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  • Research on the genetic roots of a blood disorder illustrates the challenges in parsing genetic data | Newswire
    Individuals with deleterious mutations in both copies of either gene have a rare disorder of their blood platelets the cell fragments that prevent bleeding termed Glanzmann thrombasthenia Roughly 10 percent of the amino acid building blocks in these proteins were affected by the discovered mutations The authors then used three different commonly used algorithms to try to predict the proportion of these DNA variants that are likely to have a negative impact on health by causing excess bleeding They got a wide range of results Depending on the algorithm and other variables between 27 and 71 percent of mutations were predicted to be harmful the authors report To test the validity of the predictions Buitrago made three of the variants in a cell line and examined whether they affected the production or function of the receptor Two variants that the algorithms predicted would be deleterious did indeed severely affect production of the receptor For the third variant the algorithms were split on whether it was deleterious in Buitrago s experiment this variant caused a partial decrease in the production of the receptor but did not harm its function In essence the algorithms collectively got the right answer Buitrago says It was also really striking that in such a large population we didn t find any of the more than 100 previously reported disease causing mutations in these two genes Coller says This means the disease causing mutations previously reported are very rare and thus probably first appeared relatively recently that is in the past several hundred years The results show how challenging it can be to interpret genetic data adds Coller Some variants of these two genes will likely be obviously deleterious but it may be impossible to predict whether others are deleterious says Coller also the David Rockefeller Professor

    Original URL path: http://newswire.rockefeller.edu/2015/04/14/research-on-the-genetic-roots-of-a-blood-disorder-illustrates-the-challenges-in-parsing-genetic-data/ (2016-02-13)
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  • In first human study, new antibody therapy shows promise in suppressing HIV infection | Newswire
    some 10 to 30 percent of people with HIV but only after several years of infection By that time the virus in their bodies has typically evolved to escape even these powerful antibodies However by isolating and then cloning these antibodies researchers are able to harness them as therapeutic agents against HIV infections that have had less time to prepare Earlier work in the Nussenzweig lab had demonstrated that these potent antibodies could prevent or suppress infection in mouse and non human primate models of HIV But these animal models are very rough approximations of human infections explains Caskey The mice must be genetically engineered to be susceptible to HIV and therefore lack an intact immune system and the primates used in HIV studies can only be infected with a simian version of the virus The proof of principle awaited human trials In the new study uninfected and HIV infected individuals were intravenously given a single dose of the antibody and monitored for 56 days At the highest dosage level tested in the study 30 milligrams per kilogram of weight all eight infected individuals treated showed up to 300 fold decreases in the amount of virus measured in their blood with most reaching their lowest viral load one week after treatment The drop in viral load depended on the individual s starting viral load and also the sensitivity of their particular strains of HIV to the antibody This is the first time that the new generation of HIV antibodies has been tested in humans Not only was a single dose of 3BN117 well tolerated and effective in temporarily reducing viral loads in some individuals it remained active in the body for a long time In half of the individuals receiving the highest dose viral loads remained below starting levels even at the end of the 8 week study period and resistance to 3BNC117 did not occur Researchers also believe that antibodies may be able to enhance the patient s immune responses against HIV which can in turn lead to better control of the infection In addition antibodies like 3BNC117 may be able to kill viruses hidden in infected cells which serve as viral reservoirs inaccessible to current antiretroviral drugs Most likely 3BNC117 like other anti retrovirals will need to be used in combination with other antibodies or antiretroviral drugs to keep infections under control One antibody alone like one drug alone will not be sufficient to suppress viral load for a long time because resistance will arise says Caskey One important benefit is the dosing schedule an antibody therapy for HIV might require treatment just once every few months compared to daily regimens of antiretroviral drugs that are now the front line treatment for HIV In contrast to conventional antiretroviral therapy antibody mediated therapy can also engage the patient s immune cells which can help to better neutralize the virus says co first author Florian Klein also assistant professor of clinical investigation in the Nussenzweig laboratory Besides the possibility of

    Original URL path: http://newswire.rockefeller.edu/2015/04/08/in-first-human-study-new-antibody-therapy-shows-promise-in-suppressing-hiv-infection/ (2016-02-13)
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  • AIDS | Newswire
    therapy shows promise in suppressing HIV infection In the first results to emerge from HIV patient trials of a new generation of so called broadly neutralizing antibodies Rockefeller University researchers have found the experimental therapy can dramatically reduce the amount of virus present in a patient s blood The work reported this week in Nature brings fresh optimism to the field of HIV immunotherapy and suggests new strategies for fighting or even preventing HIV infection More Tags AIDS broadly neutralizing antibodies clinical trial HIV infectious disease Michel C Nussenzweig February 25 2015 Science News Research captures transient details of HIV genome packaging Researchers have employed a recently developed technique to capture how a viral protein Gag selectively extracts and packages viral RNA into the viral particles that exported to new cells More Tags Aaron Diamond AIDS Research Center AIDS Gag Gag protein HIV Paul Bieniasz viral replication August 14 2014 Science News Antibodies together with viral inducers found to control HIV in mice A new strategy devised by researchers at Rockefeller University harnesses the power of broadly neutralizing antibodies along with a combination of compounds that induce viral transcription in order to attack latent reservoirs of HIV infected cells in

    Original URL path: http://newswire.rockefeller.edu/tag/aids/ (2016-02-13)
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  • Under the microscope, strong-swimming swamp bacteria spontaneously organize into crystals | Newswire
    up to 60 body lengths per second while rotating rapidly these microbes propel themselves using whip like flagella that cover their surfaces But in its natural habitat deep in marsh water these microbes don t travel much They tether themselves to a surface and use their flagella to generate a current strong enough to pull in the nutrients they need sulfides from rotting organic matter and oxygen used to burn the sulfides What one cell can do many can do much better and in previous work Libchaber and postdoc Alexander Petroff examined how groups of tethered Thiovulum organize and reorganize themselves so as to pull in more nutrients Because this microbe can generate so much force with its flagella we became curious about what dynamics might emerge when many swim freely together Petroff says of the investigation which began when study co author Xiao Lun Wu of the University of Pittsburg was visiting After we put an enriched culture of Thiovulum under a microscope this beautiful structure appeared Researchers set about determining the balance of physical forces that explain how the microbes organize themselves into crystals When placed in an observation chamber within a microscope slide the microbes swam either up or down until they collided with the glass But even then they kept on swimming like flies trying to escape through a closed window Petroff says Swimming in place the cells draw water toward then up and around themselves creating a tornado like flow This flow pulls in nearby cells which cluster together in a shifting two dimensional lattice that is similar to the three dimensional pattern that defines crystals Within the lattice each cell has six immediate neighbors creating a hexagonal pattern that appears frequently in nature including among penguins packing together for warmth and in the chambers

    Original URL path: http://newswire.rockefeller.edu/2015/04/06/under-the-microscope-strong-swimming-swamp-bacteria-spontaneously-organize-into-crystals/ (2016-02-13)
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  • Albert Libchaber | Newswire
    form a two dimensional lattice of rotating cells Not only is this the first known example of bacteria spontaneously creating such a pattern never before have living things been seen to move together in this way More Tags Albert Libchaber Alex Petroff collective dynamics hexagonal lattice Laboratory of Experimental Condensed Matter Physics Thiovulum majus Search for Categories Science News Awards and Honors Campus News Grants Gifts Topics Video Archive 2015

    Original URL path: http://newswire.rockefeller.edu/tag/albert-libchaber/ (2016-02-13)
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  • Laboratory of Experimental Condensed Matter Physics | Newswire
    majus can form a two dimensional lattice of rotating cells Not only is this the first known example of bacteria spontaneously creating such a pattern never before have living things been seen to move together in this way More Tags Albert Libchaber Alex Petroff collective dynamics hexagonal lattice Laboratory of Experimental Condensed Matter Physics Thiovulum majus Search for Categories Science News Awards and Honors Campus News Grants Gifts Topics Video

    Original URL path: http://newswire.rockefeller.edu/tag/laboratory-of-experimental-condensed-matter-physics/ (2016-02-13)
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  • Intellectual property on pediatric cancer is dedicated to the public | Newswire
    Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center also significantly contributed was accomplished using tissue samples donated for research by young people who had undergone surgery for fibrolamellar hepatocellular cancer Financial support was provided by families and friends of young people whose lives had been touched by the disease and by generous research funding from the Fibrolamellar Cancer Foundation Additional support was also provided by the Howard Hughes Medical Institute the New York Genome Center The Rockefeller University Center for Clinical and Translational Science and by a gift to The Rockefeller University by an anonymous donor The finding of this previously undiscovered mutation represents the best of what can be accomplished when scientists cross institutional boundaries and join forces to generate genomic discovery says Russ Carson chair of The Rockefeller University s Board and co chair of the New York Genome Center s Board The institutions who today donate this intellectual property to the public firmly believe that making the technology freely available is in the best interests of the patients families and philanthropists whose support made its discovery possible About The Rockefeller University The Rockefeller University is one of the world s foremost biomedical research institutes and is dedicated to conducting innovative high quality research to improve the understanding of life for the benefit of humanity Founded in 1901 The Rockefeller Institute for Medical Research was the country s first institution devoted exclusively to biomedical research In the 1950s the Institute expanded its mission to include graduate education and began training new generations of scientists to become research leaders around the world In 1965 it was renamed The Rockefeller University Its more than 70 laboratories conduct biological and biomedical research and a community of over 2 000 faculty students postdocs technicians clinicians and administrative personnel work at the University s 14 acre

    Original URL path: http://newswire.rockefeller.edu/2015/04/02/intellectual-property-on-pediatric-cancer-is-dedicated-to-the-public/ (2016-02-13)
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  • Public Affairs | Newswire
    therapies for the devastating disease More July 29 2014 Public Affairs Medical innovation requires federal support and structural improvements Marc Tessier Lavigne tells members of Congress Speaking at a hearing on public versus private contributions to medical breakthroughs Rockefeller s president explained the ecosystem responsible for taking a biological insight on for example how tumors spread and turning it into a treatment that improves or saves lives He also offered

    Original URL path: http://newswire.rockefeller.edu/category/public-affairs/ (2016-02-13)
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