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  • Special Proteins Transmit Signals Within Cells | Newswire
    many areas of disease development in which signaling through SH domains occurs such as cancer diabetes and autoimmune disease In the probe studies Cowburn and his colleagues built several that could find and bind to two SH domains SH2 and SH3 Both domains frequently occur in proteins involved in cancer diabetes and autoimmune disease For the experiments the scientists used the versions of SH2 and SH3 found in an enzyme Ableson kinase Abl which if mutated can cause a form of leukemia SH2 and SH3 domains usually occur next to each other but have different functions Often the first step of signal transmission inside a cell the flicking of a molecular switch from off to on is the addition of a highly charged phosphate group to a tyrosine one of the 20 amino acids that make proteins As SH2 domains bind to phosphorylated tyrosines they register that the molecular switch is tripped and move the signal further along in the cell The function of SH3 domains is less well understood although they are known to bind to short proteins rich in proline another amino acid In the case of Ableson kinase if the enzyme is mutated the SH2 domain is required to make the protein one that causes cancer while the SH 3 domain tries to inhibit or regulate the enzyme The normal function of Ableson kinase is not known Two constraints in studying SH2 and SH3 domains are that they have a range of individual specificities and they can permit large proteins to form many associations Because such interactions are important in explaining the complete activities of the signal process a detailed structural picture of the molecular organization of the SH2 and SH3 domains is a significant research goal Cowburn notes In his laboratory Cowburn and his collaborators at

    Original URL path: http://newswire.rockefeller.edu/1995/11/30/special-proteins-transmit-signals-within-cells/ (2016-02-13)
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  • David Cowburn | Newswire
    for developing compounds to switch cell suicideon or off to treat these diseases More Tags Bcl 2 David Cowburn programmed cell death November 30 1995 Science News Special Proteins Transmit Signals Within Cells Special proteins play a key role in receiving and sending messages that influence the careers of healthy and diseased cells In an innovative laboratory approach Rockefeller University scientists developed probes that reveal the shape structure and function

    Original URL path: http://newswire.rockefeller.edu/tag/david-cowburn/ (2016-02-13)
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  • Flu Vaccines, Cell Growth, DNA and Psoriasis: A Day of Virology and Cell Biology | Newswire
    m to 5 p m Where Caspary Auditorium at The Rockefeller University 1230 York Ave New York City What kind of flu vaccine does a better job than natural immunity or an inactivated virus vaccine How do genes tell a cell to stop growing How does a virus gets its genetic material into the DNA of a host cell What cellular combat occurs during an outbreak of the skin disease psoriasis These topics and others are among the presentations by scientists from around the world participating in the Igor Tamm Memorial Symposium at Rockefeller University The late Igor Tamm M D Abby Rockefeller Mauze Professor at the university pioneered the study of biochemistry and replication of viruses Among his contributions are how RNA plays a role in the replication of DNA viruses that double stranded RNA is the genetic material of reoviruses and the production of interferons by virus infected cells An agenda of the meeting is attached and abstracts are available To attend the symposium or pursue related stories please call Joe Bonner of The Rockefeller University Office of Public Affairs at 212 327 7900 Tags Igor Tamm Memorial Symposium newswire rockefeller edu Epstein Kandel and Kissinger Join Rockefeller

    Original URL path: http://newswire.rockefeller.edu/1995/11/23/flu-vaccines-cell-growth-dna-and-psoriasis-a-day-of-virology-and-cell-biology/ (2016-02-13)
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  • Igor Tamm Memorial Symposium | Newswire
    a cell to stop growing How does a virus gets its genetic material into the DNA of a host cell What cellular combat occurs during an outbreak of the skin disease psoriasis These topics and others are among the presentations by scientists from around the world participating in the Igor Tamm Memorial Symposium at Rockefeller University Thurs Nov 30 1995 More Tags Igor Tamm Memorial Symposium Search for Categories Science

    Original URL path: http://newswire.rockefeller.edu/tag/igor-tamm-memorial-symposium/ (2016-02-13)
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  • Epstein, Kandel and Kissinger Join Rockefeller University Board of Trustees | Newswire
    health and disease says Torsten Wiesel M D president of the university Epstein President of J Epstein Co a private holding company Epstein is the director of the Wexner Foundation and of the Wexner Heritage Foundation Epstein also is the president of the New Albany Property Company in New Albany Ohio He is a member of the Trilateral Commission and the Charles Darwin Society of the New York Academy of Science Epstein studied physics at Cooper Union in New York and then joined Bear Stearns becoming a limited partner until 1981 Kandel Kandel University Professor in the Columbia University Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biophysics and a senior investigator at the Howard Hughes Medical Institute studies the molecular basis of memory and learning He received the National Medical of Science the Albert Lasker Basic Medical Research Award and many other honors Kandel received a bachelor of arts degree in 1952 from Harvard College and a medical degree from the New York University School of Medicine NYU in 1956 He completed a residency in psychiatry at the Massachusetts Mental Health Center Harvard Medical School later joining the center as a junior faculty member He returned to NYU in 1965 as an associate professor becoming professor and head of the Division of Neurobiology and Behavior in 1968 Kandel moved to the College of Physicians and Surgeons at Columbia in 1974 where he founded the Center for Neurobiology and Behavior which he directed until 1983 when he became University Professor Kissinger Kissinger is a member of the board of overseers of the Nelson A Rockefeller Institute of Government at the State University of New York Albany She is a trustee of the MacKay Shields MainStay Series Fund and Tax Free Bond Fund of the Animal Medical Center and of The Masters School She

    Original URL path: http://newswire.rockefeller.edu/1995/11/22/epstein-kandel-and-kissinger-join-rockefeller-university-board-of-trustees/ (2016-02-13)
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  • Board of Trustees | Newswire
    institution specializing in biomedical research More Tags Board of Trustees David H Koch Walter E Massey November 22 1995 Campus News Epstein Kandel and Kissinger Join Rockefeller University Board of Trustees The board of trustees of Rockefeller University has elected investor Jeffrey E Epstein neurobiologist Eric R Kandel M D and Nancy M Kissinger M A as new members More Tags Board of Trustees Search for Categories Science News Awards

    Original URL path: http://newswire.rockefeller.edu/tag/board-of-trustees/ (2016-02-13)
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  • Circadian Rhythm Set by Pairing of Two Proteins | Newswire
    genes but the cells inthe fly s brain set the body s clock The two genes become active at midday explains collaborator Amita Sehgal Ph D of the Department of Neuroscienceand Center for Sleep and Respiratory Neurobiology at the University ofPennsylvania School of Medicine In the cell s nucleus the genes DNA codeis transcribed into two RNA molecules per RNA and tim RNA whichaccumulate over several hours in the cell At dusk the levels of RNAs peak and only then does the cell use the RNAs tostockpile PER and TIM proteins In the evening the proteins join and crossinto the cell s nucleus About four hours before dawn the PER and presumably TIM proteins in the nucleus reach their maximum amounts anachievement that signals the per and tim genes to stop making theRNA Near dawn the nuclear proteins begin disintegrating the cycle beginsagain and throughout the daylight hours the per and tim genesproduce new RNA to make replacement proteins The pace of the clock appears to stem from the gradual coordinatedaccumulation of the tim and per RNAs during several hours aswell as from the attraction of the PER and TIM proteins for each other Youngreports The PER and TIM proteins have an affinity for each other but it is not astrong link Young says Only if the two proteins are available insufficient quantities do they begin to bind Most importantly the proteins canonly survive and enter the cell nucleus when they are bound to each other Therefore about six to eight hours lapse between the time of peak RNAaccumulation which occurs around dusk and the peak in the nuclear proteinlevels shortly before dawn This pattern of late binding of the proteins sets up daily cycles of RNA andprotein production because only after the bound proteins enter the cellnucleus can they turn off further synthesis of RNA from the per and tim genes Further evidence of the power of the binding pattern comesfrom studies of mutant fruit flies who have 29 hour body clocks that slow evenfurther when their temperature rises Young and his colleagues found thatthese flies have a mutated form of the PER protein that binds improperly to theTIM protein The two proteins bind more poorly as temperatures rise consequently delaying the PER protein s entry into the nucleus and slowing theclock Additional mechanisms and other as yet unidentified proteins also mayinfluence the interaction between the PER and TIM proteins which could affectthe timing Young adds For example scientists know that light affectscircadian rhythms and Young notes evidence exists that the PER TIM proteinunion is affected by light This sensitivity may help explain how body clocksare reset after a period of jet lag that occurs as a traveler crosses timezones In addition the scientists are searching for the genes of the human bodyclock In general the genes that control fundamental body mechanisms arepassed on in evolution Young explains Now that we know the mechanisms inthe fly s body clock that produce the TIM and PER proteins and the feedbackloops

    Original URL path: http://newswire.rockefeller.edu/1995/11/02/circadian-rhythm-set-by-pairing-of-two-proteins/ (2016-02-13)
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  • Leptin Helps Body Regulate Fat, Links to Diet | Newswire
    that less leptin is made and available to signal the brain Friedman says This reduction may contribute to increased hunger and slower metabolism If this is true leptin therapy may help people maintain weight loss after dieting However we first must continue with studies to determine the safety of leptin as a possible therapy The researchers previously published a study documenting a 30 percent weight loss in genetically obese mice given daily injections of leptin for two weeks While receiving leptin the mice ate less and increased their use of energy The instructions to make leptin are found in the obese ob gene Friedman and his colleagues cloned the ob gene in mice in 1994 and reported in July 1995 that it makes leptin which is produced only in fat and then is released into the blood stream The findings reported in the Nature Medicine article stem from studies in people mice and rats by scientists at Rockefeller HHMI Brookwood Biomedical Medical Center Cedar Siani Medical Center and the National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases NIDDK NIDDK supported the research along with the U S Public Health Service and the American Heart Association The research contributes to a growing understanding of the causes of obesity which affects one in three Americans Obesity being more than 20 percent above a healthy weight is a major risk factorfor diabetes heart disease high blood pressure stroke sleep apnea gallstones some cancers and forms of arthritis In the United States 50 million adults are obese according to NIDDK In the study investigators found that in general the greater the body mass and percent of fat the higher the levels of leptin In people the amount of leptin in blood highly correlated to a person s percent of body fat and his or her body mass index BMI a measurement of kilograms meter 2 However the leptin level varied greatly from person to person For example the amount of leptin for some obese patients with BMIs larger than 40 was the same as for patients with BMIs less than 20 Women had significantly more leptin than men However when compared by percent of body fat women and men had similar leptin levels The greater absolute leptin levels in women reflects that they have higher body fat content than men Friedman explains In the animal studies the scientists again found that leptin levels related to BMIs Specifically when the researchers compared normal weight mice from the same litters to four kinds of genetically overweight mice the leptin levels were 10 times greater in diabetic db and yellow agouti A y mutant mice five fold more in fat mutant mice and twice as high in tubby tub mutant mice Also three strains of overweight nonmutant mice had increased leptin levels ranging from 25 to seven times more than littermates Leptin levels in fatty fa mutant rats were 50 times greater than that of non mutant litter mates Dieting decreased leptin levels in the 13

    Original URL path: http://newswire.rockefeller.edu/1995/10/31/leptin-helps-body-regulate-fat-links-to-diet/ (2016-02-13)
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