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  • For dying cells, timing is everything | Newswire
    new research from the laboratory of Shai Shaham shows that this is not the whole story and that cell death can also be controlled by regulating caspase transcription The newly identified mechanism may suggest avenues for treating cancer which can result when cells fail to die on schedule The pathway leading to cell death in C elegans was thought to hinge on the action of two proteins called EGL 1 and CED 9 that control the activity of caspases But in worms that no longer made EGL 1 Shaham along with Carine Maurer a former graduate student and Michael Chiorazzi a current graduate student found that the death of one cell in particular the tail spike cell was unaffected The tail spike cell is the product of two cells that fuse together after they are born creating a single cell with two nuclei The cell forms a long extension to the end of the worm s body and other cells wrap themselves around the extension forming the characteristic spike at the tail of the worm Then the tail spike cell dies The hypothesis is that it is serving as a scaffold for the other cells to wrap around says Shaham When the scientists looked at the expression of the caspase gene in the tail spike cell they saw that it is turned on about 30 minutes before the cell is to die Maurer found that the cell death pathway was linked to the caspase gene s transcription the process by which its genetic code is read And caspase transcription in turn depends on the presence of a protein called PAL 1 In humans the PAL 1 equivalent is a protein called Cdx2 and it is well known among researchers who study intestinal cancer The outermost cells of intestinal microvilli constantly

    Original URL path: http://newswire.rockefeller.edu/2007/03/09/for-dying-cells-timing-is-everything/ (2016-02-13)
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  • programmed cell death | Newswire
    2007 Science News Researcher discover new cell death program Though caspases are the accepted executioners of the cell world new research shows that they may not be the only ones By following the life and death of one cell Rockefeller University researchers discover a new type of cell death More Tags programmed cell death Shai Shaham December 19 2006 Science News Trash talk Molecular conversations trigger cell suicide in yeast For cells like people relationships are based on good communication In yeast cells however scientists have shown that communication between certain molecules involved in gene regulation can trigger the cell s suicide program suggesting that molecular crosstalk may be an important mechanism by which cells respond to adverse events like cancer More Tags C David Allis programmed cell death May 19 2003 Science News Sperm cells shaped by natural cell suicide mechanism Since discovering that body cells actively commit suicide over 35 years ago scientists have come to learn that this natural process called programmed cell death occurs throughout human tissues millions of times a day to eliminate potentially harmful cells such as those behind cancer More Tags Hermann Steller programmed cell death June 7 2002 Science News Researchers Solve Killer Protein s Crime A killer protein named Reaper A protective protein in bits and pieces And a dead cell This is the scene of one of the body s most perfect crimes programmed cell death This vital process occurs throughout life as a means to among other purposes eliminate potentially cancerous cells More Tags Hermann Steller programmed cell death Reaper February 1 2002 Science News Cells on the Verge of Suicide A developing cell in the human body sits on the edge of death Proteins called Grim Reaper and Hid stand poised ready to unleash other toxic proteins Only

    Original URL path: http://newswire.rockefeller.edu/tag/programmed-cell-death/ (2016-02-13)
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  • Shai Shaham | Newswire
    to be connected in the right places Now new research shows that rather than growing like the branches of a tree extending outward certain neurons work backward from their destination dropping anchor and stretching their dendrites behind them as they crawl away More Tags dendritic cells Shai Shaham November 3 2008 Science News Without glial cells animals lose their senses When it comes to picking up and bringing information into the brain sensory neurons have always put on a star performance But now they ll need to share the credit In groundbreaking research to appear in the October 31 issue of Science scientists reveal that while neurons play the lead role a second type of cell the glial cell pulls the strings behind the scenes The work not only lifts a long ignored cell out from obscurity but shows how it is a critical member in shaping sensory experience More Tags glial Shai Shaham July 11 2008 Science News Glia guide brain development in worms When the stakes are high communication is crucial In a landmark discovery Rockefeller University scientists have identified a system in the C elegans brain that allows them to study how brain cells neurons and glia talk to each other the dialogue that shapes and guides the developing brain More Tags glial Shai Shaham December 7 2007 Science News New method exploits old mechanism to turn genes on and off at will When body heat rises to dangerously high temperatures the heat shock response protects proteins from irreversible damage Now new research in C elegans roundworms exploits this ancient mechanism to control when and where genes are expressed an ability that helps determine which cells require the expression of certain genes during different stages of development While existing techniques enabled scientists to achieve this feat this

    Original URL path: http://newswire.rockefeller.edu/tag/shai-shaham/ (2016-02-13)
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  • tail-spike cell | Newswire
    that could kill the cell poised to strike at a moment s notice While this is certainly true in some cases new research from Rockefeller University shows that it is not universal and that several layers of regulation control cell death More Tags c elegans programmed cell death Shai Shaham tail spike cell Search for Categories Science News Awards and Honors Campus News Grants Gifts Topics Video Archive 2015 2014

    Original URL path: http://newswire.rockefeller.edu/tag/tail-spike-cell/ (2016-02-13)
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  • MicroRNAs linked to mammalian skin development | Newswire
    findings uncover a novel type of regulatory network that controls the coordinate expression of microRNA families It also implies that there are distinct target mRNAs that are differentially repressed by the microRNAs of the epidermis and the hair follicle Fuchs and Rui who is the first author of the paper suggest that the coordinated expression of microRNA families may serve as a reinforcement mechanism to effectively and rapidly suppress RNA targets during stem cell differentiation and lineage specification Using a mouse line developed in the laboratory of Rockefeller s Alexander Tarakhovsky Yi was able to completely remove all microRNAs from the skin of the mice and examine the consequences He found that while skin development appeared normal within six days after they were born the mice had lost weight and become dehydrated When the scientists looked closer they saw that the development of the hair follicles was markedly perturbed Instead of growing down into the underlying dermal skin layer as they normally would the developing follicles grew upwards into the overlying epidermis Hair like cysts developed that soon disturbed the surrounding skin epidermis compromising its ability to perform its function as a barrier to retain fluids in the body Other appendages in epidermal tissues including papillae in the tongue and sweat glands in the feet of the mice were also malformed and may have contributed to the weight loss and dehydration of the mice as they aged We have shown the microRNAs exist in the skin and that they do play an important role in its development says Fuchs We now have a basis to probe more deeply into their individual roles and deepen our understanding of skin biology element in the proper development of mammalian skin In a paper published in Nature Genetics Elaine Fuchs head of Rockefeller s Laboratory of Mammalian Cell Biology and Development and colleagues announce that they have found and characterized over one hundred microRNAs in the outer layer and hair follicles of mouse skin These microRNAs tiny chunks of RNA that bind to longer segments in order to turn off the production of proteins are key to the mice s ability to develop hair follicles and oil glands the scientists say Initially identified in the C elegans worm in 1993 microRNAs have generated escalated interest since 2000 and their ability to give cells another level of regulation for protein production helping fine tune specific actions and responses is now considered critical to many cellular processes Specific microRNAs have been associated with several cancers including colon and lung cancers and lymphoma and even with the body s response to viruses such as HIV Fuchs and her colleagues focus on how the epidermis and hair follicles develop from stem cells It was a postdoctoral fellow in Fuchs s lab Rui Yi who found that although many microRNAs are produced by both epidermal and hair follicle cells there is little overlap between the two groups of expressed microRNAs What s more within each of the two groups

    Original URL path: http://newswire.rockefeller.edu/2006/02/23/micrornas-linked-to-mammalian-skin-development/ (2016-02-13)
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  • MicroRNAs | Newswire
    The findings are a warning Scientists should not assume that what they learn about microRNAs in animal studies will hold true for people More Tags Ali H Brivanlou MicroRNAs January 22 2009 Science News New method prevents microRNAs from escaping cells Since their discovery microRNAs have been hailed as the stars of the RNA universe as they have been shown to play a role in countless diseases ranging from cancer to neurological disorders Now researchers at Rockefeller University have discovered a better more reliable way to detect and measure these tiny molecules work that may lead to improved ways of diagnosing and preventing disease More Tags John Pena MicroRNAs Thomas Tuschl June 9 2008 Science News Scientists identify a key regulator of DNA mutations As a general rule your DNA is not something you want rearranged But there are exceptions especially when it comes to fighting infections Now two teams of researchers at Rockefeller University independently show how a tiny recently identified molecule once implicated in cancer can not only help defend against it but also keep invading microbes at bay More Tags F Nina Papavasiliou Michel C Nussenzweig MicroRNAs March 2 2008 Science News microRNA 203 helps build skin s protective barrier It s a rough world and exposed skin cells weather conditions harsh enough to mutate DNA To keep these mutations from spreading evolution has found a way to keep these cells from proliferating In a series of elegant experiments Rockefeller University researchers have now discovered evolution s solution a tiny strand of RNA But the research s implications go deeper and may also suggest how healthy cells elsewhere in the body can turn cancerous More Tags Elaine Fuchs MicroRNAs September 5 2007 Science News A global view Researchers build microRNA atlas Rockefeller University scientists have created a comprehensive microRNA catalog that encompasses more than 250 cell and tissue samples across 26 organ systems as part of a global effort to clarify the role of microRNAs in development and in various diseases particularly cancer More Tags MicroRNAs Thomas Tuschl July 24 2007 Science News MicroRNA works with Ago2 protein to regulate blood cell development A protein but not its unique slicer component maintains levels of and executes the function of a key biological regulator within cells two processes that ultimately control the early development of blood cells More Tags Alexander Tarakhovsky MicroRNAs July 2 2007 Science News Brain cells need microRNA to survive New research from Rockefeller University shows that neurons that cannot produce microRNAs tiny single strands of RNA that regulate the expression of genes slowly die in a manner similar to what is seen in such human neurodegenerative disorders as Alzheimer s and Parkinson s diseases More Tags MicroRNAs Paul Greengard January 8 2007 Science News Plant vaccines may combat viruses in crops Plants possess several innate mechanisms to resist viruses but many viruses are able to overcome these barriers A new strategy developed by Rockefeller University researchers turns a plant regulatory pathway into an effective

    Original URL path: http://newswire.rockefeller.edu/tag/micrornas/ (2016-02-13)
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  • Worming our way into the brain | Newswire
    of mutant worm found that was defective in dauer formation Dauer is when worms enter a kind of suspended animation state because of overcrowding or starvation Research by other scientists hinted that the mutation in this daf 6 worm was involved in glial cell development but no one designed experiments to directly ask and the mutant was forgotten We had this mutant worm that nobody had looked at in more than 15 years says Perens an M D Ph D student in Shaham s lab We started with the knowledge that it was somehow affecting glial cells From there we tried to determine what was actually wrong with the glial cells in this mutant worm and we found that they don t form properly Worms have a pair of neuron bundles in their heads each with eight neurons reserved for senses such as taste and smell Each bundle of neurons works by extending through a small tube in the head of the worm like a nostril that is open to the outside environment The glial cells wrap around the neurons to create the tube and protect the neuronal endings In daf 6 mutants the glial cells don t make the tube properly and the neurons have no connection with the outside world It s as if their nostrils are plugged and the worms have no sense of smell or taste At the surface of any cell the amount of membrane added to the surface and the amount taken away are equal so the cell stays the same in size says Shaham To generate a tube you still need to add membrane to the surface However in order to help the tube grow you also need to make sure that no membrane is taken away so there is a net increase of membrane at the cell surface Perens and Shaham think that the DAF 6 protein is involved in making sure that membrane isn t taken away from the surface Another protein CHE 14 seems to be responsible for adding the membrane If both the DAF 6 and CHE 14 genes are mutated not only is the glial tube not formed but all other organs in the worm that are made up of tubes such as the intestine and kidneys are disrupted Perens also observed that the neurons are important to give instructions to the glial cells when they are forming into the tube When the neurons are disrupted the DAF 6 protein doesn t end up in the right place making Perens and Shaham think that there is some cross talk going on between the glial cell and the neurons The neuronal endings are telling the glial cell how big to make the tube and what its proper dimensions should be says Perens So the neurons need the glia and the glia need the neurons in order for the whole structure to be formed properly In big picture terms this process is also very similar to the process of myelination

    Original URL path: http://newswire.rockefeller.edu/2005/06/06/worming-our-way-into-the-brain/ (2016-02-13)
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  • Cori Bargmann | Newswire | Page 2
    More Tags American Association for the Advancement of Science Arleen Auerbach Cori Bargmann Nathaniel Heintz April 26 2006 Science News Netrin molecules help neruons shed their symmetry For years scientists have known that netrin molecules help guide growing neurons and their axons the long tendrils that conduct electrical signals But new research shows that these proteins are also important for helping create the neuron s characteristically asymmetrical shape More Tags Cori Bargmann Marc Tessier Lavigne Netrin March 20 2006 Science News Developing neurons reverse direction in absence of Wnt protein Despite years of study scientists don t fully understand how the body routes information among the brain s 10 billion neurons Now Rockefeller University scientists have discovered that proteins in the ubiquitous Wnt family are vital for charting nerve growth and direction of information flow along a neuron In fact the absence of certain Wnt proteins in worms can alter a nerve so substantially that it grows in reverse More Tags Cori Bargmann Wnt November 10 2005 Science News Scientists teach worms to learn Worms like people tend to avoid foods that have made them sick in the past By coaxing worms to select only healthy choices from a menu

    Original URL path: http://newswire.rockefeller.edu/tag/cori-bargmann/page/2/ (2016-02-13)
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