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  • contingency management | Newswire
    the January issue of the Journal of Substance Abuse Treatment Scott Kellogg Ph D and Mary Jeanne Kreek M D at The Rockefeller University and colleagues at the New York City Health and Hospitals Corporation HHC and at Johns Hopkins University show that a treatment approach called contingency management improves patients motivation to stay in treatment and increases their therapeutic progress More Tags addiction contingency management Mary Jeanne Kreek Search

    Original URL path: http://newswire.rockefeller.edu/tag/contingency-management/ (2016-02-13)
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  • New test for drug and alcohol addiction focuses solely on time of heaviest use | Newswire
    and clinicians will find it a welcome addition to their collection of addiction tests Brief addiction tests mainly serve as screening tools and they cannot give an official diagnosis of addiction he said If a brief test suggests that a person is or has been addicted the doctor or clinician would want to follow up with a clinical evaluation before making a formal diagnosis of drug or alcohol dependence Kellogg is part of the research team in the university s Laboratory of Biology of Addictive Diseases which is headed by Mary Jeanne Kreek M D who is also a Senior Physician at The Rockefeller University Hospital Kreek s lab has spent more than three decades studying how drugs and alcohol affect the brain at the molecular and cellular level The new survey called the Kreek McHugh Schluger Kellogg KMSK scale asks six to eight questions about the individual s heaviest period of use of four different substances alcohol tobacco cocaine and heroin opiates To study the effectiveness of the scale Kellogg Kreek and their colleagues compared it with the SCID 1 the lengthy and labor intensive gold standard test that psychiatric and addiction researchers use to make formal diagnoses They recruited 100 volunteers both with and without alcohol and substance use histories and gave each of them the SCID 1 and the KMSK scale for all four substances The results showed that the KMSK scale was very accurate at predicting whether or not an individual had been addicted to either heroin opiates or cocaine Kellogg said The screen could detect 100 percent of the heroin opiate addicts and 97 percent of the cocaine addicts These results are as good as or better than other brief tests already in use he said For alcohol the KMSK scale could detect 90 percent of people who met the formal diagnosis of alcohol addiction However the alcohol test was slightly more likely than the other two to give a false positive result meaning it sometimes identified a person as an alcoholic when the individual did not meet the formal criteria Kellogg said The higher rate of false positives is probably caused by the complexity of alcoholism rather than any problem with the design of the test Kellogg explained Many factors besides exposure may affect a person s risk of alcoholism including genetic background abuse of other substances and psychiatric or psychological problems From a clinical perspective having an occasional false positive result is not a terrible thing In this case it means that we have uncovered individuals with histories of high levels of alcohol use who did not experience major negative consequences of their drinking However they are at risk of developing them in the future so one would want to counsel these drinkers about reducing or eliminating their alcohol use he noted The KMSK scale may prove helpful to clinicians and other scientists who study addiction especially those who focus on the link between exposure to drugs or alcohol and dependence Kellogg said

    Original URL path: http://newswire.rockefeller.edu/2003/04/25/new-test-for-drug-and-alcohol-addiction-focuses-solely-on-time-of-heaviest-use/ (2016-02-13)
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  • testing | Newswire
    quickly test for addiction to cocaine heroin and alcohol simply by asking about the time in the person s life when he or she was drinking or using these substances the most according to a study by Rockefeller University researchers More Tags addiction Mary Jeanne Kreek testing Search for Categories Science News Awards and Honors Campus News Grants Gifts Topics Video Archive 2015 2014 2013 2012 2011 more About Contact

    Original URL path: http://newswire.rockefeller.edu/tag/testing/ (2016-02-13)
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  • Nature’s Own Antidote to Cocaine | Newswire
    studies by Kreek and others suggest how this high output version of the dynorphin gene might protect a person against addiction Typically snorting or injecting cocaine triggers a flood of dopamine and other neurotransmitters in the brain and this in turn leads to its characteristic euphoric high But according to the scientists the brain compensates for this overabundance of dopamine by producing more of the opiate dynorphin which then reduces levels of dopamine in essence acting like an antitoxin to neutralize the destructive effects of cocaine Consequently higher levels of dynorphin in the brain might translate to increased protection against cocaine Because the scientists have demonstrated a possible neurobiological function for this particular genetic variant it is referred to as a functional variation Knowing how this genetic variation could potentially modulate the effects of cocaine lends weight to our results says Chen But on the other hand our sample size was relatively small and further studies with more patients are needed to confirm these results Dynorphin is a member of the body s natural or endogenous opioid system These molecules by acting on their corresponding opioid receptors are responsible for numbing pain creating feelings of euphoria and increasing energy They also play a role in the normal functioning of the gastrointestinal and immune systems as well as modulate how the body deals with stress Addictive opiates which include heroin morphine and other analgesics such as codeine are structurally similar to the opioids produced naturally in the body and thus bind to and stimulate the same receptors subsequently triggering these drugs well known effects Cocaine on the other hand acts primarily on the brain s reward circuits it increases levels of dopamine and other neurotransmitters at specific areas of the brain Yet research in the last few years has shown that cocaine like heroin also acts on the endogenous opioid system including dynorphin Studies in rats by Kreek and others have shown that cocaine while directly inducing a surge in dopamine in the brain causes a rise in dynorphin levels Furthermore Kreek and her colleagues have demonstrated directly in rats and indirectly in humans that administration of dynorphin results in a decrease in the amount of dopamine in the brain Together these studies imply that dynorphin rises after cocaine administration as a means to counteract the effects of cocaine Under natural circumstances however this rise in dynorphin may not be enough to safeguard a person against addiction These findings led Kreek and other to speculate that subtle variations also called polymorphisms in the gene that instructs brain cells to manufacture dynorphin may explain why some individuals tend to be more resistant to cocaine addiction after experimenting with the drug Recently Alexander Zimprich and colleagues at the Otto von Guericke University Magdeburg Germany have discovered such a variation within this gene Zimprich found that a specific piece of the DNA making up this dynorphin gene is present in one two three or four copies in different individuals Furthermore because this variable region

    Original URL path: http://newswire.rockefeller.edu/2002/04/15/natures-own-antidote-to-cocaine/ (2016-02-13)
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  • Dynorphin | Newswire
    system against the addictive powers of cocaine According to new research at The Rockefeller University a naturally occurring brain opiate called dynorphin may in certain individuals serve as an antidote to counter the pleasurable yet dangerous effects of cocaine More Tags addiction Dynorphin Mary Jeanne Kreek Search for Categories Science News Awards and Honors Campus News Grants Gifts Topics Video Archive 2015 2014 2013 2012 2011 more About Contact Follow

    Original URL path: http://newswire.rockefeller.edu/tag/dynorphin/ (2016-02-13)
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  • Researchers Identify an Enzyme That Regulates the Action of Chronic Cocaine | Newswire
    in the addictive brain By finding new inhibitors to this pathway we might find compounds that have a palliative effect removing the craving for cocaine similar to the way methadone removes the craving for heroin says Research Associate James Bibb senior author on the paper Cdk5 regulates certain effects of chronic cocaine by controlling the signaling of a neurotransmitter called dopamine Dopamine is involved in fine motor control reward and reproductive behavior but abnormalities in dopamine signaling are associated with several neurological and psychiatric disorders including substance abuse When dopamine is released in the brain it binds to a receptor and starts a cascade of biochemical events Cdk5 is important to this process because it activates a key molecule involved in dopamine signaling called DARPP 32 We had shown earlier that DARPP 32 is a major player in the mechanisms by which dopamine produces its effects in the brain says Greengard Vincent Astor Professor and director of the Zachary and Elizabeth Fisher Center for Research on Alzheimer s Disease at Rockefeller In the current study the laboratory was looking for causes and co factors of addiction Cdk5 became an appealing target for this research when co author Eric Nestler now at Univeristy of Texas Southwestern Medical Center in Dallas first found that expression of the Cdk5 gene goes up in mice genetically altered to serve as a model for drug abuse In subsequent behavioral studies conducted by Jane Taylor in the Psychiatry Department at Yale University the effects of a drug roscovitine which inhibits Cdk5 were assessed in rats that were also exposed repeatedly to cocaine The results indicated that cocaine induced increases in Cdk5 levels serve to dampen responses to subsequent drug exposure The Nature paper also shows that repeated exposure to cocaine enhanced the biochemical pathway between Cdk5

    Original URL path: http://newswire.rockefeller.edu/2001/03/16/researchers-identify-an-enzyme-that-regulates-the-action-of-chronic-cocaine/ (2016-02-13)
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  • Subtle Changes in Brain Receptor Gene May Have Significant Consequences for Addiction | Newswire
    produce changes in the protein products of the gene The mu opioid receptor system plays a key role in the body including pain management the stress response normal gastrointestinal function and the immune system The researchers extracted DNA from blood samples taken from 152 unrelated subjects Of these 113 were long term heroin addicts enrolled in methadone maintenance programs and 39 had no history of drug or alcohol dependence Study subjects included 69 females and 83 males The ethnic breakdown of the study subjects was 31 African American 52 Caucasian 67 Hispanic 1 Native North American and 1 multiethnic Using molecular cloning techniques and polymerase chain reaction the scientists identified five SNPs of the mu opioid receptor gene in the coding region Two of the SNPs were identified previously by researchers at other institutions but the other three are described for the first time in this paper The two most prevalent SNPs called A118G and C17T were found in 10 5 and 6 6 percent of sample respectively For A118G the researchers found no significant difference in frequencies between opioid dependent and non opioid dependent subjects when all ethnic groups were combined However within the Hispanic study subject group A118G was present in a significantly higher percentage of subjects with no history of opioid dependency We think that this finding suggests that A118G may confer a relative protection against opioid dependency in that population says Kreek The researchers also found that C17T was present in higher overall proportion of opioid dependent persons in the study sample confirming a previous result by one other researcher The researchers also conducted binding studies using the A118G SNP or the most common mu variant in cultured cell lines They determined that A118G had a threefold greater binding with b endorphin than the usual mu

    Original URL path: http://newswire.rockefeller.edu/1998/08/04/subtle-changes-in-brain-receptor-gene-may-have-significant-consequences-for-addiction/ (2016-02-13)
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  • b-endorphin | Newswire
    drugs of analgesia and addiction do as well The findings reported by researchers from The Rockefeller University Indiana University School of Medicine and University of Cincinnati College of Medicine in the August 4 Proceeding of the National Academy of Sciences show for the first time that these altered molecules are distributed differently among ethnic groups and have implications for normal physiology therapeutics and vulnerability to develop or protect from diverse

    Original URL path: http://newswire.rockefeller.edu/tag/b-endorphin/ (2016-02-13)
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