2015 Science News Chemical tag marks future microRNAs for processing study shows New research reveals how cells sort out the RNA molecules destined to become gene regulating microRNAs by tagging them Because microRNAs help control processes throughout the body this discovery has wide ranging implications for development health and disease including cancer More Tags cancer Claudio Alarcón Laboratory of Systems Cancer Biology m6A METTL3 microRNA RNA Sohail Tavazoie January 26 2015 Science News Research implicates metabolic process of the liver in the spread of colorectal cancer By identifying genes that become activated in cancer cells that successfully metastasize to the liver researchers at Rockefeller have implicated metabolic processes within the liver as a possible means by which starving transient cancer cells can go on to form deadly new colonies More Tags cancer Colorectal cancer Elizabeth and Vincent Meyer Laboratory of Systems Cancer Biology metastasis microRNA Sohail Tavazoie January 16 2015 Campus News Cancer biologist and physician Sohail Tavazoie is promoted to associate professor Tavazoie who joined Rockefeller in 2009 works to understand how cancer cells become able to escape a tumor and invade other organs a process known as metastasis He searches for genes and molecular pathways cancer cells exploit in order to metastasize and with that knowledge hopes to develop future treatments to prevent or interfere with the process More Tags associate professor breast cancer cancer colon cancer Elizabeth and Vincent Meyer Laboratory of Systems Cancer Biology endothelial cells melanoma metastasis microRNA promotion RNA Sohail Tavazoie July 28 2014 Science News Discovery of pro metastasis protein reveals mysterious link to neurodegeneration Mice injected with metastatic breast cancer cells showed less metastasis when researchers silenced the protein TARBP2 in these cells TARBP2 appears to promote metastasis in part by blocking suppressor genes including two linked with neurodegeneration More Tags cancer metastasis neurodegeneration RNA Sohail Tavazoie TARBP2 July 9 2014 In the News In the News Daily Mail UK Tavazoie How spread of breast cancer could be stopped Professor Sohail Tavazoie who led the research said If we learn more about how this regulation works we may in the future be able to generate drugs that prevent this protein from More Tags cancer Sohail Tavazoie TARBP2 June 2 2014 Awards and Honors Daniel Schramek awarded Regeneron Prize for Creative Innovation by a Postdoctoral Fellow Schramek one of just two individuals receiving the annual award is being recognized for his proposal of a project that used sequence based personalized medicine to treat the most devastating features of cancer The award comes with a 50 000 prize and a 5 000 donation to support seminars at Rockefeller More Tags cancer Daniel Schramek Elaine Fuchs MYH9 Regeneron Regeneron Prize for Creative Innovation April 2 2014 Science News Drug is identified that could block the spread of melanoma Researchers have found a promising

    Original URL path: http://newswire.rockefeller.edu/tag/cancer/ (2016-02-13)
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  • chromothripsis | Newswire
    it has been pulverized then put back together incorrectly leading to multiple mutations New research from The Rockefeller University describes the cellular events leading to this molecular explosion which serves as a precursor to cancer More Tags cancer chromatin chromothripsis Laboratory of Cell Biology and Genetics telomeres Titia de Lange Search for Categories Science News Awards and Honors Campus News Grants Gifts Topics Video Archive 2015 2014 2013 2012 2011

    Original URL path: http://newswire.rockefeller.edu/tag/chromothripsis/ (2016-02-13)
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  • Laboratory of Cell Biology and Genetics | Newswire
    New research indicates that every time a double stranded break occurs in DNA strands the damaged ends move about during repair Scientists believe a better understanding of this mysterious mechanism could improve the use of cancer treatments some of which manipulate DNA repair in malignant cells More Tags chemotherapy DNA repair Francisca Lottersberger Laboratory of Cell Biology and Genetics microtubules Taxol telomeres Titia de Lange February 22 2011 Awards and Honors Titia de Lange receives 2011 Vilcek Prize in Biomedical Science Rockefeller researcher is honored for her research on mechanisms that help maintain genome stability More Tags Laboratory of Cell Biology and Genetics Titia de Lange Vilcek Prize October 11 2010 Awards and Honors Two Rockefeller scientists elected to Institute of Medicine Rockefeller University scientists Robert B Darnell head of the Laboratory of Molecular Neuro oncology and Titia de Lange head of the Laboratory of Cell Biology and Genetics have been elected to the Institute of Medicine the health and medicine branch of the National Academy of Sciences More Tags Laboratory of Cell Biology and Genetics Laboratory of Molecular Neuro oncology Robert B Darnell Titia de Lange April 21 2010 Awards and Honors Titia de Lange receives AACR Clowes Award Titia de Lange is the 50th annual recipient of the American Association of Cancer Research s award to an individual with outstanding recent accomplishments in basic cancer research More Tags American Association for Cancer Research G H A Clowes Memorial Award Laboratory of Cell Biology and Genetics Titia de Lange December 23 2009 Awards and Honors Titia de Lange awarded grant named American Cancer Society Research Professor The head of Rockefeller University s Laboratory of Cell Biology and Genetics has received a 400 000 grant from the American Cancer Society and has been named an American Cancer Society Research Professor

    Original URL path: http://newswire.rockefeller.edu/tag/laboratory-of-cell-biology-and-genetics/ (2016-02-13)
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  • telomeres | Newswire
    their DNA The work suggests a mechanism by which 10 to 15 percent of human cancers develop More Tags cancer telomeres Titia de Lange July 9 2009 Science News Handle with care Telomeres resemble DNA fragile sites Although telomeres are fragile they don t have to be handled with care Researchers at Rockefeller University now show that what keeps our fragile telomeres from falling apart is a protein known as TRF1 that ensures the smooth progression of DNA replication to the end of a chromosome The work not only shows how telomeres help chromosomes protect their vulnerable ends but also reveals how the genome is made more stable by them More Tags telomeres Titia de Lange October 24 2008 Science News Scientists discover how a well known protein repairs broken DNA ends In the first ever study to film live footage of protected and unprotected telomeres scientists have discovered how a protein called 53BP1 helps fuse dangly DNA ends in need of repair The findings could change how scientists think about double stranded DNA breaks the most lethal type of DNA damage and also leads to new insights about how the human immune system adapts to new threats More Tags DNA repair telomeres July 30 2008 Science News Eroded telomeres are behind a rare premature aging syndrome At a time when the world seems to be age obsessed researchers at Rockefeller University reveal the molecular defect behind a rare yet fatal premature aging syndrome findings that may ultimately help scientists disentangle which genes play a role in the normal aging process from those involved in age related disease More Tags dyskeratosis congentia telomeres Titia de Lange January 18 2008 Science News Mammalian protein plays unexpected role in cell division and perhaps cancer In yeast the protein Tel2 regulates the length of telomeres DNA sequences that protect the ends of linear chromosomes But in humans and mice Tel2 does nothing of the sort Instead researchers at Rockefeller University are the first to show that mammalian Tel2 prevents the degradation of a family of six proteins that primarily regulate cell division and proliferation an unexpected role that may be linked to cancer More Tags cell division telomeres Titia de Lange August 9 2007 Science News Two proteins found on telomeres control DNA damage response pathways The shelterin complex which binds specifically to telomeres has a built in mechanism to repress DNA damage response pathways at chromosome ends More Tags telomeres Titia de Lange November 10 2006 Science News Living cells prosper without telomeres In most cells telomeres are a critical protection against death If these caps at the ends of chromosomes fail the cell s life is cut short But what s true for most cells isn t true for all cells and a surprising new finding from Rockefeller University shows that cells in the livers of living mice have the remarkable ability to function without telomeres More Tags telomeres Titia de Lange August 2 2006 Science News Evidence of rapid evolution

    Original URL path: http://newswire.rockefeller.edu/tag/telomeres/ (2016-02-13)
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  • Titia de Lange | Newswire
    a crucial role in such processes as ageing and cancer More Tags Dr H P Heineken Prize for Biochemistry and Biophysics Titia de Lange February 22 2011 Awards and Honors Titia de Lange receives 2011 Vilcek Prize in Biomedical Science Rockefeller researcher is honored for her research on mechanisms that help maintain genome stability More Tags Laboratory of Cell Biology and Genetics Titia de Lange Vilcek Prize October 11 2010 Awards and Honors Two Rockefeller scientists elected to Institute of Medicine Rockefeller University scientists Robert B Darnell head of the Laboratory of Molecular Neuro oncology and Titia de Lange head of the Laboratory of Cell Biology and Genetics have been elected to the Institute of Medicine the health and medicine branch of the National Academy of Sciences More Tags Laboratory of Cell Biology and Genetics Laboratory of Molecular Neuro oncology Robert B Darnell Titia de Lange July 2 2010 Awards and Honors Rockefeller postdoc named finalist for Blavatnik Awards for Young Scientists Agnel Sfeir a postdoctoral fellow in Titia de Lange s Laboratory of Cell Biology and Genetics has been named a finalist in the fourth annual Blavatnik Awards for Young Scientists competition which recognizes the contributions of young scientists and engineers in New York New Jersey and Connecticut More Tags Agnel Sfeir Blavatnik Awards Laboratory of Neurogenetics and Behavior Leslie B Vosshall Titia de Lange April 21 2010 Awards and Honors Titia de Lange receives AACR Clowes Award Titia de Lange is the 50th annual recipient of the American Association of Cancer Research s award to an individual with outstanding recent accomplishments in basic cancer research More Tags American Association for Cancer Research G H A Clowes Memorial Award Laboratory of Cell Biology and Genetics Titia de Lange December 23 2009 Awards and Honors Titia de Lange awarded grant named American Cancer Society Research Professor The head of Rockefeller University s Laboratory of Cell Biology and Genetics has received a 400 000 grant from the American Cancer Society and has been named an American Cancer Society Research Professor The five year grant which is effective January 1 2010 will fund de Lange s continuing research on telomeres the strings of extra DNA that cap and protect the ends of chromosomes through numerous cycles of cell division More Tags Laboratory of Cell Biology and Genetics Titia de Lange July 9 2009 Science News Handle with care Telomeres resemble DNA fragile sites Although telomeres are fragile they don t have to be handled with care Researchers at Rockefeller University now show that what keeps our fragile telomeres from falling apart is a protein known as TRF1 that ensures the smooth progression of DNA replication to the end of a chromosome The work not only shows how telomeres help chromosomes protect their vulnerable ends but also reveals how the genome is made more stable by them More Tags telomeres Titia de Lange October 24 2008 Science News A new role for a critical DNA molecule in the immune system Researchers find that

    Original URL path: http://newswire.rockefeller.edu/tag/titia-de-lange/ (2016-02-13)
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  • New research explores how the fly brain reroutes odor information to produce flexible behavior | Newswire
    to dopamine producing neurons pink and to output neurons green which signal to other parts of the brain The Kenyon cell makes connections bright dots to these other neurons as it travels through the mushroom body Even though they come from the same cell the signals sent out vary depending on the location of the connection To better understand the activity of dopamine neurons within the mushroom body the researchers gave the flies positive and negative stimuli When they received sugar left on screen the neurons in the second two compartments became active red meanwhile the first two compartments responded to the shock right A similar pattern emerged even without a stimulus Dopamine neurons in opposing compartments became active when the fly was still versus flailing its legs suggesting the activity of dopamine neurons reflects a fly s internal state not just external factors Ultimately they found that activity by dopamine neurons in particular compartments top switches on Kenyon cell connections middle rerouting information to the output neurons bottom This alters the messages relayed to other parts of the brain and potentially a response to an odor When we took a close look at a region of the fly brain involved in processing odor we saw that the release of dopamine within it can alter the strength of connections between neurons with exquisite precision says senior author Vanessa Ruta Gabrielle H Reem and Herbert J Kayden Assistant Professor and head of the Laboratory of Neurophysiology and Behavior This has the effect of altering the messages relayed to other parts of the brain which could in turn lead to different responses to identical odors The region known as the mushroom body because of its shape is responsible for a fly s ability to learn to associate an odor with a reward or a punishment Ruta first author Raphael Cohn a graduate student in the lab and co author Ianessa Morrante were also interested in how the animal s internal state whether it was active or quiet for instance might influence dopamine and as a result information processing The simple wiring of the fly s mushroom body made it an ideal subject a similar study would have been very challenging in the more complex mammalian brain Signals from the fly s nose its antennae travel into the mushroom body via the branches of neurons known as Kenyon cells These branches traverse distinct compartments and within each compartment they connect both with dopamine producing neurons and with output neurons which signal to other parts of the brain While the human brain does not have a mushroom body it does have dopamine This neurotransmitter is present throughout the animal kingdom and is known to play a number of important roles in human brain function including in learning and motivation where it functions as a neuromodulator In their experiments Ruta and her collaborators found that dopamine neurons reaching into two of four compartments became active when the fly was given a tasty sugar solution while

    Original URL path: http://newswire.rockefeller.edu/2015/12/17/new-research-explores-how-the-fly-brain-reroutes-odor-information-to-produce-flexible-behavior/ (2016-02-13)
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  • Widespread skewed expression of mRNA components correlate with fine tuning of protein production | Newswire
    sugar backbone It has long been assumed that all three stick together within a single mRNA molecule Lopsided ratios Similar red or green skewed patterns evidence of disparities in the expression of 3 UTR sequences versus coding sequences respectively appeared for other genes and in other tissues The image above shows the differential expression of components of mRNA for actin a motility and structural protein in the chest region of a mouse embryo Using a technique developed at Rockefeller called translating ribosome affinity purification TRAP Hynes team isolated purified mRNA from dopamine neurons of embryonic mice With a browser that shows the region of an mRNA that is expressed they made the surprising observation that a number of genes in dopamine neurons showed abundant expression of 3 UTR mRNA sequences and little to no expression of the coding region of these mRNAs This was true for instance of two genes in the Sox family Sox11 and Sox12 which are known to help determine the fate of cells during development This contradicted the common thinking that once an mRNA is transcribed from a gene the 5 and 3 UTRs and the coding regions act as a unit until protein is produced and the mRNA is degraded An earlier study had noted similar disparities but did not explore the biological implications and its data did not get widespread attention Hynes and her colleagues took the next step asking Why then would a cell make abundant levels of 3 UTR sequence and no coding sequence since protein cannot be made without the coding sequence To verify the findings and understand if this was restricted to dopamine neurons development or the nervous system the team used green probes to mark coding sequences and red to mark the 3 UTRs of 19 genes in embryonic and adult tissue Based on prior understanding it was expected that every cell in the tissue should show up as either yellow when both are expressed or black when neither are Hynes says But to our surprise when we examined Sox11 mRNA in the brain we found many neurons that were red or expressing mostly UTR as well as many that were green or expressing mostly coding sequences They went on to show that this was true for every gene they examined and that differential expression of UTR and coding sequences occurs in the embryo in the adult and outside of the nervous system Even widely expressed genes such as beta actin a protein necessary for cell movement and structure show differences in UTR and coding sequence expression they found When they took protein expression into account they found that the higher the ratio of expression of 3 UTR to coding sequence the lower the level of protein suggesting high levels of 3 UTR might be somehow involved in turning down the dial on protein production However it s not clear how this might happen Hynes says Next they focused back on the developing dopamine neurons and the nine thousand

    Original URL path: http://newswire.rockefeller.edu/2015/12/16/widespread-skewed-expression-of-mrna-components-correlate-with-fine-tuning-of-protein-production/ (2016-02-13)
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