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  • Office of the President | Newswire
    to succeed Paul Nurse on March 11 2011 A leader in the study of brain development he is currently executive vice president for research and chief scientific officer at Genentech one the world s leading biotech companies More Tags Genentech Research organization Marc Tessier Lavigne Office of the President Paul Nurse Search for Categories Science News Awards and Honors Campus News Grants Gifts Topics Video Archive 2015 2014 2013 2012

    Original URL path: http://newswire.rockefeller.edu/tag/office-of-the-president/ (2016-02-13)
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  • Netrin molecules help neruons shed their symmetry | Newswire
    At one end they typically have a network of short dendrites that absorb information from the surrounding environment and at the other end they have the long axons that carry that information to other parts of the body But researchers had little idea as to which mechanisms were responsible for creating that asymmetry Now by watching a single fluorescently tagged neuron in the worm C elegans the group was able to follow its development and watch the entire process of axon formation In worms that lacked netrin the neuron developed symmetrically and the small neurites developing dendrites and axons it sent out extended every which way rather than in just one direction as those in the normal wild type worms This points to netrin signaling as an important player in ensuring asymmetric neuronal growth Bargmann says as well as in determining where the axon will emerge from the cell Then in a partner paper published online in Current Biology Bargmann and two colleagues Marc Tessier Lavigne of Genentech and Frank Gertler of MIT identified how netrin causes that asymmetric growth They found that netrin molecules outside the nerve cell target a protein inside the cell called MIG 10 and lure

    Original URL path: http://newswire.rockefeller.edu/2006/04/26/netrin-molecules-help-neruons-shed-their-symmetry/ (2016-02-13)
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  • Rockefeller scientists resolve long-standing debate over how many bacteria fight off invaders | Newswire
    virus by cleaving the viral RNA Luciano Marraffini and Poulami Samai both at Rockefeller wanted to get to the bottom of this puzzle In their experiments Samai a postdoctoral fellow tested the cleavage of DNA and RNA by the type III CRISPR Cas system But she added a key ingredient no one else had before a protein known as RNA polymerase which the cell uses to transcribe DNA to RNA She and Marraffini head of the Laboratory of Bacteriology saw that CRISPR Cas did indeed cleave the RNA produced from a virus s DNA but it would also cleave the virus s DNA There are advantages to such a two pronged system says Marraffini Many viruses integrate into the genomes of the cells they infect and remain dormant he says causing no harm In fact these viruses can be beneficial to bacteria by carrying toxins that help bacteria promote their own survival for instance The diphtheria toxin for instance is secreted by a species of bacteria but the gene encoding the toxin comes from a virus By requiring viruses to begin transcribing their DNA into RNA before disabling them the type III CRISPR Cas system leaves dormant viruses intact allowing them to continue benefiting the bacteria that host them he notes Learning the details of how microbes carry out their functions can have important implications for health and science Marraffini says Besides being an incredibly abundant form of life on the planet fueling the health and disease of every species and ecosystem microbes have been the source of a number of technological tools that have revolutionized science and medicine More than forty years ago scientists discovered enzymes that cut DNA from studying the viruses that infect bacteria inspiring a new class of tools that created a revolution in biomedicine says

    Original URL path: http://newswire.rockefeller.edu/2015/05/07/rockefeller-scientists-resolve-long-standing-debate-over-how-many-bacteria-fight-off-invaders/ (2016-02-13)
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  • bacteria | Newswire
    uptake of genetic material from the environment Harnessing this mechanism could be a new way to manipulate bacterial evolution in ways that might be medically useful More Tags bacteria CRISPR Luciano Marraffini RNA interference July 13 2009 Science News By manipulating oxygen scientists coax bacteria into a wave Bacteria know that they are too small to make an impact individually So they wait they multiply and then they engage in behaviors that are only successful when all cells participate in unison There are hundreds of behaviors that bacteria carry out in such communities Now researchers have discovered that bacteria form an unusual solitary wave a behavior that has never been observed or described before in a living system More Tags Albert J Libchaber bacteria March 2 2009 Science News New protein identified in bacterial arsenal Virulence factors evolved nearly a billion years ago as opportunistic agents injected by bacteria to hijack the machinery of infected cells Researchers at The Rockefeller University have discovered the molecular makeup of one such factor used by Salmonella a ubiquitin ligase that appears to take over a key process that regulates a wide range of cellular duties from cell cycle progression to cell death and even communication between cells More Tags bacteria C Erec Stebbins February 27 2009 Science News Bacteria killing enzyme cures mice with fatal pneumonia Before the advent of antibiotics pneumonia claimed so many lives and was so feared that it was called the captain of the ship of death Now at a time when new antibiotics have proved futile researchers are using a different tactic to keep this ship at bay an enzyme so effective at killing Streptococcus pneumoniae that it has been put on the front lines in the battle against infectious disease More Tags bacteria S pneumoniae Vincent A

    Original URL path: http://newswire.rockefeller.edu/tag/bacteria/ (2016-02-13)
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  • type III CRISPR-Cas | Newswire
    type of immune system found in many species of bacteria Some data showed that this mechanism would target the virus s DNA while other experiments suggested it could only disable a virus once it had started replicating itself New results suggest both mechanisms play a role More Tags bacteria bacterial immune system CRISPR Laboratory of Bacteriology Luciano Marraffini type III CRISPR Cas Search for Categories Science News Awards and Honors

    Original URL path: http://newswire.rockefeller.edu/tag/type-iii-crispr-cas/ (2016-02-13)
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  • Discovery reveals how bacteria distinguish harmful versus helpful viruses | Newswire
    system relatively recently Its function relies on CRISPRs sections of DNA that contain repeating sequences interspersed with unique sequences called spacers CRISPR stands for clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats The spacer sequences match the sequences in the viral genetic code making it possible for enzymes encoded by CRISPR associated genes Cas to chop out single spacer sequences from the RNA transcription of the CRISPR DNA Other Cas enzymes then use these spacer sequences as guides to target invaders for destruction The system can adapt to new invaders by acquiring new spacer sequences to target them Recently CRISPR Cas systems have attracted significant scientific attention because their ability to make precisely targeted cuts in DNA can be put to use to genetically engineer all types of cells Our understanding of CRISPR Cas systems remains in the early stages but so far it has generally been thought they lack a sophisticated way of discriminating their targets In other words once they target something it will be chopped up says the study s lead author graduate student Gregory Goldberg For the first time our work has shown that a CRISPR Cas system one found in Staphylococcus bacteria can detect whether or not a virus is in its destructive phase and poses an immediate threat Most previous work has focused on lytic viruses However Staphylococci host many viruses capable of entering a lysogenic phase The researchers also uncovered a telling asymmetry in the Staphylococcal CRISPR system s ability to effectively target a sequence and its counterpart on two strands of complimentary DNA They suspected this discrepancy arose because transcription proceeds in a single direction for most viral genes meaning one of the two target strands is not transcribed The big clue showed up when we isolated a mutant virus that managed to evade

    Original URL path: http://newswire.rockefeller.edu/2014/08/31/discovery-reveals-how-bacteria-distinguish-harmful-versus-helpful-viruses/ (2016-02-13)
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  • Gregory Goldberg | Newswire
    can help the microbes by lending them potentially useful genes New research shows Staph bacteria have an immune system capable of distinguishing dangerous invaders from potentially beneficial ones More Tags bacterial immune system CRISPR Gregory Goldberg Luciano Marraffini lysogenic virus lytic virus phages Staphylococci transcription Search for Categories Science News Awards and Honors Campus News Grants Gifts Topics Video Archive 2015 2014 2013 2012 2011 more About Contact Follow rockefelleruniv

    Original URL path: http://newswire.rockefeller.edu/tag/gregory-goldberg/ (2016-02-13)
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  • phages | Newswire
    system CRISPR Gregory Goldberg Luciano Marraffini lysogenic virus lytic virus phages Staphylococci transcription June 25 2014 Science News Sequencing efforts miss DNA crucial to bacteria s disease causing power Pieces of DNA including viruses found outside a microbe s chromosomes may play a role in disease but are nearly impossible to identify and sequence using conventional techniques Researchers at Rockefeller have developed a solution More Tags Bryan Utter extrachromosomal dna

    Original URL path: http://newswire.rockefeller.edu/tag/phages/ (2016-02-13)
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