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  • David Rockefeller | Newswire
    and Gifts David Rockefeller pledges 100 million to Rockefeller University Largest gift in University s history will support innovative science graduate program More Tags David Rockefeller Paul Nurse Search for Categories Science News Awards and Honors Campus News Grants Gifts Topics Video Archive 2015 2014 2013 2012 2011 more About Contact Follow rockefelleruniv Like The Rockefeller University RU Footer The Rockefeller University 1230 York Avenue New York NY 10065 212

    Original URL path: http://newswire.rockefeller.edu/tag/david-rockefeller/ (2016-02-13)
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  • By manipulating oxygen, scientists coax bacteria into a wave | Newswire
    with the same shape and velocity as before the collision The first soliton was observed in 1834 at a canal in Scotland by John Scott Russell a scientist who was so fascinated with what he saw that he followed it on horseback for miles and then set up a 30 foot water tank in his yard where he successfully simulated it sparking considerable controversy The work began when Libchaber Douarche and their colleagues placed E coli bacteria in a sealed square chamber and measured the oxygen concentration and the density of bacteria every two hours until the bacteria consumed all the oxygen Bacteria unlike humans don t die when starved for oxygen but switch to a nonmotile state from which they can be revived The researchers then cracked the seals of the chamber allowing oxygen to flow in The result The motionless bacteria which had spread out uniformly began to move first those around the perimeter nearest to the seals and then those further away A few hours later the bacteria began to spatially segregate into two domains of moving and nonmoving bacteria and pile up into a ring at the border of low oxygen and no oxygen There they formed a solitary wave that propagated slowly but steadily toward the center of the chamber without changing its shape The effect which lasted for more than 15 hours and covered a considerable distance for bacteria could not be explained by the expression of new proteins or by the addition of energy in the system Instead the creation of the front depends on the dispersion of the active bacteria and on the time it takes for oxygen starved bacteria to completely stop moving 15 minutes The former allows the bacteria to propagate at a constant velocity while the latter keeps the

    Original URL path: http://newswire.rockefeller.edu/2009/07/13/by-manipulating-oxygen-scientists-coax-bacteria-into-a-wave/ (2016-02-13)
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  • New protein identified in bacterial arsenal | Newswire
    that can cause food poisoning typhoid fever and septicemia With colleagues at Yale University they performed a series of biochemical experiments to show that SspH2 is an enzyme that links two molecules together called a ligase Specifically it is involved in the targeting of a widespread regulatory molecule called ubiquitin to other proteins Ubiquitin s most common function is to label proteins for degradation in a process called ubiquitination It s a totally new ubiquitin ligase from a bacterial pathogen going in and messing around with human cell chemistry says Stebbins It s a good example of the amazing ways bacteria have found to play around with our biochemistry for its own purposes The structure derived from the pattern of light bouncing off of a crystallized form of SspH2 reveals the identity and position of every atom in the virulence factor It shows that it has two primary arms One is a known structure that recruits other proteins but the second had never been seen before The Stebbins team named it NEL for Novel E3 Ligase The two arms conceal a key amino acid cysteine required to bind to ubiquitin In test tube experiments Stebbins and colleagues showed that in order to capture the ubiquitin one arm must swing apart to expose the cysteine and moreover it must do so in a selective fashion They generated a version of the molecule effectively locked in its open state and found that it was toxic to the cells it invaded The process of attaching ubiquitin to targeted proteins ubiquitination is very common in the cells of complex organisms and involves three different types of molecules such as SspH2 Molecules known as E1 capture the ubiquitin and hand it off to E2 molecules E3 molecules then bring the E2 and its ubiquitin to

    Original URL path: http://newswire.rockefeller.edu/2009/03/02/new-protein-identified-in-bacterial-arsenal/ (2016-02-13)
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  • Bacteria-killing enzyme cures mice with fatal pneumonia | Newswire
    doesn t keep these bacteria in check or an upper respiratory infection occurs they can start to multiply and travel to different organs such as the lungs causing pneumonia brain meningitis or ears otitis media with sometimes fatal consequences The prognosis is particularly bad in children and the elderly In 2004 alone 40 percent of children and older adults who developed pneumonia due to S pneumoniae died of the disease The new research which appears in the February issue of Critical Care Medicine reveals that the enzyme Cpl 1 which is produced by bacteria infecting viruses called bacteriophages can successfully reach lung tissue in mice and reverse the symptoms of severe pneumococcal pneumonia Administering drugs through the blood is an effective way of treating disease but not all drugs can remain active in that environment says Fischetti His team not only shows that Cpl 1 can make the trek but that it is also highly effective when it reaches its destination In their work Fischetti and his German colleagues gave mice with pneumococcal pneumonia a dose of Cpl 1 or the antibiotic amoxicillin for comparison either 24 or 48 hours after establishment of pneumonia and every 12 hours thereafter Given at 24 hours Cpl 1 eliminated the infection in 100 percent of the mice compared to 85 percent with the antibiotic Given at 48 hours Cpl 1 cured fewer mice than amoxicillin 40 percent versus 70 percent Furthermore in mice treated with multiple doses of Cp1 1 starting at 24 hours the scientists observed that damage to the mice s lung tissue was completely reversed within 12 hours When treatment began after 48 hours the mice that survived showed no signs of tissue damage or difficulty in breathing The results were similar in surviving animals treated with amoxicillin This isn

    Original URL path: http://newswire.rockefeller.edu/2009/02/27/bacteria-killing-enzyme-cures-mice-with-fatal-pneumonia/ (2016-02-13)
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  • S. pneumoniae | Newswire
    killing Streptococcus pneumoniae that it has been put on the front lines in the battle against infectious disease More Tags bacteria S pneumoniae Vincent A Fischetti July 2 2008 Science News Newly identified enzyme treats deadly bacterial infection in mice Four years after drug companies began mass producing penicillin bacteria showed they could fight back developing machinery that could resist antibiotics and even destroy them Now Rockefeller University researchers have recruited an unexpected ally that could disarm bacteria of this most ingenious weapon and put these superbugs on the losing side of a war they have dictated and dominated for decades More Tags S pneumoniae Vincent A Fischetti March 23 2007 Science News Viral protein is an effective preventative against infection For parents eight million cases of acute middle ear infections every year add up to a lot of sleepless nights and trips to the pediatrician But new research suggests that a lysin a protein derived from viruses that infect bacteria may prevent children from developing secondary ear infections More Tags lysin S pneumoniae Vincent A Fischetti December 6 2001 Science News Novel Method To Fight Drug resistant Infections Emerges from Lab and Nature Scientists have turned to nature once again for help in fighting deadly infections Reporting in the Dec 7 issue of Science Rockefeller University researchers show that a natural enzyme derived from tiny viruses that live inside bacteria can successfully target and kill disease bacteria including those that are resistant to drugs More Tags bacteriophage S pneumoniae Vincent A Fischetti April 25 2000 Science News Rockefeller Researchers Identify Novel Penicillin resistance Gene in Pneumonia Bacteria Penicillin resistance of the bacterium that causes pneumonia the pneumococcus is a growing global health problem Although S pneumoniae was once considered to be routinely susceptible to penicillin since the mid 1980s

    Original URL path: http://newswire.rockefeller.edu/tag/s-pneumoniae/ (2016-02-13)
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  • Vincent A. Fischetti | Newswire
    acquire superbug powers researchers at Rockefeller University are devising ways to strip them of their infectious properties Now they ve figured out how to drill holes through the tough hide of gram positive bacteria without obliterating them and in so doing have made it possible to study from the inside out most of the known bacteria on the planet More Tags MRSA Vincent A Fischetti July 2 2008 Science News Newly identified enzyme treats deadly bacterial infection in mice Four years after drug companies began mass producing penicillin bacteria showed they could fight back developing machinery that could resist antibiotics and even destroy them Now Rockefeller University researchers have recruited an unexpected ally that could disarm bacteria of this most ingenious weapon and put these superbugs on the losing side of a war they have dictated and dominated for decades More Tags S pneumoniae Vincent A Fischetti July 31 2007 Science News New method better identifies functionally related genes on the bacterial chromosome A new technique developed at Rockefeller University takes advantage of information already stored within the structure of bacterial chromosomes to group genes in biologically meaningful ways More Tags GenomeCrawler Vincent A Fischetti March 23 2007 Science News Viral protein is an effective preventative against infection For parents eight million cases of acute middle ear infections every year add up to a lot of sleepless nights and trips to the pediatrician But new research suggests that a lysin a protein derived from viruses that infect bacteria may prevent children from developing secondary ear infections More Tags lysin S pneumoniae Vincent A Fischetti February 21 2007 Science News Single gene may defend bacteria from antibiotics and infection Bacteria have two major enemies antibiotic drugs and bacteriophage viruses which infect and kill them The two disparate threats may have something in common New research from Rockefeller University has found that certain bacteria have gained a gene that protects them from both toxic drugs and infectious viruses at the same time More Tags S pyogenes spyIM Vincent A Fischetti April 21 2006 Science News Newly discovered protein kills Anthrax bacteria by exploding their cell walls A newly discovered protein called PlyPH specifically targets one of our most feared bioterror threats the anthrax bacterium by punching holes in its cell wall and exploding it Scientists at Rockefeller say the protein has several advantages over antibiotic drugs and a solution based on it could clean areas that have been contaminated with anthrax spores More Tags Anthrax Vincent A Fischetti February 3 2006 Science News Geneless enzyme is key to how bacteria intack To infect bacteria must first stick New research from Rockefeller s Fischetti Lab has identified an enzyme essential to how proteins on the surface of staph and strep bacteria stick to the tissues of their hosts The scientists say their discovery could lead to drugs that prevent some of our most dangerous bacteria from gaining a foothold More Tags LPXTG peptidoglycans Vincent A Fischetti May 23 2003 Science News Bacteria eating

    Original URL path: http://newswire.rockefeller.edu/tag/vincent-a-fischetti/ (2016-02-13)
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  • Food supply affects bacteria’s response to temperature | Newswire
    to a specific concentration they reversed their response to temperature They started swimming away from the middle of the microscope slide where a laser beam had heated it to 30 degrees Celsius and started swimming toward the slide s outer edges where it was 12 degrees cooler This switch is very sharp says Salman whose findings appear in the August 12 issue of Nature Cell Biology Two receptors allow bacteria to detect temperature changes in their environment Tsr mainly senses two chemicals glycine and serine and is responsible for bacteria s attraction to warmth Tar mainly senses the chemical aspartate and is responsible for bacteria s attraction to cold Under normal conditions Tsr is more abundant than Tar As bacteria multiply they secrete glycine Then at a critical concentration approximately 200 million bacteria per cubic centimeter they produce enough glycine to methylate Tsr a process that chemically modifies the receptor and makes it insensitive to temperature changes At this point Tar takes control and the bacteria begin to swim toward cooler temperatures When Salman and Libchaber deleted Tar the bacteria remained at the heated center of the microscope slide even as they continued to multiply When the duo added high levels of glycine to wild type strains the bacteria swam to cooler regions even at lower concentrations The added glycine made Tsr insensitive before the bacteria reached their critical concentration Salman and Libchaber observed the same result when they deleted Tsr suggesting that glycine mediates this switch through the methylation of Tsr receptors Salman then grew the bacteria to higher concentrations and placed them in a fresh microscope slide after he diluted the bacteria to concentrations at which they are attracted to warm regions But we observed a long recovery time before the bacteria began swimming toward the center of

    Original URL path: http://newswire.rockefeller.edu/2007/08/17/food-supply-affects-bacterias-response-to-temperature/ (2016-02-13)
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  • E. Coli | Newswire
    the structure of one such molecule that has the especially damaging effect of arresting its host cells division The finding offers clues as to how this bacterial weapon works and potentially how to defend against it or even use it to attack cancer More Tags C Erec Stebbins E Coli August 17 2007 Science News Food supply affects bacteria s response to temperature Bacteria respond to dwindling food supplies through their ability to sense temperature changes in their environment When nutrients are sufficiently abundant bacteria are drawn to warm regions As they continue to grow and their food supply decreases they swim to cooler regions and slow their metabolism A chemical signal initially mediates this switch which is then reinforced via changes in gene expression More Tags Albert J Libchaber bacteria E Coli June 25 1999 Science News Rockefeller University Researchers Find Large Hole Forming Protein in Bacteria A Potential Achilles Heel Researchers at The Rockefeller University have shown for the first time that a protein called pIV forms a hole in the outer membrane of the bacterium E coli to allow passage of large molecules The finding reported in the May 28 issue of the journal Science may allow

    Original URL path: http://newswire.rockefeller.edu/tag/e-coli/ (2016-02-13)
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