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  • Human Genome Project | Newswire
    completion of the Human Genome Project HGP in sight a group of New York City scientists are undertaking a strategic pilot study to turn that knowledge into promising drug targets as quickly as possible More Tags Günter Blobel Human Genome Project pilot project Search for Categories Science News Awards and Honors Campus News Grants Gifts Topics Video Archive 2015 2014 2013 2012 2011 more About Contact Follow rockefelleruniv Like The

    Original URL path: http://newswire.rockefeller.edu/tag/human-genome-project/ (2016-02-13)
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  • Nobel Laureate Blobel to Give First Medicine Prize Lecture Live Online | Newswire
    The Rockefeller University will present his lecture Protein Targeting DATE Wed Dec 8 1999 TIME 8 50 a m EST 2 50 p m Central European Time PLACE On the web at http www nobel se broadcast Other Nobel week events on the web include the lectures in physics by Martinus J G Veltman Ph D and Gerardus t Hooft Ph D which will be Webcast at 3 a m and 4 a m EST respectively on Wed Dec 8 On Fri Dec 10 the Prize Award Ceremony itself will be Webcast live at 10 30 a m EST 4 30 p m Central European Time from the Stockholm Concert Hall All of these events can be viewed at http www nobel se broadcast They will also be available on the Nobel Foundation http www nobel se a few days after the Webcasts Internet users will need the Real Player plug in available as a free download on the Nobel site to watch the Webcasts Click here for more information on protein targeting and translocation http www rockefeller edu pubinfo proteintarget html Tags Günter Blobel nobel prize newswire rockefeller edu Contact Joseph Bonner 212 327 8998 Rockefeller University Cell Biologist

    Original URL path: http://newswire.rockefeller.edu/1999/12/07/nobel-laureate-blobel-to-give-first-medicine-prize-lecture-live-online/ (2016-02-13)
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  • Rockefeller University Cell Biologist, Günter Blobel, Wins 1999 Nobel Prize in Medicine | Newswire
    of proteins to their proper places in the cell is necessary for a cell to function these findings have an immediate bearing on many diseases including cystic fibrosis Alzheimer s disease and AIDS An average cell possesses about a billion protein molecules that exist in thousands of types and constantly need replacement Making proteins and shipping them to appropriate destinations such as the cell s internal organelles is a vital activity in cells Proteins are manufactured by cellular structures called ribosomes Pioneering research by Blobel and his associates revealed how proteins are transported from ribosomes and integrated into other organelles or transported out of the cell Work in Blobel s laboratory revealed the existence of a zip code system in the cell Each newly made protein has an organelle specific address a stretch of the protein referred to as a signal sequence that is recognized by receptors on an organelle s surface Blobel and his colleagues also showed that for at least one organelle called the endoplasmic reticulum the binding of the signal sequence to its receptor opens a watery channel in the membrane through which the protein can travel Blobel now works on identifying similar channels in other organelles Blobel center and members of his lab at Rockefeller University Current research in Blobel s laboratory also explores the movement of proteins across nuclear pore complexes NPCs huge protein units suspended in the circular openings within the membrane of a cell s nucleus NPCs can accommodate the passage of large molecular assemblies such as RNA or DNA bound to proteins Each NPC mediates as many as 10 import and 10 export events per second His laboratory recently determined the three dimensional structure of a complex of transport factors called karyopherin beta 2 which binds to proteins and targets them to

    Original URL path: http://newswire.rockefeller.edu/1999/10/11/rockefeller-university-cell-biologist-gunter-blobel-wins-1999-nobel-prize-in-medicine/ (2016-02-13)
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  • By tracking water molecules, physicists hope to unlock secrets of life | Newswire
    to some of water s most unusual and life sustaining features Kumar and his colleagues first tracked individual water molecules in a supercooled state water that remains in liquid form even at below freezing temperatures during which water s many anomalies are enhanced When you put water in a freezer it doesn t freeze instantaneously says Kumar It takes some time If you have extremely pure water then you can go down to about 230 Kelvin and still have enough time to measure different physical properties of water including the specific heat in its liquid state Kumar and his colleagues then used theoretical and computational approaches to simulate the activity of these water molecules and measure their interactions with neighbors In the liquid state every water molecule fleetingly interacts with its four nearest neighbors forming a tetrahedron explains Kumar These tetrahedrons however are slightly imperfect and the degree to which they are changes as temperature and pressure change ultimately affecting which individual water molecules partner up with each other Kumar found that it is the fluctuations in the degree of tetrahedrality that contribute most to one of water s most notable and valuable features its capacity to resist heating or cooling and thereby regulating and maintaining the temperature of biological systems The ability to measure water s shifting degrees of tetrahedrality also gives scientists a means of measuring how much order or disorder each water molecule imparts The better the tetrahedron the more order it imparts in the system What we have done essentially is define the structural entropy of every molecule in our system says Kumar And since water molecules are constantly moving in space and time this gives you a way to study the transport of entropy associated with local tetrahedrality something that has never been done before

    Original URL path: http://newswire.rockefeller.edu/2010/02/05/by-tracking-water-molecules-physicists-hope-to-unlock-secrets-of-life/ (2016-02-13)
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  • Pradeep Kumar | Newswire
    yet its unusual properties enable and protect life as we know it By tracking individual water molecules in a supercooled state scientists find what explains one of water s most notable and life saving features its astounding capacity to resist gaining or losing heat More Tags Center for Studies in Physics and Biology Pradeep Kumar Search for Categories Science News Awards and Honors Campus News Grants Gifts Topics Video Archive

    Original URL path: http://newswire.rockefeller.edu/tag/pradeep-kumar/ (2016-02-13)
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  • Scientists identify stomach’s timekeepers of hunger | Newswire
    they are not hungry Circadian clocks allow animals to anticipate daily events rather than just react to them notes LeSauter first author of the paper The cells that produce ghrelin have circadian clocks that presumably synchronize the anticipation of food with metabolic cycles The scientists show that the stomach cells release ghrelin into the general circulation before mealtime The hormone triggers a flurry of food seeking behavior such as digging in the bedding around the food hopper and it also stimulates eating These behaviors are part of the subjective experience of hunger LeSauter who spearheaded the project studied genetically engineered mice that lack the receptor that recognizes ghrelin and compared them with normal mice on identical feeding schedules He found that the mice that lack the ghrelin receptor had normal overall activity throughout the day but began to forage for food much later and to a lesser extent than their normal counterparts However when foraging and other anticipatory behaviors actually began foraging increased in a remarkably predictable manner in both sets of mice Pfaff believes that ghrelin which is released from stomach cells and travels through the bloodstream to the brain influences a decision making process in brain cells These brain cells are constantly deciding whether or not to eat and as mealtime draws near the presence of ghrelin increases the proportion of yes decisions We applied mathematics to precise behavioral data and then interpreted them in the context of neurobiology says Pfaff And that s very very rare Previous studies have shown that people given ghrelin injections feel voraciously hungry and eat more at a buffet than they otherwise would The new research suggests that the stomach tells the brain when to eat and establishing a regular meal schedule will regulate the stomach s release of ghrelin If you

    Original URL path: http://newswire.rockefeller.edu/2009/08/13/scientists-identify-stomachs-timekeepers-of-hunger/ (2016-02-13)
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  • hunger | Newswire
    researchers develop drugs that would curb dieters appetites before that first bite More Tags circadian clock hunger January 8 2008 Science News Two forces of arousal converge on the satiety center of the brain The light dark cycle under normal conditions does a pretty good job of regulating mental alertness animals are typically alert during one part of the cycle and not so alert during the other New research from

    Original URL path: http://newswire.rockefeller.edu/tag/hunger/ (2016-02-13)
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  • A snooze button for the circadian clock | Newswire
    proteins in a process called phosphorylation And the protein it phosphorylates called period or PER plays a substantial role in the timing of the clock itself regulating the activity of other genes as it cycles on and off with a 24 hour rhythm Researchers knew DBT played a role in regulating the period protein by attaching phosphates to it But Young s new study shows that DBT can either suppress or activate PER by placing phosphates at different sites With the discovery that DBT has not one but two separate phosphorylation targets on PER came the realization that the enzyme is acting essentially as a switch It s a phosphorylation switch controlled by doubletime that determines whether the protein is active at all Young says During the off phase the cell churns out PER proteins that are stable but inactive kept so by the presence of phosphate groups at that first target site During the on phase the phosphate group in the second target site activates the protein but destabilizes it so that PER is only active for a few hours After that the cell begins accumulating inactive protein again and the cycle begins anew Young and his colleagues also uncovered mutant flies with a DBT dependent accelerated clock Their period proteins were missing the first target phosphorylation site that should suppress phosphorylation of their on switch As a result their period proteins never completely stabilized If you can t phosphorylate the first site you automatically skip to the second site phosphorylate it prematurely and produce a hyperactive repressor Young says With a repressor that acts too soon and goes away too quickly you get a short period phenotype In other words you get a fly that wakes up too soon and falls asleep too early a fly with a

    Original URL path: http://newswire.rockefeller.edu/2008/08/13/a-snooze-button-for-the-circadian-clock/ (2016-02-13)
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