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  • Sequencing efforts miss DNA crucial to bacteria’s disease causing power | Newswire
    mobile genetic elements can play important roles in virulence and antibiotic resistance This study focused on phages Their activity outside the chromosomes has been poorly studied most research has focused on phages integrated into bacterial chromosomes Meanwhile plasmids which allow bacteria to share genes among themselves are well studied So far no one has looked across a variety of strains of bacteria as we have done with Staphylococcus aureus to find these extrachromosomal phages that have potential to play an important role in disease says Bryan Utter a postdoc in the lab and the first author of the research published June 25 in PLoS ONE Staphylococcus is a common bacterium that can cause serious or even fatal infections under certain circumstances Until now an analysis of this scope wasn t possible because chromosomal DNA easily fragments and contaminates the sample during the process by which researchers prepare the extrachromosomal DNA making them virtually impossible to identify and sequence To solve this problem we borrowed a tool from phages themselves the enzymes these viruses use to break apart a phage infected cell to release their progeny says Douglas Deutsch a graduate student in the lab These enzymes a focus of research in the lab in the development of novel anti infectives are now being harnessed to gently extract the chromosomal DNA while leaving behind any other genetic elements for analysis Using this technique they looked for extrachromosomal phages across 24 medically important strains of Staphylococci Not only did extrachromosomal phages appear widespread among these strains but the researchers found evidence that these phages encode genes that can make the bacteria more dangerous For example when the researchers decoded the complete sequence of one extrachromosomal circular phage from a disease causing Staphylococcus they identified a number of genes that may help this

    Original URL path: http://newswire.rockefeller.edu/2014/06/25/sequencing-efforts-miss-dna-crucial-to-bacterias-disease-causing-power/ (2016-02-13)
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  • Bryan Utter | Newswire
    including viruses found outside a microbe s chromosomes may play a role in disease but are nearly impossible to identify and sequence using conventional techniques Researchers at Rockefeller have developed a solution More Tags Bryan Utter extrachromosomal dna pathogenicity phages Staphylococcus aureus Vincent Fischetti Search for Categories Science News Awards and Honors Campus News Grants Gifts Topics Video Archive 2015 2014 2013 2012 2011 more About Contact Follow rockefelleruniv Like

    Original URL path: http://newswire.rockefeller.edu/tag/bryan-utter/ (2016-02-13)
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  • pathogenicity | Newswire
    viruses found outside a microbe s chromosomes may play a role in disease but are nearly impossible to identify and sequence using conventional techniques Researchers at Rockefeller have developed a solution More Tags Bryan Utter extrachromosomal dna pathogenicity phages Staphylococcus aureus Vincent Fischetti Search for Categories Science News Awards and Honors Campus News Grants Gifts Topics Video Archive 2015 2014 2013 2012 2011 more About Contact Follow rockefelleruniv Like The

    Original URL path: http://newswire.rockefeller.edu/tag/pathogenicity/ (2016-02-13)
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  • Researchers put potent staph killer to the test, hope for new drug treatment | Newswire
    tried the chimera on mice infected by MRSA Again the synthetic lysin proved potent clearing up the infections and the researchers published the results in April 2010 in Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy The latest research published in February in the same journal focused on a topical model and showed not only that ClyS could work but that it worked about 10 times better than the only other topical antibiotic on the market mupirocin Led by Pastagia scientists from Fischetti s lab and James Kreuger s Laboratory of Investigative Dermatology developed an ointment containing ClyS which they tested on mice infected with multiple strains of MRSA including the most potent found in hospitals They found it killed an order of magnitude more MRSA bacteria than did mupirocin and it did so quickly without generating any resistance either from the bacteria itself or from antibodies produced by the mice in response to the ointment The ability of bacteria to rapidly evolve defenses against antibiotics is one of the biggest challenges to developing effective new drugs This was key says Pastagia because about 15 to 20 percent of patients develop resistance to mupirocin Unlike the lysin ClyS a chimeric phage enzyme that drills a hole in the bacterium s cell wall and kills quickly mupirocin interferes with the bacteria s ability to make proteins a slower process The speed efficiency and method with which ClyS kills MRSA could be a major tactical advantage in the arms race against increasingly sophisticated bacteria Pastagia says MRSA is known to colonize humans particularly in the nose throat and skin which makes them carriers of this pathogen This can lead to the infection of a carrier s wounds or spread to other individuals with open sores In the hospital doctors sometimes swab the noses of at risk surgical patients and treat those positive for MRSA with mupirocin prior to surgery in order to decrease the risk of infection Mupirocin can also be used to treat superficial MRSA skin infections The resistance rate for mupirocin has been on the rise however and microbiology labs do not always test for resistance to it leading to ineffective MRSA treatment Dr Pastagia and her colleagues hope to find a more effective alternative in the form of lysin therapy Now Pastagia who is also an instructor of clinical investigation at Rockefeller s Center for Clinical and Translational Science has launched a trial to study the impact of ClyS on the cells of human patients with psoriasis a disease of the skin and one of humanity s oldest affecting about two percent of Americans Cells from psoriatic lesions are frequently infected with staph which potentially spread and worsen the condition Pastagia harvested cells from 25 patients and is performing histological and other experiments to determine the effects ClyS has on them in hopes that it may have therapeutic effects Preliminary results are promising she says and she hopes to publish them within the next year After the auspicious early performance of ClyS the

    Original URL path: http://newswire.rockefeller.edu/2011/04/04/researchers-put-potent-staph-killer-to-the-test-hope-for-new-drug-treatment/ (2016-02-13)
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  • James Kreuger | Newswire
    per the recommendation of the FDA is a test in minipigs It s the start of a new class of drugs says the lead researcher and early signs suggest it s stronger than anything of its kind currently on the market More Tags James Kreuger Laboratory of Bacterial Pathogenesis and Immunology Laboratory of Investigative Dermatology Mina Pastagia MRSA mupirocin Vincent Fischetti February 3 2006 Science News Newly discovered immune cell

    Original URL path: http://newswire.rockefeller.edu/tag/james-kreuger/ (2016-02-13)
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  • Laboratory of Bacterial Pathogenesis and Immunology | Newswire
    engineered a powerful killer of one of the most dangerous bacteria methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus MRSA It s been tested on MRSA in the test tube on infections in mice and a clinical trial has begun to probe its ability to kill MRSA infected cells from psoriasis lesions in people Next up per the recommendation of the FDA is a test in minipigs It s the start of a new class of drugs says the lead researcher and early signs suggest it s stronger than anything of its kind currently on the market More Tags James Kreuger Laboratory of Bacterial Pathogenesis and Immunology Laboratory of Investigative Dermatology Mina Pastagia MRSA mupirocin Vincent Fischetti February 5 2010 Science News Newly engineered enzyme is a powerful staph antibiotic In the past decade methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus or MRSA has ushered in a new era in the fight between man and bug By harnessing the power of nature s own antibiotics scientists have engineered an enzyme known as a lysin that not only kills MRSA in mice but also works synergistically with antibiotics that were once powerless against the formidable organism More Tags Laboratory of Bacterial Pathogenesis and Immunology Vincent A Fischetti Search

    Original URL path: http://newswire.rockefeller.edu/tag/laboratory-of-bacterial-pathogenesis-and-immunology/ (2016-02-13)
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  • Mina Pastagia | Newswire
    test tube on infections in mice and a clinical trial has begun to probe its ability to kill MRSA infected cells from psoriasis lesions in people Next up per the recommendation of the FDA is a test in minipigs It s the start of a new class of drugs says the lead researcher and early signs suggest it s stronger than anything of its kind currently on the market More

    Original URL path: http://newswire.rockefeller.edu/tag/mina-pastagia/ (2016-02-13)
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  • mupirocin | Newswire
    test tube on infections in mice and a clinical trial has begun to probe its ability to kill MRSA infected cells from psoriasis lesions in people Next up per the recommendation of the FDA is a test in minipigs It s the start of a new class of drugs says the lead researcher and early signs suggest it s stronger than anything of its kind currently on the market More

    Original URL path: http://newswire.rockefeller.edu/tag/mupirocin/ (2016-02-13)
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