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  • Newswire
    Allis and his colleagues chemical modifications to specific amino acids on histone tails act like flags to direct the docking of other proteins that open up the DNA coils and provide access to genes Chemical modifications of histones were first identified by Rockefeller scientist Vincent G Allfrey in the early 1960s The ability of histones to interpret the genetic code may help explain why not all inheritable traits can be

    Original URL path: http://newswire.rockefeller.edu/topics/histones/ (2016-02-13)
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  • Newswire
    basic drive to eat Differences in this molecular system which is composed of many other factors also explain why some people are prone to obesity while others are not Leptin is encoded by a gene called obese ob Studies at Rockefeller have shown that mice which are genetically altered to lack ob and thus do not produce leptin are massively obese weighing as much as three times as normal Moreover mice that are injected with synthetic leptin become more active and lose weight Human studies have confirmed the importance of the hormone people lacking leptin eat copious amounts and are massively obese Leptin treatment of these individuals meanwhile leads to substantial weight loss Similar effects have been observed after leptin treatment of humans with leptin mutations who are also massively obese prior to treatment However mutations in the leptin gene are rare and most obese patients actually have high levels of leptin and are resistant to it Ongoing studies seek to explain why some people are leptin sensitive and lean and others are leptin resistant and obese The discovery of leptin from the Greek work leptos or thin as well as the discovery of the ob gene was made by Rockefeller University s Jeffrey Friedman and colleagues in 1994 Prior to Friedman s research little was known about the components of the biologic system that controls weight and many scientists questioned the very existence of such a homeostatic system The discovery of leptin provided a genetic explanation of obesity and has challenged the popular belief that lack of willpower causes people to be obese In addition to its effects on weight leptin also has powerful effects on reproduction metabolism other endocrine systems and even immune function Leptin also has provided a new means for treating several metabolic conditions such as

    Original URL path: http://newswire.rockefeller.edu/topics/leptin/ (2016-02-13)
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  • Newswire
    molecules carbohydrates and lipids across the nuclear membrane The average vertebrate cell nucleus is studded with about 2 000 nuclear pore complexes Given the central role of the nuclear pore complex in the most basic cell processes defects in its assembly structure and function can have lethal consequences Its proteins have been associated with viral infection primary biliary cirrhosis and cancer An understanding of how the complex works could lead to treatments for these diseases and also help explain the evolutionary leap that led to the development of the gene protecting nucleus itself Recent research in the labs of Rockefeller University scientists Günter Blobel Brian T Chait and Michael P Rout suggests that all eukaryotes share a common architecture for the nuclear pore complex and the vehicles that transport cargo between different parts of the cell called coated vesicles As early as 1980 Blobel proposed that the internal membranes of cells such as those encompassing the nucleus and vesicles evolved from invaginations of the outer cell membrane More recently Rout and Chait suggested that the nuclear pore complex and vesicle coats which both contain α solenoid and β propeller protein folds evolved from ancient molecules called protocoatomers that stabilized the

    Original URL path: http://newswire.rockefeller.edu/topics/nuclearporecomplex/ (2016-02-13)
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  • Newswire
    several Rockefeller labs that work with small RNAs Thomas Tuschl s was the first to show that a gene silencing mechanism based on siRNAs called RNA interference exists in mammalian cells a discovery that helped create an entire industry of producing small RNAs and exploring their therapeutic applications Tuschl also identified the now well known molecules called microRNAs the natural small RNA occupants of the RNA silencing machinery which work by binding to messenger RNAs and either targeting them for destruction or inhibiting them from making proteins Tuschl and his colleagues have gone on to create a microRNA atlas that defines microRNA gene expression in both healthy and diseased tissues Later Tuschl discovered a class of small RNAs called piRNAs which are believed to play a major role in the development of the cells that pass genetic information from father to offspring Among those working to harness the power of small RNAs to treat disease Rockefeller s Robert B Darnell and his colleagues decoded a map of microRNA messenger RNA interactions in the brain using a technique that molecularly cements proteins to RNAs The advance suggests targets that could be used to silence trouble making genes linked to human brain

    Original URL path: http://newswire.rockefeller.edu/topics/smallRNAs/ (2016-02-13)
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  • Newswire
    of an organism capable of specializing into several cell types in order to repair injuries or regenerate blood tissues or organs as needed Researchers are actively investigating stem cells for their potential to repair damaged or diseased organs and spinal cord injuries among other applications Two human embryonic stem cell lines derived by Rockefeller University scientists were among the first 13 human embryonic stem cell lines approved for use in research funded by the National Institutes of Health under the NIH Guidelines for Human Stem Cell Research issued in July 2009 The two lines called RUES1 and RUES2 were derived by Ali H Brivanlou in 2005 using private funds provided by the Juvenile Diabetes Research Foundation Brivanlou has made numerous discoveries about what guides the early differentiation of embryonic stem cells in mammals and amphibians into the organs and systems that constitute the organism Rockefeller s Elaine Fuchs primarily studies adult stem cells namely hair follicle stems cells in mice as a model system for how stem cells of all types are able to rejuvenate tissues throughout life and also repair them after injury Several other Rockefeller labs are also exploring how stem cells work as well in connection with

    Original URL path: http://newswire.rockefeller.edu/topics/stemcells/ (2016-02-13)
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  • Newswire
    able to disguise themselves from the human immune system they are of substantial interest to immunologists Research has shown that Trypanosoma brucei employs a process known as antigenic variation to quickly switch the antigens that stud its surface Because the body s immune system recognizes pathogens based on their antigens this method effectively renders the parasite undetectable allowing it to repeatedly evade attack Rockefeller University researchers have made several important

    Original URL path: http://newswire.rockefeller.edu/topics/trypanosomes/ (2016-02-13)
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  • 2015 | Newswire | Page 2
    Seventeen Rockefeller scientists are currently members of the academy of medicine More Tags Institute of Medicine Jean Laurent Casanova National Academy of Medicine St Giles Laboratory of Human Genetics of Infectious Diseases October 16 2015 Campus News Helmsley Trust renews 15 million grant for novel digestive disorders research The funding renewal will support research initiatives within Rockefeller s interdisciplinary Center for Basic and Translational Research on Disorders of the Digestive System The center brings together about 20 labs that study a broad range of biological processes related to the digestive system More Tags Barry Coller Barry S Coller Center for Basic and Translational Research on Disorders of the Digestive System grant Leona M and Harry B Helmsley Charitable Trust metabolic disorders Paul Cohen October 15 2015 Campus News New faculty member develops light based tools to study the brain Alipasha Vaziri who was appointed a tenure track associate professor in September seeks to capture and manipulate interactions among neurons within the living brain He uses his background in physics to develop innovative ways of recording neural activity quickly and across large areas all at single cell resolution More Tags Alipasha Vaziri new faculty October 13 2015 Awards and Honors Two Rockefeller postdocs recognized by Blavatnik Regional Awards Hani Goodarzi and Ziv Shulman have been named a winner and a finalist respectively by the Blavatnik Regional Awards which honor outstanding postdoctoral scientists in New York New Jersey and Connecticut Goodarzi is a postdoc in Sohail Tavazoie s lab Shulman a former postdoc in Michel Nussenzweig s lab has since established his own lab at the Weizmann Institute of Science in Israel More Tags Blavatnik Awards Blavatnik Awards for Young Scientists Elizabeth and Vincent Meyer Laboratory of Systems Cancer Biology Hani Goodarzi Laboratory of Molecular Immunology Michel C Nussenzweig Michel Nussenzweig Sohail Tavazoie Ziv Shulman October 8 2015 In the News In the News Bedford Bowery Caspary Is it still chamber music if it s in a space age geodesic dome Tucked into The Rockefeller University s Upper East Side campus is the Caspary Auditorium a 40 foot high 90 foot round dome built in 1957 The dome serves as a meeting and lecture More Tags Caspary Auditorium Peggy Rockefeller Concert Series October 5 2015 Science News Newly described ion channel structure reveals how excited neurons settle down The channel Slo2 2 helps restore neurons internal electrical state and so prevents them from firing at too high a frequency for too long which has the potential to damage the cells With the new information about Slo2 2 s configuration researchers can better understand how it accomplishes this More Tags chemical and structural biology ion channel Laboratory of Molecular Neurobiology and Biophysics neurosciences and behavior Richard Hite Roderick MacKinnon Slo2 2 October 5 2015 Science News Finches offer researchers a new tool to study Huntington s disease The most common lab animals rats and mice can t tell scientists much about speech disorders However a new study shows how songbirds specifically zebra finches

    Original URL path: http://newswire.rockefeller.edu/2015/page/2/ (2016-02-13)
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  • In the News – Scientific American – Greengard turns 90 | Newswire
    took the lead on another paper that describes a protein that plays a key role in producing the toxic peptide implicated in Alzheimer s disease He followed that up in September with a study laying out evidence for what could become a new class of antidepressants On Friday he will pause for a few hours as he celebrates his 90th birthday Tags Laboratory of Molecular and Cellular Neuroscience Paul Greengard

    Original URL path: http://newswire.rockefeller.edu/2015/12/11/in-the-news-scientific-american-greengard-turns-90/ (2016-02-13)
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